H 2 bacteriology, sanitation, and sterilization

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H 2 bacteriology, sanitation, and sterilization

  1. 1. Bacteriology,Sanitation, & Sterilization
  2. 2. Learning Objectives1.) Differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms.2.) Describe the 3 different types of bacteria and the diseases they cause.3.) Differentiate between bacteria, fungi, and viruses.4.) Describe hepatitis and HIV, how they are spread, and how transmission can be prevented.
  3. 3. Learning Objectives continued5.) Understand disease causation and prevention.6.) List the various methods of sterilization and disinfectants as they pertain to the salon/clinic.7.) Apply the principles of hygiene, sanitation, sterilization, and good housekeeping.
  4. 4. Key Terms Antiseptics  Hepatitis Asepsis  HIV Autoclave  Microorganisms Bacillus  Microbes Bacteria  Pathogenic Cocci  Protozoa Endospore  Spirillum Fungi  Spore  Virus
  5. 5. Personal Service WorkerYou will be a PSW!An individual whose work brings them into direct contact with other individualsHealth care professionals and allied health workersAllows for the possibility of the transmission and spread of contagious diseases (through coughing, sneezing, unclean hands, instruments and work areas, sharing of eating and drinking utensils
  6. 6. Questions you need to ask yourselfWhat surfaces or equipment do I touch in my treatment area?What surfaces and tools do my clients come into contact with?Imagine red paint covering everything.
  7. 7. MicrobiologyBranch of biology that deals with micro- organismsMicrobes include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae
  8. 8. Bacteria2 classifications: pathogenic and nonpathogenicPathogenic – harmful and disease causingNonpathogenic – harmless, helpful, useful
  9. 9. Bacteria – The big pictureMost are nonpathogenicFound EVERYWHERE! Air, water, all over and in our bodies, in foods, in medicinesBeneficialEx. Saprophytes – decompose waste and dead matter (used in fertilizer)
  10. 10. Conditions to grow BacteriaThrive in damp, warm, dark places with a food source; some can survive in dry, cool, well-lighted.
  11. 11. Unfavorable ConditionsDuring unfavorable conditions, bacteria form spores Spores protect the bacteria until more favorable conditions arise Remain for long periods and can be transmittedEndospore – allow bacteria to resist heat, antiseptics, disinfectants, antibiotics Ability to kill endospores along with the other bacteria allows for complete sterilization.
  12. 12. 3 shapes of Pathogenic Bacteria1.) Coccus (cocci) – round2.) Bacillus (bacilli) – rod shaped3.) Spirillum (spirilla) – corkscrew shaped
  13. 13. CoccusProduce pus3 common cocci: Diplococcus – pairs; causes pneumonia Staphylococcus – bunches; folliculitis, abscesses, boils, pimples Streptococcus – chains; blood poisoning, strep throatTransmitted through air, dust, and substances in which they are found
  14. 14. BacillusMost common, most harmful, most difficult to destroyCauses tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid feverHave flagella or cilia to help propel themselves through liquids
  15. 15. SpirillumSpiral shapedCauses syphilis, cholera, and Lyme disease
  16. 16. Bacterial InfectionMay enter through mouth, nose, eyes, ears, broken skin causing an infectionInfection can be localized in form of pus or carried throughout the blood stream causing a general infection
  17. 17. FungiPlant and vegetable parasitesEx. Yeasts, molds, mildewsMany are useful and beneficialNature’s main decomposersCauses athlete’s foot and ringworm or if inhaled, attacks lung tissue causing chest ailments
  18. 18. VirusesCannot live or reproduce on their ownOnce host is found, they multiply, cause damage and possibly death to cellsMade of an outer coating of protein and DNA or RNA on the inside
  19. 19. TreatmentViruses are difficult to treat or control b/c antibiotics DO NOT destroy themSymptoms can be treated, but not the virus itself
  20. 20. Viruses of ConcernHepatitis, common cold, influenza, measles, chicken pox, mumps, genital herpes, herpes simplex, mononucleosis, and HIV.
  21. 21. ProtozoaSingle celled animal microbeFound in water, foods, plants, blood, body fluidsEx. Amoeba – causes dysenteryEx. Malaria – carried by mosquitoes
  22. 22. HepatitisInflammation of the liver caused by alcohol abuse, medications, injury, certain viruses4 main types: HAV HBV HCV HDV (spread only when HBV is present)
  23. 23. HAVSpread by ingesting food or water contaminated with fecesFound when hands are not washed after using the restroom
  24. 24. HBVMore serious than HAVTransmitted mainly through contaminated needles, saliva, semen, vaginal fluidSame methods of transmission as HCV
  25. 25. HCVNot as devastating as HBVTransmittable through blood and saliva Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Needle-stick accidents Pregnancy Blood transfusions Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person, razors, toothbrushes
  26. 26. Hepatitis SymptomsLow-grade fever Later stage symptomsHeadache include:Muscle ache Dark urineFatigue Pale fecesLoss of appetite Abdominal painNausea JaundiceVomiting Cirrhosis (scarring) of liverdiarrhea
  27. 27. Universal PrecautionsAssume each client might be infectedGuidelines set forth by CDC Hand washing Glove usage PPE (personal protection equipment) lab coats, masks, goggles Handling and disposal of needles, probes, lancets, other sharp tools
  28. 28. HIVVirus that causes AIDSCannot “catch” AIDS, but you can acquire HIV which leads to AIDSAcquired through: Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Pregnancy transmission Blood transfusion Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person
  29. 29. HIVCANNOT be transmitted through:Blood donationInsect bitesCasual contact (kissing, hugging, etc)AirborneSurfaces (doorknobs, phones, etc.)Food and water
  30. 30. SanitationSignificant reduction in the number of pathogens on a surface through cleaningNOT TOTAL eliminationMeticulous cleaning is essential before disinfecting or sterilizing to remove debris
  31. 31. Hand WashingVERY IMPORTANT!!!!Instills confidence in the clientCDC guidelines state that plain soap may be used, but it MUST be in a pump bottle
  32. 32. Hand Washing Procedure1.) Remove all jewelry.2.) Wet hands with tepid water.3.) Apply soap and lather 10 – 15 seconds (sing Happy Birthday). Rub vigorously, pay attention to fingernails and between fingers.4.) Rinse thoroughly until all lather is removed.
  33. 33. Hand Washing procedure cont5.) Dry hands thoroughly with clean, disposable paper towels.6.) Use paper towels to turn off faucets.7.) Discard paper towels in a lined foot-pedal bin.
  34. 34. When do I wash my hands?BEFORE and AFTER each clientBEFORE and AFTER gloves are wornIf you need to leave treatment room or to touch a door handle during service.Immediately after accidental contact with blood or other bodily fluidsAfter using a tissue to wipe mucus from eyes, nose, or mouthAfter using hands to cover mouth for a cough or a sneeze.
  35. 35. Glove GuidelinesNew pair should be used with each clientDiscard gloves that are torn or punctured. Hands should be rewashed and a new pair of gloves donned.Vinyl vs. latexQuestion patient on latex allergiesWear gloves during cleaning and handling of instruments.Wear gloves when handling disinfectants and antiseptics.
  36. 36. AntisepticsFormulated to prevent, retard, or stop bacterial growthNot as strong as disinfectants but safe to use on the skinSANITIZES DOES NOT DISINFECT Bacteriostats and fungistats do not kill germs! Temporarily inhibit growth, growth resumes when static properties have worn off.
  37. 37. DisinfectionTerm used for the reduction of microorganisms on a surface.Not all spores and endospores will be destroyedFollow MSDS on instructions and guidelines for use
  38. 38. DisinfectionDisinfectants are used to kill bacteria and certain viruses on nonporous surface areas and tools.Not suitable for human skin Exception: 70% ethyl alcohol or 99% isopropyl alcohol used on skin will disinfect
  39. 39. Types of DisinfectantsOne-step cleaners Clean, disinfect, and deodorize all at onceTwo-step cleaners Require general cleaning before disinfecting, are more corrosive, have a strong odor, and require careful measuring for dilution and use. Ex. glutaraldehyde
  40. 40. HousekeepingEquipment and work surfaces (carts and cabinets) should be disinfected regularly between clients.Regular and routine housekeeping on way of maintaining state of asepsis Condition in which no living disease-causing microorganisms are present.
  41. 41. SterilizationShould be habitual and ongoing.Goal: Complete elimination of ALL forms of bacteria, especially endospores and viruses.2 types of sterilization: physical and chemical
  42. 42. Physical SterilizationSteam-heat sterilization Autoclave applies steam heat under pressureDry-heat sterilization Forced air-oven most popular in hospitalsIrradiation (light rays) Considered ineffective on HBVBoiling
  43. 43. Chemical SterilizationLiquid Instruments submersed in 2% glutaraldehyde aqueous solutionFumigation Ethylene oxide in a sealed cabinet
  44. 44. Eye ShieldsClean with soap and water, rinse and dry thoroughlySuspected conjunctivitis (a sty) or other possibly contagious disorder, eye shields must be sterilized
  45. 45. Postexposure StrategiesIn the event skin is punctured:1.) Excuse yourself, do not alarm the client.2.) Wash hands, allow wound to bleed out.3.) Apply antiseptic and Bandaid.4.) Record client’s name, date, and time of treatment.5.) Resume tx, with bandaid and gloves.6.) Keep accurate account of following patient names.7.) Get tested for HIV/HBV.
  46. 46. 1.) What is the difference between bacteria and a virus? (4)Bacteria can be treated with antibiotics, viruses cannot.Bacteria live and reproduce on their own, viruses require a host.Bacteria can form spores to survive until more favorable conditions arise, viruses cannot.Viruses contain DNA or RNA, bacteria do not.
  47. 47. 2.) Name two ways HIV can betransmitted and two ways itcannot.Can be transmitted: Cannot be transmitted Sexual intercourse Blood donation Needle sharing Insect bites Pregnancy Casual contact (kissing, Blood transfusions hugging, etc) Contact nonintact skin Airborne with nonintact skin of Surfaces (doorknobs, infected person phones, etc.) Food and water
  48. 48. 3.) What is the difference betweendisinfection and sanitation?Disinfection is the reduction of pathogens except for spores and endospores; is used on nonporous surfaces and tools, NOT skin.Sanitation is a significant reduction of pathogens; mostly for skin.
  49. 49. 5.) Name two FDA/EPA methods ofsterilization.Autoclave (steam-heat)Dry-heat sterilizationIrradiation (UV)BoilingLiquid (2% glutaraldehyde)Fumigation (ethylene oxide)
  50. 50. 6.) How should eye shields becleaned? When should they besterilized?Cleaned with soap and water, rinsed, and dried.Must be sterilized if used by client with contagious disorder.
  51. 51. 7.) How is sterilization differentfrom sanitation and disinfection?It is the complete elimination of ALL forms of bacteria, especially endospores and viruses.
  52. 52. 8.) Which is the lowest level ofdecontamination? Give anexample.SanitationWashing hands
  53. 53. 9.) What are the 3 shapes ofbacteria?CoccusBacillusSpirillum
  54. 54. 10.) Which bacteria is responsiblefor folliculitis and pimples?Staphylococcus
  55. 55. 11.) What is hepatitis? What arethe 6 ways HBV is transmitted?Inflammation of the liver. Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Needle-stick accidents Pregnancy Blood transfusions Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person, razors, toothbrushes
  56. 56. 12.) Explain the differencebetween pathogenic andnonpathogenic bacteria.Pathogenic are disease causing bacteria.Nonpathogenic are harmless and helpful.
  57. 57. 13.) Universal precautions tell us toassume what?EVERYONE is infected regardless of sex, race, age, etc.
  58. 58. 14.) Explain the appropriate way towash your hands.1.) Remove all jewelry.2.) Wet hands with tepid water.3.) Apply soap and lather 10 – 15 seconds (sing Happy Birthday). Rub vigourously, pay attention to fingernails and between fingers.4.) Rinse thoroughly until all lather is removed.5.) Dry hands thoroughly with clean, disposable paper towels.6.) Use paper towels to turn off faucets.7.) Discard paper towels in a lined foot-pedal bin.
  59. 59. 15.) When must you wash yourhands?BEFORE and AFTER each clientBEFORE and AFTER gloves are wornIf you need to leave treatment room or to touch a door handle during service.Immediately after accidental contact with blood or other bodily fluidsAfter using a tissue to wipe mucus from eyes, nose, or mouthAfter using hands to cover mouth for a cough or a sneeze.
  60. 60. 16.) During a treatment, your gloveis torn. What do you do?Discard gloves.Wash hands.Put on a new pair of gloves.
  61. 61. 17.) Antiseptics are used for whatlevel of decontamination?Sanitation
  62. 62. 18.) When should equipment andwork surfaces be disinfected?Between EACH client!
  63. 63. 19.) When should you weargloves?When working with patients.During cleaning and handling of instruments.When handling disinfectants and antiseptics.
  64. 64. 20.) What is the middle level ofdecontamination?Disinfection

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