Classes Of Microphones
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Classes Of Microphones






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    Classes Of Microphones Classes Of Microphones Presentation Transcript

    • Microphone Sensitivity How far the pattern reaches out for the sound
    • Three Basic Classes of Mics
      • Dynamic
      • Electret Condenser aka ENG
      • True Condenser or RF Condenser
    • Dynamic
      • Least sensitive class of mic
      • Generates own electricity
      • Sound is AC electricity
      • VU meters measure voltage
    • Dynamic
      • Magnetic diaphragm acts like sail and moves within a magnet, thus generating electricity (audio)
      • Due to relatively heavy mass and strong resistance, requires loud sounds to push this diaphragm in and out
      • Dynamic mics only react to strong sounds
    • Advantages of Dynamic Mics
      • Short reach, low sensitivity
      • Low handling noise
      • Low feedback
      • Extremely rugged, few parts/electronics
      • No batteries or remote powering needed
      • Loud SPL less likely to cause damage
    • Applications for Dynamic Mics
      • Live stage performance
      • Live Audience Question & Answer
      • Isolated Narration or Voice-over
      • On-site Reporting
      • Eliminating noisy backgrounds
      • Compressing loud sound effects
      • As a hand prop
    • Examples of Dynamic Mics
      • Audio Technica AT804 omni
      • Audio Technica ATM63 cardioid
    • Examples of Dynamic Mics
      • Shure SM57 cardioid
      • Shure SM58 omni
      • Shure VP64 omni
      • ElectroVoice RE50 omni
    • Electret Condenser
      • No longer generates electricity from scratch, but releases existing electricity from battery
      • Diaphragm is much lighter and travels within less resistance
      • Diaphragm movement alters capacitance of a circuit, thus discharging electricity
      • Able to react to subtle sounds
    • Electret Condenser
      • Requires nominal voltage (1 to 6 vDC)
      • Usually provided by internal battery, such as AA or button cell
      • Some mics able to take advantage of remote Phantom powering
      • Wireless bodypaks provide power to lavaliers
    • Electret Condenser
      • Much better reach & sensitivity than dynamic mics
      • Includes ENG shotguns and most lavaliers, some other special app mics (PZM, peanut gooseneck mics, etc)
      • Some music mics, but noisy when handheld
      • Shotgun mics are nicknamed ENG type mics
    • ENG Mics
      • ENG = Electronic News Gathering
      • Medium quality shotgun mics
      • Less expensive than condenser
      • Self-powered from internal battery
      • Camera-mounted shotguns are for general ambiance, not sync bites
    • Applications for ENG shotguns
      • Overhead boom up to 3 feet
      • Plant mics
      • Interview mics
      • As a spare backup for condenser
      • Location music and sound effects
    • Examples of Electret Condenser
      • AT835b short shotgun
      • K6/ME66 short shotgun
      • AT825 stereo mic
      • AT851a, AT841a plate mics
    • Condenser Mics
      • Superlite diaphragm alters capacitance of circuit. Disturbs RF field.
      • Extremely sensitive to faint sound
      • Requires 12v to 48v external power
      • Best mics to use for dialogue
    • Remote Powering
      • 12v or 48v DC
      • Travels along mic cable up to mic while audio travels AC down the cable
      • Potential for problems
      • Two types of powering:12v T (A-B) and 48v Phantom
      • Power supplied by recorder, mixing board, or in-line battery supply
    • T or A-B Powering
      • 12v sent up Pins 2 & 3 of mic cable
      • Created for early Nagra because 48v was not practical for location recorders (only 18v from 12 D batteries)
      • Normal T power is Pin 2 POSITIVE and Pin 3 NEGATIVE. Pin 1 is not used.
    • T or A-B Powering
      • Nagra uses Pin 2 for Negative and Pin 3 for Positive
      • Mics rewired for Nagra are known as RED DOT
      • If mic is not RED DOT, then use a PHASE REVERSING cable to change the electrical polarity. Pin 2 becomes Pin 3, and vice versa.
      • Presence of T power will reduce volume or mute mics that are not T-power condensers!
    • Phantom Powering
      • 12v or 48v DC is sent up mic cable
      • Pins 2 and 3 are both POSITIVE
      • Pin 1 (shield) is NEGATIVE
      • Presence of Phantom power does not interfere with normal mics
      • 48v Phantom is industry standard today, but there are still some 12v T mics out there.
    • Phantom Powering
      • Power can be provided by newer Nagras, some recorders & camcorders, mixing boards, or battery power supplies
    • Mic Powering
      • T-power and A-B power are the same
      • RED DOT is a variation of T-power
      • T-power and Phantom are totally different
      • Make sure you know what type of power your microphones require
      • Never assume. Plug them in and test them!
    • Examples of Condenser Mics
      • AT4050 studio mic
      • AT3035 studio mic
    • Examples of Condenser Mics
      • AT4073a short shotgun
      • Good up to 5 feet above actors
      • Better for interior, nominal for exterior
    • Examples of Condenser Mics
      • AT4071a long shotgun
      • Good up to 8 feet above actors
      • Best for exterior or very open interior
    • Examples of Condenser Mics
      • AT4051a cardioid condenser
      • Good up to 2 feet above actors
      • Best for eliminating echo from tight interiors
    • Examples of Condenser Mics
      • MKH416T short shotgun (T-power)
      • MKH60 short shotgun
      • MKH816T long shotgun (T-power)
      • MKH70 long shotgun
      • MKH40 cardioid
      • Schoeps MK41 cardioid
    • Selecting Shotgun Mics
      • Choose for optimum reach and tight pattern
      • OR choose for mellow voice and reduction of interior echo
      • Interiors: echo is main problem
      • Exteriors: background ambiance is main problem
    • Long Shotguns
      • Offer maximum reach and tightest pattern
      • Best for exteriors, where background noise is a problem
      • Tight pattern makes them difficult to use at short range (interiors)
      • Indoors, they tend to increase echo
    • Short Shotguns
      • Offer medium reach and medium pattern
      • Excellent general purpose mic
      • Best for interior medium shots
      • Moderate echo indoors
      • Moderate background rejection
    • Cardioid “shotguns”
      • Not actually shotguns, but very sensitive cardioid mics
      • Wider patterns reduce or eliminate interior echo problems
      • Not good for rejecting noise
      • Short range, best suited for close-ups
      • Amazingly rich dialogue at close range