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Heribert Hirt - Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century
 

Heribert Hirt - Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century

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Presentation from Heribert Hirt, INRA, Evry, FR, President of the European Plant Science Organisation, at the 7th EPSO Conference, 2 Sept 2013. ...

Presentation from Heribert Hirt, INRA, Evry, FR, President of the European Plant Science Organisation, at the 7th EPSO Conference, 2 Sept 2013.

"Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century"

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    Heribert Hirt - Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century Heribert Hirt - Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century Presentation Transcript

    • Heribert Hirt European Plant Science Organisation Plant Sciences Research Priorities in the 21st Century
    • Today, more than 1 billion undernourished people — there is enough food available, but these people are too poor to buy it In the next 25 years, food accessibility might worsen due to increases in food prices, bioenergy crop expansion and climate changes Even if access to food could be solved (political level solutions are unlikely), food production has to be doubled by 2050 BUT: Agriculture is a major contributor to climate change, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land and freshwater resources CHALLENGE: How to satisfy growing demand for food at the same time as reducing the environmental harm of agriculture SOLUTION: Sustainable intensification of agriculture Challenges for Agriculture in the 21st Century
    • Foley et al. 2011 In many countries, the lack of nutrients and water are key limiting factors, whereas in regions of high productivity yields are limited by crop genetics. Close the yield gap
    • Pasture land + crop land for feed = 75 % of global agriculture land Globally only 62 % of crops used for food, 35 % for animal feed and 3 % for bioenergy (Europe and US crops : 40 % food, Asia and Africa: 80 %) Foley et al. 2011 Close the diet gap About 30 % of food could be delivered by shifting crop production from animal feed to human food production
    • Use of irrigation water varies greatly: On average 0.3 l/kCal But > 1 l/kCal is required in Northern India and portions of Middle East). Enhance irrigation use efficiency Use enhanced drought resistance and water efficiency crops Use alternative techniques: curtail water losses, use mulching, reduced tillage, etc. Enhance irrigation use efficiency Foley et al. 2011
    • Apply fertilizers in areas of nutrient scarcity (Africa, Asia, Latin America) and develop new more nutrient efficient crops Enhance nutrient use efficiency Foley et al. 2011 There are “hot spots” of low nutrient use efficiency and large volumes of excess nutrients (China, Northern India, USA, Western Europe) 10% of the world’s croplands account for 32% of the global nitrogen and 40% of the global phosphorus surplus
    • Improve farming techniques - Larger but less soil-degrading machines (doubling grain yields in Brazil) - Zero or reduced tillage - Contour farming - Mulching - Crop coverage - Precision farming Underground soil sensors give farmers a real-time view of the conditions of the field and allow precise application of nutrients, pesticides, etc. at the right time and place
    • World-wide annual loss of 40% of yield of major crops due to abiotic/biotic factors: improve crops for drought, salt, pest and disease resistance New crop genetic varieties are needed (e.g. last 20 years: 50 % yield increases for drought-resistant wheat , submergence-tolerant rice, pest-resistant cassava, etc.) Develop new crop varieties 1/3 of African population is malnourished Solution: Engineer new varieties of cassava (drought, pest, disease resistance) Generate crops for biofortification of micronutrients and vitamins (e.g. golden rice) New varieties are also needed local staple crops (e.g. sorghum and millet for sub- Saharan Africa)
    • Apply modern technologies of crop breeding Single gene-modified organisms – effective for enhancing yield and changing traits (e.g. dwarfing, reducing branching, increased seed number, etc.) Multiple and more foreign gene transgenic varieties (e.g. drought-resistant wheat) – powerful techniques but all suffer from ongoing GMO debate MAS (Marker-assisted selection) – any kind of physical or chemical marker is used for selecting specific traits in a population (e.g. root rot resistance in raspberry) MARS (Marker-assisted recurrent selection) – recurrent crossing of selected elite varieties with selected lines harboring specific traits High throughput genotyping and phenotyping to dissect complex traits – Automatized platforms for screening large populations combined with statistical analysis and modeling
    • Apply modern technologies of crop breeding Increase germplasm in breeding programs and introgression of alleles from landraces and wild relatives of elite species (e.g. fungal resistance in wheat) Use heterosis (hybrid vigor) more widely in crop breeding – potential of 20 -50 % yield increase (e.g. hybird vigour in maize ) Alleviate the regulatory burden on new technologies - not only GMOs, but also new non-GM technologies are challenged
    • Diversify and re-introduce old crops e.g. Quinoa, domesticated since >4000 yrs ago in the Andes , leaves and seeds edible, high nutritional value, food safety issue e.g. Buckwheat, domesticated since >6000 yrs ago in Southeast Asia, grows on poor N soils, high nutritional value, gluten-free, mulitple uses
    • 300 naturally occurring soil microbes can reduce the need for phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers and protect plants against pathogens and boost yields in crops Develop integrated stress management Piriformospora indica: endophytic root fungus confers biotic and abiotic stress tolerance Rhizobium and Mycorrhiza help plant obtain nitrate and phosphate
    • Improve crop varieties genetically - essential to achieve long term goals Use the full genetic variety of crops and include orphan crops (i.e. Crops which have not yet been genetically optimized) Improve deployment of existing crop varieties + its management Improve distribution of seed varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. Establish incentives for scientists to connect to problems of farmers Improve extension services to connect farmers to scientists Improving production of 16 major crops : - 75 % optimum would increase food production by 28 % - 95 % optimum would increase food production by 58 % Conclusions
    • Some current challenges for plant research in Europe E. coli outbreak in Europe in June 2011
    • EPSO advances plant science in Europe Independent academic organisation Mission: • To promote plant science and support plant scientists • To discuss future plant science programmes across Europe • To provide authoritative source of independent information on plant science • To promote training of plant scientists to meet the 21st century challenges in plant sciences www.epsoweb.org
    • EPSO – linking your science to the world Research alliances are important for research institutes and universities to have a voice at national, European and the global level EPSO gives input towards EU research agendas, e.g. • Horizon 2020, European Innovation Partnerships, Joint Programming Initiatives, etc. • Always considers input to innovation and to education agendas Research alliances of EPSO • Plants for the Future ETP • Steering Councils, Working Groups etc. • Local (e.g. BioScience Center in NRW) • European (EPSO itself, Initiative for Science in Europe) • Global (e.g. FAO, Global Plant Council) www.epsoweb.org
    • Europe 2020 Priorities Tackling Societal Challenges - Health, demographic change and wellbeing - Food security, sustainable agriculture, marine research & bioeconomy - Secure, clean and efficient energy - Smart, green and integrated transport - Supply of raw materials, resource efficiency and climate action - Inclusive, innovative and secure societies Creating Industrial Leadership and Competitive Frameworks − Leadership in enabling and industrial technologies (Biotechnology,…) − Access to risk finance − Innovation in SMEs Excellence in the Science Base − Frontier research (ERC) − Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) − Skills and career development (Marie Curie) − Research infrastructures Common rules, toolkit of funding schemes European Research Area Simplified access International cooperation Coherence with other EU and MS actions Shared objectives and principles
    • 1) Improve resource use efficiency and resource stewardship Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Sustainable food security 2) Increase yield and yield stability in dynamic environments and enhancing stress tolerance 3) Enhance crops for healthy human nutrition & animal feed 4) Plants for improved health 5) Improve plant composition and performance for novel (non-food) products
    • Blue growth Targeted plant breeding for production of feed for offshore fisheries Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme
    • Smart cities and communities "Green cities" - urban food production systems; easy to sketch, but at present difficult and expensive to realise Novel issues: recycled substrate quality, plant drought resistance, plant composition in urban environments, grey water use, linking small energy and food production systems Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme
    • Waste as a resource to recycle, reuse and recover raw materials Research and innovation on how bio-technological, urban and industrial wastes can be used in agriculture denhaag.nl Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme
    • Personalising health and care Development of personalised food and eating habits Healthy food is important for healthy living Healthy food must be based on healthy agricultural products (research into plant composition, plant secondary compounds or vitamins) Safe food is a fundamental requirement for healthy living Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme
    • European integrated technology platforms in genomics, phenotyping and experimental farms European resource centers Education programs for young scientists Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Reestablish extension services as an exchange mechanism between science, farming and industry
    • Integrated programs and projects beyond national, sectorial and disciplinary borders A special focus on human resources Strengthening European competiveness European solutions in a global world Open dialogue with all stakeholders Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Projects towards sustainable food production and bioeconomy value chains in developing countries
    • EPSO promotes the importance of plant sciences ARG, AUS, AT, BE, BG, BRA, CAN, Chile, CHI, Croatia, CY, CZ, DK, EE, FI, FR, DE, GR, HU, IND, IE, IL, IT, JAP, LI, NL, NEZ, NIG, NO, PL, PT, SB, SI, ES, SE, CH, TK, UK, UKR 2nd International Fascination of Plants Day - Over 1.000 events in 54 countries –
    • EPSO organizes conferences and workshops EPSO Conferences: 19th FESPB / 8th EPSO Conference Dublin, Ireland, 22-26.6.2014 9th EPSO / 20th FESPB Conference Prague, CZ, 27.6. – 1.7.2016 EPSO Workshops: EPSO-FAO: Rome, 25-27.6.12 EPSO – Horticulture: 11-12.11. 2013
    • Heribert Hirt European Plant Science Organisation Thank you for your attention
    • 2) More resilient plants – increase yield and yield stability in dynamic environments and enhancing stress tolerance cbc.ca grist.org Improving resistance against weather and climate fluctuations Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Sustainable food security
    • 3) Enhance crops for healthy human nutrition & animal feed fitmixer.com Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Sustainable food security
    • 4) Plants for improved health Generate novel control methods, resistances and resistance mechanisms for existing and new (climate change related) pests and diseases kn-online.de maerkischeallgemeine.de tagesspiegel.de Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Sustainable food security
    • 5) Improve plant composition and performance for novel (non-food) products After en.wikipedia.org www.nsf.gov bioenergyconsult.com Improving cell wall digestibility for agro residues utilisation Opportunities and challenges for plant science in the Horizon 2020 programme Sustainable food security
    • Many countries can make gains in productivity just by improving the use of existing technologies and practices, but sustainable intensification means increasing yields using less water, fertilizer and pesticides. FAO Investment in agricultural research will be crucial (yet only 5% of total R&D budget). Public R&D investments decreased sharply over the last decades (exception China where it doubled in the last decade) Private R&D increased strongly, but only in developed countries and with the focus on Western crops, but not local and alternative crops Investing into research is investing into our future