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tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
tourism consumer behavior
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tourism consumer behavior

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Tourism Consumer Behavior
  • 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Have a knowledge of the factors influencing the buyer decision process in tourism; </li></ul><ul><li>In particular have an understanding of the theory of motivation; </li></ul><ul><li>Have an appreciation of the way that the roles and psychographics of tourists are linked to specific forms of tourism and tourist needs; </li></ul><ul><li>Have a knowledge of the key models that seek to explain the decision-making process for the purchase of tourism products; and </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to critique models of consumer decision-making in tourism. </li></ul>This lecture deals with the factors and influences which, when combined, will influence a consumer’s demand for tourism. By reading this chapter you will:
  • 3. Individual Decision Making <ul><li>No two individuals are alike and differences in attitudes, perceptions, images and motivation have an important influence on travel decisions. It is important to note that: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes depend on an individual’s perception of the world; </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are mental impressions of, say, a destination or travel company; </li></ul><ul><li>Travel motivators explain why people want to travel and they are the inner urges that initiate travel demand; and </li></ul><ul><li>Images are sets of beliefs, ideas and impressions relating to products and destinations. </li></ul>
  • 4. Why is this Important? <ul><li>It is important for tourism managers to research and understand the way in which tourism consumers make decisions and act in relation to the consumption of tourism products. We need to study a tourist’s consumer behaviour to be aware of: </li></ul><ul><li>The needs, purchase motives and decision process associated with the consumption of tourism; </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of the different effects of various promotional tactics; </li></ul><ul><li>The possible perception of risk for tourism purchases, including the impact of terrorist incidents; </li></ul><ul><li>The different market segments based upon purchase behaviour; and </li></ul><ul><li>How managers can improve their chance of marketing success. </li></ul>
  • 5. Influences of Consumer Behaviour Figure 2.1 Consumer decision-making framework
  • 6. Elements of Consumer Decisions <ul><li>We can view the tourism consumer decision process as a system made up of four basic elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Energisers of demand - the forces of motivation that lead a tourist to decide to visit an attraction or go on a holiday. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectors of demand - the consumer will have developed ideas of a destination, product or organisation by a process of learning, attitudes and associations from promotional messages and information. This will affect the consumer’s image and knowledge of a tourism product thus serving to heighten or dampen the various energisers that lead to consumer action. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and the decision-making process - here, the important role is that of the family member who is normally involved in the different stages of the purchase process and the final resolution of decisions about when, where and how the group will consume the tourism product. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of demand . In addition, the consumer decision-making process for tourism is underpinned by the determinants of demand. </li></ul>
  • 7. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is defined as ‘causing a person to act in a certain way’. Approaches to motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Dann </li></ul><ul><li>McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie </li></ul><ul><li>Plog </li></ul>
  • 8. Maslow’s Model Figure 2.2 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • 9. Plog’s Model <ul><li>In 1974, Stanley Plog developed a theory which allowed the US population to be classified into a series of interrelated psychographic types. These types range from two extremes: </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘psychocentric’ type is derived from 'psyche' or 'self-centred' where an individual centres thoughts or concerns on the small problem areas of life. These individuals tend to be conservative in their travel patterns, preferring ‘safe’ destinations and often taking many return trips. For this latter reason, market research in the tour-operating sector labels this group as 'repeaters'. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘allocentric’ type derives from the root ‘allo’ meaning ‘varied in form’. These individuals are adventurous and motivated to travel/discover new destinations. They rarely return to the same place twice, hence their market research label 'wanderers'. </li></ul>
  • 10. Motivation Summary <ul><li>We can see that the dimensions of the concept of motivation in the context of travel are difficult to map. In summary they can be seen to include: </li></ul><ul><li>The idea that travel is initially need-related and that this manifests itself in terms of wants and the strength of motivation or ‘push’, as the energiser of action; </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is grounded in sociological and psychological aspects of acquired norms, attitudes, culture, perceptions, etc., leading to person-specific forms of motivation; and </li></ul><ul><li>The image of a destination created through various communication channels will influence motivation and subsequently affect the type of travel undertaken. </li></ul>
  • 11. Roles and Decision Making <ul><li>Typologies/roles can be designed to classify tourists in terms of their roles in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Goffman and Cohen’s approaches are based upon motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Family influence is also important </li></ul>
  • 12. Cohen’s Typology Figure 2.4 Cohen’s classification of tourists Source : Boniface and Cooper, 1987, adapted from Cohen, 1972
  • 13. The Importance of Image <ul><li>There are various kinds of definitions adopted to describe the word ‘image’ in different fields. For example, the WTO defines image as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>The artificial imitation of the apparent form of an object; </li></ul><ul><li>Form resemblance, identity (e.g. art and design); and </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas, conceptions held individually or collectively of the destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Gunn (1972) identifies two levels of image. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed in terms of a country or destination, the ‘organic’ image is the sum of all information that has not been deliberately directed by advertising or promotion of a country or destination, </li></ul><ul><li>The second level of image is the ‘induced’ image. This is formed by deliberate portrayal and promotion by various organisations involved with tourism. </li></ul>
  • 14. The Importance of Image <ul><li>We can identify four stages in the development and establishment of a holiday image: </li></ul><ul><li>A vague, fantasy type of image is created from advertising, education and word of mouth and is formed before the subject has thought seriously about taking a holiday. </li></ul><ul><li>A decision is made to take a holiday and then choices must be made regarding time, destination and type of holiday. This is when the holiday image is modified, clarified and extended. </li></ul>
  • 15. The Importance of Image <ul><li>The holiday experience itself, which modifies, corrects or removes elements of the image that prove to be invalid and reinforces those that are found to be correct. </li></ul><ul><li>The after-image, the recollection of the holiday which may induce feelings of nostalgia, regret or fantasy. This is the stage that will mould an individual’s holiday concepts and attitudes and will promote a new sequence of holiday images influencing future holiday decisions. </li></ul>
  • 16. The Buying Decision Process in Tourism <ul><li>The stages of the decision: </li></ul><ul><li>need arousal </li></ul><ul><li>recognition of the need </li></ul><ul><li>level of involvement </li></ul><ul><li>identification of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation of alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>decision choice </li></ul><ul><li>purchase action </li></ul><ul><li>post-purchase behaviour </li></ul>
  • 17. The Buying Decision Process in Tourism (cont’d) Figure 2.5 Model of consumer behaviour
  • 18. Modelling the Process <ul><li>Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (1986) classified models according to the degree of search or problem-solving behaviour by the consumer: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited problem-solving models (LPS models) are applicable to repeat or mundane purchases with a low level of consumer involvement. Apart from short trips near to home these are not applicable to tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended problem-solving models (EPS models) apply to purchases associated with high levels of perceived risk and involvement, and where the information search and evaluation of alternatives plays an important part in the purchasing decision. Models of tourist behaviour fall into this category. </li></ul>

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