Global Plant Council
A coalition of plant and crop societies across the globe
Global needs and contributions from plant sc...
The Global Plant Council (GPC)
• The GPC is a coalition of national and regional plant and crop
societies from across the ...
The Global Plant Council (GPC)
By working together to formulate a shared vision and allowing distribution of
effort the Gl...
Member Organizations
The GPC is a coalition of over 25 member organizations from across the globe
Read more about the Global
Plant Council
In the next 50 years we have to
produce more food than ever before in
the history of humankind
• World population continue...
Unprecedented growth
demand
for agricultural
commodities
0
500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
3.000
2000 2010 2015 2020 2030
Rice...
Global crop yields averages are
declining
Philip G. Pardey, University of Minnesota
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
1920
1925
1930
1935
1940...
2013: the challenge of food security
for all remains
Paulo Whitaker/Reuters
• World's hungry are still
nearly 1 billion pe...
Society is in transition
Implications for land-use, the environment,
rural development, agriculture and the use
of agricul...
2013+: a time of growing challenges
• Global food security
•Enhanced productivity + nutrition
•Increased yield
•Sustainabl...
GPC Priorities
To help identify and coordinate strategic solutions to global
challenges, the GPC is focusing on five prior...
GPC Initiatives
The GPC is focusing on a number of initiatives within these
priority areas including
• Digital Seed Bank
M...
GPC has identified several other
challenges for which global plant
research needs to find solutions
• Developing perennial...
Agricultural centers of origin developed
independently in different parts of the
world
Wheat, Barley, Peas, Grapes
~ 13,00...
Only three cereal crops
deliver nearly 60% of the
global calories
Most important crops for food and feed calorie supply
Ma...
The increase in crop production between the
1960‘s to 1990‘s was the result of the
“Green Revolution”
High-yielding variet...
Source: UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2002, based on Shiklomanov
and UNESCO 1999
Water use for agricultural
production will continue t...
Demand for fertilizer is growing
primarily
in Asia and South-America
Quelle: IFA
http://www.fertilizer.org
Existing mineral fertilizer resources
will not be able to meet the long-term
agricultural needs
• Nitrogen
• Current produ...
The Green Revolution greatly improved
crop production and food security, but
also decreased crop diversity
Year
High-yield...
Spreading monoculture is a
potential threat to food security
• Rice diversity is decreasing
- in 1986, the single rice var...
Monocultures favor the spread of
pathogens
“The new strains of stem rust
UG99,…, are much more
dangerous than those that, ...
Ancient or wild varieties often contain
valuable genes that were lost or neglected
while breeding high-yielding elite vari...
The Kasalath PSTOL1 gene is a good
example of genes present in diverse rice
varieties but not in elite mega-varieties
Garris et al Genetics, 2006
Tolerant varieties
- Dular (aus-type)
- Kasalath (aus-type) Intolerant varieties
- IR64 (indic...
Kasalath and Dular have several genes that are
differentially expressed during drought and P-
deficiency but that are not ...
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is
a step in the right direction, but not
peace of mind!
http://www.croptrust.org
SeedSeq
Capturing biodiversity in seed banks
around the world
Susan McCouch
Hannes Dempewolf
The Global Crop Diversity Tru...
GPC Executive
Board
The GPC Executive Board is elected from and by the GPC member
organisations representatives
• Prof. Wi...
Visit the new GPC website at www.globalplantcouncil.org
Visit the new GPC website at www.globalplantcouncil.org
Thank you...
…solutions to global challenges can be found and
future generations will have enough to eat!
…your expertise ...
…how would the world react if the 1 Billion people of the
USA, Canada and the EU would not have enough to eat
every day?
J...
Sustainable food security
is facing a potential bottleneck
Total kultiviert Heute kultiviert 95% der Ernährung
• Since the...
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Wilhelm Gruissem - Global Plant Council: A coalition of plant and crop societies across the globe, Global needs and contributions from plant science

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Presentation from Wilhelm Gruissem, President of the Global Plant Council, at the 7th EPSO Conference, 2 Sept 2013.

"Global Plant Council: A coalition of plant and crop societies across the globe, Global needs and contributions from plant science"

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Wilhelm Gruissem - Global Plant Council: A coalition of plant and crop societies across the globe, Global needs and contributions from plant science

  1. 1. Global Plant Council A coalition of plant and crop societies across the globe Global needs and contributions from plant science
  2. 2. The Global Plant Council (GPC) • The GPC is a coalition of national and regional plant and crop societies from across the globe • The GPC seeks to bring plant scientists together to work synergistically towards solving the pressing problems we face • The central focus of GPC is to define and engage in coordinated strategies that impact the most critical global issues: • World hunger • Sustainable intensification of crop production • Climate change • Health and well-being • Energy • Environmental protection
  3. 3. The Global Plant Council (GPC) By working together to formulate a shared vision and allowing distribution of effort the Global Plant Council aims to : • Increase awareness of the central importance of plant and crop science • Accelerate progress in solving pressing global problems via plant science based approaches • Facilitate new research programs to address global challenges • Enable more effective use of knowledge and resources • Provide a focus and contact point for plant science across the globe
  4. 4. Member Organizations The GPC is a coalition of over 25 member organizations from across the globe
  5. 5. Read more about the Global Plant Council
  6. 6. In the next 50 years we have to produce more food than ever before in the history of humankind • World population continues to increase • Per capita food consumption continues to rise • Consumers continue to demand improved taste, convenience, and nutrition GROWING WORLD POPULATION (B) Source: FAO, WHO RISING CEREAL DEMAND (MMT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1981 1999 2015 2030 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1981 1999 2015 2030 TRANSITION NATIONS DEVELOPED NATIONS DEVELOPING NATIONS
  7. 7. Unprecedented growth demand for agricultural commodities 0 500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000 2000 2010 2015 2020 2030 Rice Cotton Soybeans Wheat Corn MillionMetricTons +102% +40% +76% +28% +125%
  8. 8. Global crop yields averages are declining Philip G. Pardey, University of Minnesota 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Yield(MT/Ha.) barley maize millet oats rice rye sorghum soybeans wheat Maize Wheat Rice 1920-1960 Commodity Rate Maize 0.69% Wheat 0.99% Rice 0.49% 1990-2008 Commodity Rate Maize 1.78% Wheat 0.97% Rice 1.07% 1960-1990 Commodity Rate Maize 1.73% Wheat 2.57% Rice 2.19%
  9. 9. 2013: the challenge of food security for all remains Paulo Whitaker/Reuters • World's hungry are still nearly 1 billion people! • Increasing poverty in Africa, South Asia and CWANA • 75% of the poor live in rural areas • Increasing malnutrition
  10. 10. Society is in transition Implications for land-use, the environment, rural development, agriculture and the use of agricultural feedstocks OIL ECONOMY BIO ECONOMY
  11. 11. 2013+: a time of growing challenges • Global food security •Enhanced productivity + nutrition •Increased yield •Sustainable production • Water availability •Drought-tolerant crops •Crops with improved water use efficiency • Bioenergy •Biomass production to help meet demand for fuel should not compete with food production • Climate change •Reduce CO2 footprint •Increase fertilizer use efficiency
  12. 12. GPC Priorities To help identify and coordinate strategic solutions to global challenges, the GPC is focusing on five priority areas: • Sustainable intensification of crop production • Adaptation to a changing climate • Transition to a green economy • Food security and health • Exchange of knowledge, data and resources
  13. 13. GPC Initiatives The GPC is focusing on a number of initiatives within these priority areas including • Digital Seed Bank Maintaining, understanding and preserving the wealth of crop biodiversity for future generations. • Bio-fortification of Crops Improving the nutritional quality of current and new crops.
  14. 14. GPC has identified several other challenges for which global plant research needs to find solutions • Developing perennial rice/wheat/maize • Development of medicinal plant-based products • Increasing/enriching agricultural diversity • Information exchange • Local-level diversity and yield stability • Plant-environment metagenome • Species information for sustainable adaptation capability to climate change
  15. 15. Agricultural centers of origin developed independently in different parts of the world Wheat, Barley, Peas, Grapes ~ 13,000 years ago Maize, Pumpkin, Bean, Potato ~ 10,000 years ago Rice, Soybean ~ 9,000 years ago Banana, Coconut Sorghum, Millet, Coffee
  16. 16. Only three cereal crops deliver nearly 60% of the global calories Most important crops for food and feed calorie supply Maize 7% Rice 26% Wheat 23%
  17. 17. The increase in crop production between the 1960‘s to 1990‘s was the result of the “Green Revolution” High-yielding varieties with shorter stems and improved nitrogen use efficiency resulted in increased use of fertilizer and pesticides Photos courtesy of S. Harrison, LSU Ag center and The World Food Prize. Breeder and Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug 1914-2009
  18. 18. Source: UNEP/GRID-Arendal 2002, based on Shiklomanov and UNESCO 1999 Water use for agricultural production will continue to rise
  19. 19. Demand for fertilizer is growing primarily in Asia and South-America Quelle: IFA http://www.fertilizer.org
  20. 20. Existing mineral fertilizer resources will not be able to meet the long-term agricultural needs • Nitrogen • Current production plants under construction will meet the increasing demand for nitrogen fertilizer (about 3% / year) • Phosphate • Current rock phosphate resources are estimated to last the next 200 years • Development of a mining site takes about 5 years • Potassium • Current resources similar to phosphate but larger deposits • Development of a mining site takes about 8 years Source: www.yarra.com
  21. 21. The Green Revolution greatly improved crop production and food security, but also decreased crop diversity Year High-yielding varieties in % Traditional varieties in %
  22. 22. Spreading monoculture is a potential threat to food security • Rice diversity is decreasing - in 1986, the single rice variety “IR36” was grown on 11 million hectares in Asia - in China, all rice F1 hybrids grown on 15 million hectares share the same male sterility genes - all modern rice varieties have the same dwarfing gene • Wheat diversity is decreasing - in 1983, 67% of the wheat fields in Bangladesh were planted to a single variety - in Ireland, 90% of the total wheat area is planted to six varieties - in 1949, China used over 10,000 varieties for production, in 1970 on 1,000 remained in use • Diversity of other crops is decreasing - in the Netherlands, for example, the three top varieties of nine major crops covered from 81 to 99% of the respective areas planted. - one cultivar accounted for 94% of the spring barley planted Source: FAO
  23. 23. Monocultures favor the spread of pathogens “The new strains of stem rust UG99,…, are much more dangerous than those that, 50 years ago, destroyed as much as 20 percent of the American wheat crop.”
  24. 24. Ancient or wild varieties often contain valuable genes that were lost or neglected while breeding high-yielding elite varieties
  25. 25. The Kasalath PSTOL1 gene is a good example of genes present in diverse rice varieties but not in elite mega-varieties
  26. 26. Garris et al Genetics, 2006 Tolerant varieties - Dular (aus-type) - Kasalath (aus-type) Intolerant varieties - IR64 (indica-type) - Nipponbare (japonica-type) FR13A Kasalath N22 Pokkali Exploring the potential of Aus-type rice varieties for drought and P- deficiency tolerance
  27. 27. Kasalath and Dular have several genes that are differentially expressed during drought and P- deficiency but that are not differentially expressed or not present in IR64 Venn diagram showing the number of significantly and differentially expressed genes (SDEGs) in particular varieties. RNA-Seq results were divided into two groups, transcripts aligned to Nipponbare (A) and de novo assembled transcripts in tolerant (Dular and Kasalath) and intolerant (IR64) varieties.
  28. 28. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a step in the right direction, but not peace of mind! http://www.croptrust.org
  29. 29. SeedSeq Capturing biodiversity in seed banks around the world Susan McCouch Hannes Dempewolf The Global Crop Diversity Trust Digital Seed Bank Exploring the basis of crop biodiversity and mining for useful genes Wilhelm Gruissem The Global Plant Council The Global Plant Council and the Global Plant Diversity Trust have joined forces to capture and understand the mechanisms of biodiversity of our crops present in seed banks around the world
  30. 30. GPC Executive Board The GPC Executive Board is elected from and by the GPC member organisations representatives • Prof. Wilhelm Gruissem (European Plant Science Organisation) – Acting President and Chair • Prof. Henry Nguyen (American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America) - Vice Chair • Prof. Gustavo Habermann (Brazilian Society of Plant Physiology) – Treasurer • Prof. Kasem Ahmed (African Crop Science Society) • Prof. Zhihong Xu (Chinese Society of Plant Biologists) • Dr Ruth Bastow – Executive Director
  31. 31. Visit the new GPC website at www.globalplantcouncil.org
  32. 32. Visit the new GPC website at www.globalplantcouncil.org
  33. 33. Thank you... …solutions to global challenges can be found and future generations will have enough to eat! …your expertise and help assures that…
  34. 34. …how would the world react if the 1 Billion people of the USA, Canada and the EU would not have enough to eat every day? Just to put 1 Billion hungry people into perspective…
  35. 35. Sustainable food security is facing a potential bottleneck Total kultiviert Heute kultiviert 95% der Ernährung • Since the beginning of agriculture, humans have cultivated 7,000 plant species • Today only 150 plant species (2%) are agriculturally relevant for food and clothing • Only 10 plant species are cultivated today to provide 95% of food and feed Total cultivated since the beginning of agriculture Cultivated today 95% of food and feed

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