Learning Objectives1.) Differentiate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms.2.) Describe the 3 different types of bacteria and the diseases they cause.3.) Differentiate between bacteria, fungi, and viruses.4.) Describe hepatitis and HIV, how they are spread, and how transmission can be prevented.
Learning Objectives continued5.) Understand disease causation and prevention.6.) List the various methods of sterilization and disinfectants as they pertain to the salon/clinic.7.) Apply the principles of hygiene, sanitation, sterilization, and good housekeeping.
Personal Service WorkerYou will be a PSW!An individual whose work brings them into direct contact with other individualsHealth care professionals and allied health workersAllows for the possibility of the transmission and spread of contagious diseases (through coughing, sneezing, unclean hands, instruments and work areas, sharing of eating and drinking utensils
Questions you need to ask yourselfWhat surfaces or equipment do I touch in my treatment area?What surfaces and tools do my clients come into contact with?Imagine red paint covering everything.
MicrobiologyBranch of biology that deals with micro- organismsMicrobes include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae
Bacteria2 classifications: pathogenic and nonpathogenicPathogenic – harmful and disease causingNonpathogenic – harmless, helpful, useful
Bacteria – The big pictureMost are nonpathogenicFound EVERYWHERE! Air, water, all over and in our bodies, in foods, in medicinesBeneficialEx. Saprophytes – decompose waste and dead matter (used in fertilizer)
Conditions to grow BacteriaThrive in damp, warm, dark places with a food source; some can survive in dry, cool, well-lighted.
Unfavorable ConditionsDuring unfavorable conditions, bacteria form spores Spores protect the bacteria until more favorable conditions arise Remain for long periods and can be transmittedEndospore – allow bacteria to resist heat, antiseptics, disinfectants, antibiotics Ability to kill endospores along with the other bacteria allows for complete sterilization.
3 shapes of Pathogenic Bacteria1.) Coccus (cocci) – round2.) Bacillus (bacilli) – rod shaped3.) Spirillum (spirilla) – corkscrew shaped
CoccusProduce pus3 common cocci: Diplococcus – pairs; causes pneumonia Staphylococcus – bunches; folliculitis, abscesses, boils, pimples Streptococcus – chains; blood poisoning, strep throatTransmitted through air, dust, and substances in which they are found
BacillusMost common, most harmful, most difficult to destroyCauses tuberculosis, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid feverHave flagella or cilia to help propel themselves through liquids
SpirillumSpiral shapedCauses syphilis, cholera, and Lyme disease
Bacterial InfectionMay enter through mouth, nose, eyes, ears, broken skin causing an infectionInfection can be localized in form of pus or carried throughout the blood stream causing a general infection
FungiPlant and vegetable parasitesEx. Yeasts, molds, mildewsMany are useful and beneficialNature’s main decomposersCauses athlete’s foot and ringworm or if inhaled, attacks lung tissue causing chest ailments
VirusesCannot live or reproduce on their ownOnce host is found, they multiply, cause damage and possibly death to cellsMade of an outer coating of protein and DNA or RNA on the inside
TreatmentViruses are difficult to treat or control b/c antibiotics DO NOT destroy themSymptoms can be treated, but not the virus itself
Viruses of ConcernHepatitis, common cold, influenza, measles, chicken pox, mumps, genital herpes, herpes simplex, mononucleosis, and HIV.
ProtozoaSingle celled animal microbeFound in water, foods, plants, blood, body fluidsEx. Amoeba – causes dysenteryEx. Malaria – carried by mosquitoes
HepatitisInflammation of the liver caused by alcohol abuse, medications, injury, certain viruses4 main types: HAV HBV HCV HDV (spread only when HBV is present)
HAVSpread by ingesting food or water contaminated with fecesFound when hands are not washed after using the restroom
HBVMore serious than HAVTransmitted mainly through contaminated needles, saliva, semen, vaginal fluidSame methods of transmission as HCV
HCVNot as devastating as HBVTransmittable through blood and saliva Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Needle-stick accidents Pregnancy Blood transfusions Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person, razors, toothbrushes
Universal PrecautionsAssume each client might be infectedGuidelines set forth by CDC Hand washing Glove usage PPE (personal protection equipment) lab coats, masks, goggles Handling and disposal of needles, probes, lancets, other sharp tools
HIVVirus that causes AIDSCannot “catch” AIDS, but you can acquire HIV which leads to AIDSAcquired through: Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Pregnancy transmission Blood transfusion Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person
HIVCANNOT be transmitted through:Blood donationInsect bitesCasual contact (kissing, hugging, etc)AirborneSurfaces (doorknobs, phones, etc.)Food and water
SanitationSignificant reduction in the number of pathogens on a surface through cleaningNOT TOTAL eliminationMeticulous cleaning is essential before disinfecting or sterilizing to remove debris
Hand WashingVERY IMPORTANT!!!!Instills confidence in the clientCDC guidelines state that plain soap may be used, but it MUST be in a pump bottle
Hand Washing Procedure1.) Remove all jewelry.2.) Wet hands with tepid water.3.) Apply soap and lather 10 – 15 seconds (sing Happy Birthday). Rub vigorously, pay attention to fingernails and between fingers.4.) Rinse thoroughly until all lather is removed.
Hand Washing procedure cont5.) Dry hands thoroughly with clean, disposable paper towels.6.) Use paper towels to turn off faucets.7.) Discard paper towels in a lined foot-pedal bin.
When do I wash my hands?BEFORE and AFTER each clientBEFORE and AFTER gloves are wornIf you need to leave treatment room or to touch a door handle during service.Immediately after accidental contact with blood or other bodily fluidsAfter using a tissue to wipe mucus from eyes, nose, or mouthAfter using hands to cover mouth for a cough or a sneeze.
Glove GuidelinesNew pair should be used with each clientDiscard gloves that are torn or punctured. Hands should be rewashed and a new pair of gloves donned.Vinyl vs. latexQuestion patient on latex allergiesWear gloves during cleaning and handling of instruments.Wear gloves when handling disinfectants and antiseptics.
AntisepticsFormulated to prevent, retard, or stop bacterial growthNot as strong as disinfectants but safe to use on the skinSANITIZES DOES NOT DISINFECT Bacteriostats and fungistats do not kill germs! Temporarily inhibit growth, growth resumes when static properties have worn off.
DisinfectionTerm used for the reduction of microorganisms on a surface.Not all spores and endospores will be destroyedFollow MSDS on instructions and guidelines for use
DisinfectionDisinfectants are used to kill bacteria and certain viruses on nonporous surface areas and tools.Not suitable for human skin Exception: 70% ethyl alcohol or 99% isopropyl alcohol used on skin will disinfect
Types of DisinfectantsOne-step cleaners Clean, disinfect, and deodorize all at onceTwo-step cleaners Require general cleaning before disinfecting, are more corrosive, have a strong odor, and require careful measuring for dilution and use. Ex. glutaraldehyde
HousekeepingEquipment and work surfaces (carts and cabinets) should be disinfected regularly between clients.Regular and routine housekeeping on way of maintaining state of asepsis Condition in which no living disease-causing microorganisms are present.
SterilizationShould be habitual and ongoing.Goal: Complete elimination of ALL forms of bacteria, especially endospores and viruses.2 types of sterilization: physical and chemical
Physical SterilizationSteam-heat sterilization Autoclave applies steam heat under pressureDry-heat sterilization Forced air-oven most popular in hospitalsIrradiation (light rays) Considered ineffective on HBVBoiling
Chemical SterilizationLiquid Instruments submersed in 2% glutaraldehyde aqueous solutionFumigation Ethylene oxide in a sealed cabinet
Eye ShieldsClean with soap and water, rinse and dry thoroughlySuspected conjunctivitis (a sty) or other possibly contagious disorder, eye shields must be sterilized
Postexposure StrategiesIn the event skin is punctured:1.) Excuse yourself, do not alarm the client.2.) Wash hands, allow wound to bleed out.3.) Apply antiseptic and Bandaid.4.) Record client’s name, date, and time of treatment.5.) Resume tx, with bandaid and gloves.6.) Keep accurate account of following patient names.7.) Get tested for HIV/HBV.
1.) What is the difference between bacteria and a virus? (4)Bacteria can be treated with antibiotics, viruses cannot.Bacteria live and reproduce on their own, viruses require a host.Bacteria can form spores to survive until more favorable conditions arise, viruses cannot.Viruses contain DNA or RNA, bacteria do not.
2.) Name two ways HIV can betransmitted and two ways itcannot.Can be transmitted: Cannot be transmitted Sexual intercourse Blood donation Needle sharing Insect bites Pregnancy Casual contact (kissing, Blood transfusions hugging, etc) Contact nonintact skin Airborne with nonintact skin of Surfaces (doorknobs, infected person phones, etc.) Food and water
3.) What is the difference betweendisinfection and sanitation?Disinfection is the reduction of pathogens except for spores and endospores; is used on nonporous surfaces and tools, NOT skin.Sanitation is a significant reduction of pathogens; mostly for skin.
5.) Name two FDA/EPA methods ofsterilization.Autoclave (steam-heat)Dry-heat sterilizationIrradiation (UV)BoilingLiquid (2% glutaraldehyde)Fumigation (ethylene oxide)
6.) How should eye shields becleaned? When should they besterilized?Cleaned with soap and water, rinsed, and dried.Must be sterilized if used by client with contagious disorder.
7.) How is sterilization differentfrom sanitation and disinfection?It is the complete elimination of ALL forms of bacteria, especially endospores and viruses.
8.) Which is the lowest level ofdecontamination? Give anexample.SanitationWashing hands
9.) What are the 3 shapes ofbacteria?CoccusBacillusSpirillum
10.) Which bacteria is responsiblefor folliculitis and pimples?Staphylococcus
11.) What is hepatitis? What arethe 6 ways HBV is transmitted?Inflammation of the liver. Sexual intercourse Needle sharing Needle-stick accidents Pregnancy Blood transfusions Contact nonintact skin with nonintact skin of infected person, razors, toothbrushes
12.) Explain the differencebetween pathogenic andnonpathogenic bacteria.Pathogenic are disease causing bacteria.Nonpathogenic are harmless and helpful.
13.) Universal precautions tell us toassume what?EVERYONE is infected regardless of sex, race, age, etc.
14.) Explain the appropriate way towash your hands.1.) Remove all jewelry.2.) Wet hands with tepid water.3.) Apply soap and lather 10 – 15 seconds (sing Happy Birthday). Rub vigourously, pay attention to fingernails and between fingers.4.) Rinse thoroughly until all lather is removed.5.) Dry hands thoroughly with clean, disposable paper towels.6.) Use paper towels to turn off faucets.7.) Discard paper towels in a lined foot-pedal bin.
15.) When must you wash yourhands?BEFORE and AFTER each clientBEFORE and AFTER gloves are wornIf you need to leave treatment room or to touch a door handle during service.Immediately after accidental contact with blood or other bodily fluidsAfter using a tissue to wipe mucus from eyes, nose, or mouthAfter using hands to cover mouth for a cough or a sneeze.
16.) During a treatment, your gloveis torn. What do you do?Discard gloves.Wash hands.Put on a new pair of gloves.
17.) Antiseptics are used for whatlevel of decontamination?Sanitation
18.) When should equipment andwork surfaces be disinfected?Between EACH client!
19.) When should you weargloves?When working with patients.During cleaning and handling of instruments.When handling disinfectants and antiseptics.
20.) What is the middle level ofdecontamination?Disinfection