The Coming Decade of Open Access


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Moving Beyond Traditional Forms and Functions of Scholarly Communications

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  • 2012 marks the tenth anniversary of the Budapest Open Access Initiative, a declaration that provided a formal definition of Open Access (OA) and a set of strategies for archiving OA. This talk begins with a review of the major milestones of achievement over the last decade, both globally and with specific attention to Brazil and Latin America, followed by identification of key areas of research communication that remained to be improved. These areas include infrastructural development for e-research, more diverse and transparent metrics for evaluating scholarship, funding and institutional policy alignment, and new forms of scholarly practices and representation. Examples from these areas will be highlighted, with emphasis on areas of collaboration between information scientists and scholars from various fields.
  • Green OA is OA delivered by repositories, regardless of peer-review status, gratis/libre status, funding model, embargo period, and so on. Gold OA is OA delivered by journals, regardless of peer-review methods, gratis/libre status, business model, and so on. It should be clear that the green/gold distinction is not the same as the gratis/libre distinction. Green/gold is about venues or vehicles, while gratis/libre is about user rights. For better or worse, there are four cases to keep distinct:  gratis green, gratis gold, libre green, and libre gold.
  • metrics of total publications and citations. Top 15 countries account for 82% of total publications Author with African institutional affiliation account for less than 1% of global output, and S. Africa has the highest output. The rest are “invisible” Consequence of trying to publish in “International” journal results in neglect of important local problems and solutions that are appropriate for local conditions.
  • Laakso M, Welling P, Bukvova H, Nyman L, Björk B-C, et al. 2011 The Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009 . PLoS ONE 6(6): e20961. doi : 10.1371/journal.pone.0020961 Björk B-C, Welling P, Laakso M, Majlender P, Hedlund T, et al. 2010 Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009 . PLoS ONE 5(6): e11273. doi : 10.1371/journal.pone.0011273
  • The World Bank launched an institutional repository and adopted an OA mandate on April 10, 2012. Here are the libre features of the new policy:  when Bank research is published by the Bank itself, then copies must be disseminated through the institutional repository under CC-BY licenses. This policy applies to books as well as articles. When Bank research is published by external publishers, the preprints or working papers must be in the repository under CC-BY licenses. The final versions of the peer-reviewed manuscripts must be in the repository under CC-BY-NC-ND licenses, unless the publisher can be persuaded to allow a more liberal license. Also see the policy FAQ and repository FAQ. The new OA policy follows on the bank's open data policy from April 2010.
  • 1. There is no evidence of any harm to publishers as a result of embargoed green OA 2. There is evidence of increased total usage through green OA  3. There is evidence that green OA through the PEER project actually drives usage at the publisher site. An economic analysis also suggested that the cost of organising peer review is $250 per submission - an interesting factoid. More details of the PEER project can be found at while Madam Kroes' speech is at: 
  • More details of the PEER project can be found at while Madam Kroes' speech is at: 
  • he New Invisible College, Caroline Wagner combines quantitative data and extensive interviews to map the emergence of global science networks and trace the dynamics driving their growth. She argues that the shift from big science to global networks creates unprecedented opportunities for developing countries to tap science's potential. Rather than squander resources in vain efforts to mimic the scientific establishments of the twentieth century, developing country governments can leverage networks by creating incentives for top-notch scientists to focus on research that addresses their concerns and by finding ways to tie knowledge to local problem solving. T
  • the continuity of open access, open education and open research for social impact
  • Mook, Laurie & Jennifer Sumner (2010). Social Accounting for Sustainability in the Social Economy. In J.J. McMurtry (Ed.), Living Economics: Canadian Perspectives on the Social Economy, Co-operatives and Community Economic Development . Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications.
  • The Coming Decade of Open Access

    1. 1. The Coming Decade of Open Access Moving Beyond Traditional Forms and Functions of Scholarly CommunicationsLeslie ChanUniversity of Toronto ScarboroughBioline International
    2. 2. Agenda• What is Open Access and its key benefits• Growth of OA in the last ten years• Key trends and developments – Global and Local trends (Brazil) – New and Exciting Developments• Areas that are still deficient• Looking to the Future and Suggestions for Collaborations
    3. 3. Key Messages• Open Access as a philosophical principle and a set of practical tools• “Journal” no longer serves the needs of networked scholarship• From “Wealth of Nations” to “Wealth of Networks”• Need to rethink measurements of “impact” and values, especially for research relevant to development• Innovations are happening in the “peripheries” but there are gatekeepers and social barriers• Aligning funding and reward policies with new scholarly practices and inclusive metrics
    4. 4. “By "open access" to this literature, we mean its freeavailability on the public internet, permitting any users toread, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link tothe full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing,pass them as data to software, or use them for any otherlawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technicalbarriers other than those inseparable from gaining accessto the internet itself. The only constraint on reproductionand distribution, and the only role for copyright in thisdomain, should be to give authors control over theintegrity of their work and the right to be properlyacknowledged and cited.”BOAI 2002
    5. 5. Modes of Open Access User Rights Gratis Libre Green Green-Gratis Green-Libre Author Self- Archiving ofVenues published papers orand pre-prints in InstitutionalDelivery RepositoriesVehicles Gold Gold-Gratis Gold-Libre Author publish in journals that are open access
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    11. 11. The World of Journal Publishing According to Thomson’s ISI Science Citation Index Data from 2002
    12. 12.
    13. 13. OA does not only remove or reduce pricebarriers for researchers in developing countries,it offers a more equitable model for theexchange of knowledge as a global public good(the philosophical dimension)
    14. 14. Some Key Trends in OA
    15. 15. Institutional and Funder Mandates
    16. 16. Policy Developments• The World Bank launched an institutional repository and adopted an OA mandate on April 10, 2012• UNESCO published an OA Policy Guidelines in March 2012• UK, EU, and the USA are all developing major funding policies on OA
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    19. 19. PIPA (Protect IP Act)ResearchWorks Act
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    21. 21. New Ways of thinking about Scholarly Communications
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    23. 23. Key Findings1. There is no evidence of any harm topublishers as a result of embargoed green OA2. There is evidence of increased total usagethrough green OA3. There is evidence that green OA through thePEER project actually drives usage at thepublisher site.David Prosser, May 29, 2012
    24. 24.
    25. 25. The IF cannot be reproduced, even if itreflected actual citations /179/6/1091.full
    26. 26. The IF are more eff
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    28. 28. From “Big”science toNetworkedscienceKnowledge forlocal problemsolving
    29. 29. Convergence• Brazil, biodiversity and sustainable development• Information society policy• Free Culture Movement – Access to Knowledge in Brazil
    30. 30. Institutional DesignSustainability as a set of institutional structures and processes that build and protect the knowledge commons (Mook and Sumner 2010)
    31. 31. Broadening the definition of “prestige”, “impact”, “value” and “capital” Business value monetary return, financial capital, efficiency, competiveness Scholarly value Reputation and citation; trust; symbolic capital Institutional value Public mission, community outreach, intellectual capital Social value Equity, participation, inclusion, diversity, social capital Political value Evidence based policy, transparency, accountability, civic capital
    32. 32. Conclusions• Leverage the various Open movement• Align the values of research with appropriate incentives and recognition• Also need to align policies that are emerging from the top with initiatives are rising from the bottom• Support for metadata standards and open licences• Recognition of non-proprietary and collaborative research output from networked scholarship• Reward dissemination of research findings through multiple means – beyond the journal• Move Prestige to Open Access
    33. 33. Thank You!