Introduction to design thinking
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  • 1. Design driven innovationIntroduction to an innovation practiceRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 2. Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making thecomplicated simple, awesomely simple, thats creativity.” Ch. MingusRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 3. Introduction, about designRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 4. About design, as an activityDesign is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities ofobjects, process, services, and their systems in whole life cycles. Therefore design isthe central factor of innovative humanisation of technologies and the crucial factorof cultural and economic exchange.ICSID (International Council Society of Industrial Design)Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 5. About design, as an activity50 design disciplines listed on wikipedia: experience ecosystems viabilitysamples of Apple design activitiesRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 6. About design, as a methodologyDesign is a creative synthesis activity @ the junction of:feasibility(technology)/desirability(people & environment)/viability(business) feasibility desirability design viabilityRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 7. About design, as a methodologyDesign is a creative synthesis activity @ the junction of:• top-down approach: a value-led experience system: an ethos, a culture, a zeitgeist,un imaginaire, encapsulated in a brand.• bottom-up approach: a usage and people-led experience system: focusing onpeople’s needs.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 8. About design, as a methodologyDesign is a creative synthesis activity: aiming at balancing 3 values. Desirable design usable usefulRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 9. About design, as a methodologyDesign is a creative synthesis activity: aiming at balancing experiential qualities. viceral calimorphic cognitive practical experience experience experience bebavioural reflective experiential socioplastic sensorial emotionnalNokia’s DNA experience model Donald Norman’s experience model Stephane Vial’s experience modelRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 10. About design, as a methodologyDesign is a creative synthesis activity processing a an abductive thinking: a logicinference described as ‘guessing’ and ‘projecting’: dessin à dessein.This approach values:• rapid iterative trials & errors process: prototyping• a holistic vision within which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts: gestaltIdeo medical tool rapid prototype out os stationary features vs gestalt, the CD player feature list vs the Muji CD player listRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 11. About design-driven innovationRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 12. Important background about innovationThe myth of methodology, in short form, is the belief that a playbook existsfor innovation. Scott Berkun, The myths of innovation.Without change there is no innovation, creativity or incentive for improvement.Those who initiate change will have better opportunity to manage the changethat is inevitable. C. William Pollard, the soul of the firm.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 13. About cognition or how people learn and adaptPiaget: To solve experience B, a child builds on previous experience A... from thiscomes the concept of affordances: actions possibilities that are readily perceivableby an actor from remembered experiences... this is an adbuctive thinking processtherefore...Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 14. About cognition or how people learn and adapt• There is no such a thing as disruption in usage: disruption is a marketing concept.• There is a tension for the designer between addressing a marketing need to value the perception of a disruption / people’s need to capitalise on experience.• There is a tension between 3 mental models: design/maintenance/use...• There is no such absolute concept as simplicity without an understanding of what a user knows from a personal and a cultural point of view. what we think as natural is to a large extend learnt, then projected on affordances/feedbacks.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 15. About cognition or how people learn and adaptFor example, the desktop metaphor was purposefully referring to real worldobjects as metaphors to help one grasp the abstraction of a digital ‘space’.And this is not exclusive to digital devices.original desktop metaphorRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 16. About cognition or how people learn and adaptUnderstanding affordances happens everyday. While facing an un-experiencedsituation, we will aim at capitalising on our knowledge to speculate howsomething works:door push/pull? door push/pull?Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 17. About cognition or how people learn and adaptBBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | Giving up my iPod for a Walkman 03/04/2011 12:41 BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | Giving up my iPod for a Walkman BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | Giving up my iPod for a Walkman 03/04/2011 12:41 03/04/2011 12:41 In some classes in school they let me listen to music and one each boasting bigger and better features than its predecessor, it is teacher recognised it and got nostalgic. hard to imagine the prospect of purchasing and using a bulky cassette player instead of a digital device. It took me three days to figure out that there was another side to the tape. That was not the only naive mistake that I made; I Furthermore, there were a Page last updated at 10:10 GMT, Monday, 29 June 2009 11:10 UK mistook the metal/normal switch on the Walkman for a genre- number of buttons protruding News Front Page specific equaliser, but later I discovered that it was in fact used to from the top and sides of this E-mail this to a friend Printable version switch between two different types of cassette. device to provide functions such as "rewinding" and "fast- Africa Giving up my iPod for a Walkman Another notable feature that the iPod has and the Walkman doesnt I managed to create an forwarding" (remember those?), impromptu shuffle feature simply which added even more bulk. Americas is "shuffle", where the player by holding down rewind and Asia-Pacific selects random tracks to play. Its releasing it randomly As well as this, the need for In todays Magazine a function that, on the face of it, changing tapes is bothersome in Europe Big beasts the Walkman lacks. But I managed to create an impromptu shuffle itself. The tapes which I had Music on the move Middle East How elephants helped to feature simply by holding down "rewind" and releasing it randomly - could only hold around 12 tracks South Asia shape human history, by effective, if a little laboured. each, a fraction of the capacity of the smallest iPod. UK David Cannadine I told my dad about my clever idea. His words of warning brought Did my dad, Alan, really ever think this was a credible piece of England Change a-coming home the difference between the portable music players of today, technology? Northern Ireland Justin Webb on which dont have moving parts, and the mechanical playback of old. Scotland Americas love affair with "I remembered it fondly as a way to enjoy what music I liked, where In his words, "Walkmans eat tapes". So my clumsy clicking could Wales progress I liked," he said. "But when I see it now, I wonder how I carried it!" have ended up ruining my favourite tape, leaving me music-less for UK Politics the rest of the day. Audience of one Education WALKMAN 1, MP3 PLAYER 0 Would you watch a play Magazine When the Sony Walkman was launched, 30 years ago Digital relief all on your own? But its not all a one-way street when you line up a Walkman against Business this week, it started a revolution in portable music. But Throughout my week using the Walkman, I came to realise that I an iPod. The Walkman actually has two headphone sockets, labelled Health have very little knowledge of technology from the past. I made a how does it compare with its digital successors? The 7 days quiz A and B, meaning the little music that I have, I can share with Science & Environment What now for Paul the number of naive mistakes, but I also learned a lot about the Magazine invited 13-year-old Scott Campbell to swap friends. To plug two pairs of headphones in to an iPod, you have to Technology eight-limbed oracle? grandfather of the MP3 Player. buy a special adapter. Entertainment his iPod for a Walkman for a week. You can almost imagine the excitement about the Walkman coming Another useful feature is the power socket on the side, so that you Also in the news out 30 years ago, as it was the newest piece of technology at the My dad had told me it was the iPod of its day. Magazine regulars can plug the Walkman into the wall when youre not on the move. ----------------- time. But given the dreadful battery life, I guess this was an outright Video and Audio ----------------- He had told me it was big, but I hadnt realised he meant THAT big. Tweetbook Perhaps that kind of anticipation necessity rather than an extra function. Programmes It was the size of a small book. Say goodbye to and excitement has been worktime boredom. Scott Campbell co-edits his own news website, Net News Daily. Have Your Say When I saw it for the first time, its colour also struck me. Nowadays somewhat lost in the flood of new Follow us on Facebook gadgets come in a rainbow of colours but this was only one shade - or Twitter products which now hit our In Pictures shelves on a regular basis. Return to link Country Profiles a bland grey. Magazine Monitor Paper Monitor, Your Letters, Quote of the Special Reports So its not exactly the most LISTEN UP TEENAGERS... THE Day, Caption Competition and more Personally, Im relieved I live in the digital age, with bigger A selection of your comments appears below. aesthetically pleasing choice of CLASSIC WALKMAN EXPLAINED Related BBC sites choice, more functions and music player. If I was browsing in Oh, I remember being so jealous of my classmates who had Sport a shop maybe I would have smaller devices. Im relieved that Walkmans. When they first came out, they were over $200. Such joy Weather MOST POPULAR STORIES NOW chosen something else. the majority of technological when the cheap electronics brands started making them! Every long On This Day SHARED READ WATCHED/LISTENED advancement happened before I trip, I carried a big bag full of tapes and extra batteries. When the Editors Blog From a practical point of view, the was born, as I cant imagine iPod came out, I was in awe at the idea of being able to carry my BBC World Service Walkman is rather cumbersome, Sheen live show bombs in Detroit having to use such basic entire music collection in one small device that would fit in my and it is certainly not pocket- French take over Abidjan airport equipment every day. pocket. Id never trade my iPod for a Walkman, of course, but this sized, unless you have large Fukushima workers bodies found The Walkman was a nostalgic sight for brought back some great memories, and I really enjoyed the article. pockets. It comes with a handy Having said all that, portable Scotts parents Maybe next you should try out a Commodore 64 for a week? Fighting resumes in Libyan cities music is better than no music. belt clip screwed on to the back, Michelle, Portland, Oregon, USA yet the weight of the unit is Afghan Koran protests spreading Now, for technically curious readers, Ive directly compared the enough to haul down a low-slung Transocean executives get bonuses portable cassette player with its latter-day successor. Here are the The one he is using now should be the earliest stage of Walkman pair of combats. main cons, and even a pro, I found with this piece of antique history. I still remember my last walkman 8 years ago was actually US jets grounded after hole scare technology. powered by a single AAA battery only and can last for few hours. I When I wore it walking down the Thousands are missing in Mexico agree perfectly to what he said about .... with a satisfying clunk " o street or going into shops, I got men... this was absolutely a SATISFACTION !! UN Gaza report should be buried strange looks, a mixture of Chester Kev, Malaysia Joy and desolation after cricket final SOUND surprise and curiosity, that made 1: Clunky buttons me a little embarrassed. This is the function that matters most. To make the music play, you You mention the lack of capacity and the limited number of tracks 2: Switch to metal (thats a type of Most popular now, in detail push the large play button. It engages with a satisfying clunk, unlike you could carry around, I seem to quite merrily recall ALSO carrying As I boarded the school bus, cassette, not heavy rock music) the finger tip tap for the iPod. around a slick over the shoulder carry case for up to 20 cassettes where I live in Aberdeenshire, I 3: Battery light - usually found flickering in its death throes should my friends and I be heading out. And all the song lyrics were was greeted with laughter. One When playing, it is clearly evident that the music sounds significantly handily printed out on the inside of the cassette cover, how ingenius 4: Double headphone jack (not to boy said: "No-one uses them any different than when played on an MP3 player, mainly because of the was that! be found on an iPod) more." Another said: "Groovy." hissy backtrack and odd warbly noises on the Walkman. Andrew McCreath, Wateringbury, Kent 5: Door ejects - watch out for Yet another one quipped: "That flying tapes and eye injuries would be hard to lose." The warbling is probably because of the horrifically short battery life; Memories! I still have exactly the same model that Scott used for his Walkman v iPod: Scotts verdict it is nearly completely dead within three hours of firing it up. Not review - brought back floods of memories from the 80s - especially My friends couldnt imagine their long after the music warbled into life, it abruptly ended. using the double headphone socket so my girlfriend (now wife) and I parents using this monstrous box, but there was interest in what the could share Phil Collins (!?). Between myself and my 3 kids Ive now thing was and how it worked. bought every model of iPod/Phone, but I doubt Ill have those CONVENIENCE memories again. With the plethora of MP3 players available on the market nowadays, Jim Mantle, Melbourne, Australiahttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8117619.stm Page 1 of 6 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8117619.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8117619.stm2 of 6 Page Page 3 of 6BBC experiment on simplicity: asking an iPod’s generation teenager to play a walkman... http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8117619.stmRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 18. ...therefore...• design builds on empathy: put your feet in user’s shoes, learn what they know.• design focuses on people, not users, neither customers: people do connect or adapt things to fit their life in ways you don’t think of, they hack.• field observation, and role play in context are fundamental to help one discover practices, routines, patterns, by nature not verbalised, but grounding innovation.• iterations, prototyping and testing are key to avoid conceptual speculations.• design is relevant in context: time, cultural, religious, political, economical, social.• it is an iterative & collaborative approach.• it is a holistic vision: the hole is bigger than the sum of its parts: gestaltRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 19. Why is the design-driven innovationnow popular?Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 20. Failed futuresDeductive practices are failing to predict future.Future forecast are only 20-25% right (Steven Schnaars).Zeitgeist (60’s: space race, 80’s: virtuality, now UGC: ‘we are the media’) mis-lead us.Change is not linear and very slow.Interaction among the various trends are commonly ignored, and unexpected.Development is by definition not taken into account (John Paulos).Bad understanding of ‘users’: abstracted, isolated and sillowed target.The average human myth & modernity: tati’s play time...... Exceptions always kill modern automations myths.Making things more natural: mapping reality into artificial intelligence: always fails.Modernity & utilitarian fallacy.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 21. Failed futuresOver-optimism, people smile on pics.Recurring re-invention of the wheel.Little knowledge of similar attempts (conviction a new project is totally different).Persuasion this proximal future is the holy grail.Sincerity!Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 22. Failed futuresInnovation is not linear, Gartner hype cycle.Gartner technology adoption/hype curveRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 23. Failed futuresMoore’s chasm, a modernist approach versus lifestyle segments, post-modernist.modern vision of adoption post-modern vision of adoptionRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 24. Failed futuresWe are designing semi-finished products, open to appropriation.Hacking and appropriation happen...Innovation always bring with them un-intended consequences:• Railways invention have lead the genesis of time zone.• Transferable communication credit in Africa have lead to the genesis of a parallelbanking system.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 25. A new renaissance periodWe are entering a new renaissance period led by digital technologieswhich started to deeply transform our society:• Less dependance on established forms of authorities.• Convergence of business (example: media/telecom/web).• Opening bottom-up innovation.• Accelerating innovation cycles.• Enabling co-creation, adaptation, diversion, hacking.• Provide power to doers.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 26. ‘Sociologie de l’imaginaire’: now in a post-modern periodThis renaissance develops as modern myths die. We are in a post-modern periodwith specific myths.People are more complex, and less predictable than expected during modernistperiod, exposing faceted identities rather than unity.Most research labs, and to some extend marketing, tend to live on modernist mythswhich ‘imaginaire’ is now ‘passé’.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 27. ‘Sociologie de l’imaginaire’: a post-modern periodFrom Apollon’s myth to Dyonisos myth...Apollon’s myth: rational persona, autonomous, independant, knowing.Key values in identity building: ‘emancipation’, control, ‘domestication’, liberation,intellectualisation.Temporality: future, long-term, identity formed on ‘conditionnel’, expectation.Mai 68: ‘le bourgeois ne jouit pas, il thésaurise.’Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 28. ‘Sociologie de l’imaginaire’: a post-modern periodDionysos’ myth: relational experience, in situ, here and now, avatar, pseudo, friends’network, tribes, group’s narcissism, from identity to identification dynamic.Key values in identity building:Dependancy, sociability, adaptability, connexion,Temporality: hic & nunc (here & now), ‘utopies interstitielles’.Mysticism.Such cultural context is the ground for new innovation practices.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 29. What is design-driven innovationor design-thinking?Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 30. Design thinking, definition, wikipediaDesign thinking is a process for practical creative resolution of problems or issuesthat looks for an improved future result. It is the essential ability to combineempathy, creativity and rationality to meet user needs and drive business success.Unlike analytical thinking, design thinking is a creative process based around the"building up" of ideas. There are no judgments early on in design thinking. Thiseliminates the fear of failure and encourages maximum input and participation inthe ideation and prototype phases. Out-of-the box thinking is encouraged in theseearlier processes since this can often lead to creative solutions.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 31. Design thinking, definition, wikipediaIn organisation and management theory, design thinking forms part of theArchitecture/Design/Anthropology (A/D/A) paradigm, which characterisesinnovative, human-centered enterprises.This paradigm also focuses on a collaborative and iterative style of work and anabductive mode of thinking, compared to practices associated with the moretraditional Mathematics/Economics/Psychology (M/E/P) management paradigm.Design is a creative synthesis building on Gestalt’s theory:the whole is bigger than the sum of it’s parts.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 32. Innovation & designRoberto Vergnanti/Donald Norman technology technology technology change push epiphany incremental change radical change or meaning change design market pull design (user centred) Human technology product Centred Design incremental change radical change time meaningRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 33. Design thinking, a definition, the double diamond modelDesign thinking is a creative problem solving process.As such, it distances design from being reduced to a function in a process.It encompasses 2 key phases: what is to be design & how to design it well: co e nv nc co e er e nv nc rg ge e er ve rg nc ge di ve e ncdi e Observe Define Develop Deliver Observations Insights Concepts Prototypes Source: Design council/Design Management in 11 companies Design the right thing Design the thing rightRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 34. Design thinking, a definition, the double diamond modelBut way too often, I contemplate the ‘concours Lepine’ syndrome: jumping rightfrom 1 to 3, from a non digested observation to design. Each phase deliversprototypes to animate debate and decision making. co e nv nc co e er e nv nc rg ge e er ve rg nc ge di ve e ncdi e Observe Define Develop Deliver Observations Insights Concepts Prototypes Source: Design council/Design Management in 11 companies Design the right thing Design the thing rightRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 35. Design, a facilitation skillPrototyping to animate debate, decision making, to build knowledge, to engage...Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 36. Design, a change managment skillA good product needs the right culture and the right organisation to exist:Without change there is no innovation, creativity or incentive for improvement.Those who initiate change will have better opportunity to manage the changethat is inevitable. C. William Pollard, the soul of the firm.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 37. AppendixRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 38. Referencesideo, the art of innovation,ideo, the 10 faces of innovation,ideo, innovation by designideo cards,change by designm kuniavski, observing the userd norman, the design of every day thingsd norman, emotional designd norman, designing complexiyr vergnanti, design driven innovation,s berkun, the myths of innovation,designing the perfect design brief,b borja, design management,nicolas nova,stephane hugon.Remy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011
  • 39. Design thinking, the double diamond model, tools, samplesBriefing-1 Observe Define Briefing-2 Developp ImplementationStakeholder interview Ethnography Cluster insights, paterns, needs Sketches Technical feasibilityOrganizational structure Journal study Empathy map Wireframes SW architecture Video-online diary Cluster user archetypes Task analysis HW limitationsCurrent state analysis Cultural inventory Cluster scenarios archetypes Task flow User ecceptance testUnderstand objectives Lucking Journey map User scenarioQuantitative studies Shadowing Power of ten Outputs Comics OutputsUser gegmentation In home interviews 2X2 matrix Insights Storyboard Collaborative design sessions AEIOU Metaphors matrix Models Navigation concepts with engineersTrends (tech, social, business) Trend analysis low laddering Competitive audit Participatory design Card sorting point of view madlib Need analysis IA mappingOutputs Contextual inquiry point of view metaphor Paper prototypesTranscripts Experts interviews Point of view want add Digital prototypesObjectives, constraints, What/How/Why Brainstorming Design sprints conditions User camera study BodyStorming Iterative designSchedule Conceptual models Usability testValue proposition Visual story telling, scenarios Brainstorming Benchmarking Reverse-brainstorming Defining statements Heuristic evaluations Design principles Postion mapping Periodical reviews Value curve Outputs Mental models Outputs Design brief-2 Card sorting Test plan and screener Insights Collaborative ideation Participant board Models Market differentiation User patterns, models Competitive audit Artifact from the future User segmentation Need analysis Affinity diagrams Feature/function map Graphic facilitation Personas Backcasting Opportunities report Evolution model Imprtance vs feasibility priorization Outputs UI guidelines Design principles Annotated wireframes Presentation Digital prototypes Physical prototypesRemy Bourganel | design-driven innovation| introduction | Ensad DGMM | © 2011