• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
The effect of S in diesel fuel on PM2.5 in medellín
 

The effect of S in diesel fuel on PM2.5 in medellín

on

  • 730 views

This presentation was given in Athens during the Air Pollution Conference in 2012. It deals with research made during the Sulfur change in the diesel fuel used in the Aburra Valley in Colombia

This presentation was given in Athens during the Air Pollution Conference in 2012. It deals with research made during the Sulfur change in the diesel fuel used in the Aburra Valley in Colombia

Statistics

Views

Total Views
730
Views on SlideShare
730
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    The effect of S in diesel fuel on PM2.5 in medellín The effect of S in diesel fuel on PM2.5 in medellín Presentation Transcript

    • THE EFECT OF THE DIESEL FUEL SULPHUR CONTENT ON THE PM2.5 POLLUTION PROBLEM IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY REGION AROUND MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Enrique Posada (1) , Myriam Gómez (2) (1) INDISA S.A ,Carrera 75 # 48 A 27, Medellín, Colombia (2) Politécnico Colombiano, Medellín, Colombia enrique.posada@indisa.com mgomez@elpoli.edu.co8th International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application in Athens, 19-23 March 2012.
    • THE ABURRÁ VALLEY REGION WITH THE CITY OF MEDELLÍN , COLOMBIA
    • Colombia is in South AmericaIt has a 46 million populationThe Aburrá Valley 3.5 million peopleMedellín 2.7 million people diesel gasolinaNumber of vehicles 90.000 590.000
    • Under the pressure of theenvironmentalauthorities, the nationalprovider of diesel fueldecided to supply theregion with low sulfurdiesel, to contribute to thelowering of the PM2.5concentrations in the air.S contents went downfrom 2,100 ppm to 500ppm and then to 50 ppmbetween the end of 2009and the first six months of2010
    • The region counts with a metropolitan metro train very well caredby everybody under the “CULTURA METRO”
    • There are severalinnovative urban cablemass transportationsystems and a newnatural gas metro bus
    • But there are stilllarge amounts ofdiesel operatedbuses and trucks, ofwhich many aresomewhat old andoperated underinefficient conditionswhich producefrequently blacksmoke visible fumes.
    • Estimated yearly PM2.5 vehicle emissions in the Aburrá Valley regionType of vehicle Units Diesel Gasoline TotalNumber of vehicles 86,972 571,109 658,081Distance travelled per vehicle-year Km 20,000 6,000 7,850Emission factor for PM2.5 , lowestimate mg/km 7.57 0.35 2.78Emission factor for PM2.5 , highestimate mg/km 468.0 41.6 185.2Emission factor for PM2.5 ,laboratory study mg/km 221.9Estimated yearly emissions tons/year 600 105 705Diesel engines generate much larger PM emissions than gasoline engines.
    • Table 2. PM2.5 concentrations in stations in the studied region, micrograms/Nm3 and PM2.5chemical composition (average % +/- 1.5 standard deviations) before changes in S content in dieselStations Unal Poli S. Antonio Bello Itagüí All stationsSamples 7 7 38 30 30 112PM 2.5 conc. 27.6+/-6.7 32.7+/-17.4 37.2+/-9.6 43.1+/27.7 25.9+/-10.7 33.7+/-17.6OC 20.7+/-4.3 25.14+/-4.5 20.48+/-5.1 25.68+/-6.4 26.02+/-5.5 23.78+/-4.3EC 40.11+/-5.0 23.31+/-5.7 37.18+/-7.0 30.4+/-10.5 26.56+/-7.0 31.53+/-7.6Sulfates 12.66+/-2.6 16.26+/-3.4 15.35+/-7.6 13.9+/-2.41 15.1+/-4.62 14.69+/-3.3Nitrates 0.35+/-0.11 0.62+/-0.21 1.35+/-1.46 0.75+/-0.42 1.33+/-1.16 0.98+/-0.73Sodium 1.21+/-0.35 1.92+/-0.67 1.26+/-0.68 1.23+/-0.32 2.87+/-1.74 1.71+/-0.93Ammonium 4.01+/-1.38 4.68+/-1.71 5.28+/-2.52 4.23+/-0.98 3.87+/-1.42 4.44+/-1.23SO3 1.09+/-0.29 1.45+/-1.22 0.46+/-0.74 1.21+/-0.67 0.65+/-0.47 0.90+/-0.58SiO2 1.36+/-0.67 1.86+/-0.95 1.04+/-0.83 1.07+/-1.56 1.64+/-1.01 1.33+/-0.79Fe2O3 0.64+/-0.45 0.99+/-0.79 0.65+/-0.46 0.82+/-0.36 0.76+/-0.21 0.76+/-0.30
    • Laboratory emission sampling in a diesel motor bench.Motor (ISUZU 4JA1 Type I turbocharged, rotating pump direct injection, 2499 cm3,four cylinders in line, compression ratio 18.4, nominal power 59 KW at 4100 rpm)Fuel with three sulfur contents: 2,100, 500 and 50 ppmTwo different load conditions (4.75 and 24.0 kW), associated with two different motorrotating speeds.(1,770 and 2,420 rpm).Samples were taken with an isokinetic sampling unit capable of separating PM samplesin three fractions (<2.5, 2.5-10, >10 microns).
    • Environmental sampling in a tunnel serving the Aburrá Valley regionConcentrations and samples of PM2.5 in the FERNANDO GOMEZ MARTINEZtunnel were taken during complete 24 hour periods, at several times in 2010,in which there was certainty about the sulfur content of the diesel fuel usedby the vehicles in the Aburrá Valley region. In this way the said three types ofdiesel fuel, with S content 2,100, 500 and 50 ppm could be correlated withthe samples.
    • Environmental sampling in two sites in the Aburrá Valley regionTwo (2) PQ-200, BGI Instrument, (equipped with Teflon and Quartz filters)were placed two (2) zones of the Aburrá Valley [Instituto Politecnico JaimeIsaza Cadavid (Poli) and Universidad Nacional- Facultad de Minas (Unal)] in six(6) alternate measurement campaigns, with two simultaneous ones for bothsites. Samples were taken during complete 24 hour periods, in such a waythat they could be correlated with the ongoing changes in the diesel fuel Scontent (2,100, 500 and 50 ppm respectively). A total of 50 samples werecollected in each area.
    • AnalysisIn the three studies, samples were taken with Tefón and Quartz filters and subjected tochemical analysis in Laboratory Alpha in Colombia for metallic oxides and in the DRI(Reno, Nevada) for ions and carbonaceous species (EC and OC). Analytical techniquesused were Spectrofluorometry, 3D Polarized Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence(Epsilon Model 5), for the determination of mineral oxides; ion chromatography(Dionex Model 3000) for the quantification of anions and cations; and the IMPROVE-AThermal Method Protocol for the determination of organic carbon and elementalcarbon.
    • PM 2.5 specific emissions in diesel laboratory bench motor studySulfur in diesel fuel, ppm 50 500 2,100 50 500 2,100Motor rotational speed,rpm 1,770 1,770 1,770 2,420 2,420 2,420Motor mechanical power,kW 4.69 4.76 4.75 24.1 23.9 23.9PM 2.5 emissions, kg/tonfuel 3.76 5.50 8.76 0.81 0.78 2.55OC, kg/ton fuel 2.234 3.303 5.239 0.275 0.218 0.526EC, kg/ton fuel 0.060 0.068 0.175 0.293 0.328 0.949Sulfates, kg/ton fuel 0.0396 0.1166 0.1638 0.0130 0.0203 0.6244Nitrates, kg/ton fuel 0.0468 0.0554 0.0383 0.0046 0.0036 0.0032Sodium, kg/ton fuel 0.0479 0.0549 0.0501 0.0043 0.0068 0.0292OC, % of PM 2.5 59.42 60.01 59.83 34.09 28.16 20.63EC, % of PM 2.5 1.60 1.24 1.99 36.35 42.31 37.22Sulfates, % of PM 2.5 1.05 2.12 1.87 1.62 2.61 24.49
    • 10PM 2.5, kg/ton fuel. 2 8 R = 0.98 6 PM 2.5 and sulfate in PM 2.5 4 2 R = 0.95 emissions diminish with 2 lower S in diesel fuel. 0 0 800 1,600 2,400 The effect depends on S in diesel, ppm motor load. PM 2.5 kg/ton fuel at 4.75 kW, average = 6.01 PM 2.5 kg/ton fuel at 24 kW, average = 1.38 0.8 Sulfates in PM 2.5 2 0.6 R = 0.96 kg/ton fuel. 0.4 2 R = 0.81 0.2 0.0 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 S in diesel, ppm S ulfates kg/ton fuel at 4.75 kW, average = 0.11 S ulfates kg/ton fuel at 24 kW, average = 0.22
    • 5.00 4.00 % of PM 2.5 . 3.00 In the tunnel there was a 2.00 clear diminution of sulfate 1.00 salts in the PM 2.5 with the 0.00 lowering of the sulfur in the 0 800 1,600 2,400 diesel fuel. S in diesel, ppm S ulfates Amonium Ions, total Major results in study in tunnelS in diesel fuel, ppm 2,100 500 50PM 2.5 micrograms/m3 225 420 249Vehicles per hour 268 389 361OC in PM 2.5 , % 23.8 22.7 25.8EC in PM 2.5 , % 56.3 59.5 55.5Sulfates in PM2.5 , % 2.10 1.23 0.50
    • PM2.5 concentrations in stations in the studied region, micrograms/Nm3 and PM2.5 chemicalcomposition (average % +/- 1.5 standard deviations) during changes in diesel S contentStation Poli Unal Poli Unal Poli UnalS in fuel, ppm 2,100 2,100 500 500 50 50PM 2.5, micrg/m3 32.7+/-17.4 27.6+/-6.9 26.6+/-22.3 31.4+/-13.6 27.9+/-11.4 32.8+/-12.8OC, % 25.14+/-4.4 20.7+/-4.3 27.6+/-6.3 22.6+/-5.8 27.5+/-4.8 23.4+/-5.0EC, % 23.3+/-5.7 40.1+/-5.0 27.6+/-10.4 44.2+/-9.3 25.9+/-6.3 44.7+/-6.2Sulfates, % 16.26+/-3.4 12.66+/-2.6 11.69+/-7.2 7.44+/-3.7 11.25+/-3.3 7.14+/-1.8Nitrates, % 0.62+/-0.21 0.35+/-0.11 0.56+/-0.51 0.45+/-0.48 0.55+/-0.32 0.57+/-0.75Sodium, % 1.92+/-0.67 1.21+/-0.35 1.94+/-1.31 1.03+/-0.77 1.77+/-0.78 0.79+/-0.55Ammonium, % 4.68+/-1.71 4.01+/-1.38 2.11+/-2.4 2.07+/-1.77 2.86+/-1.3 2.15+/-1.57SO3, % 1.45+/-1.22 1.09+/-0.29 1.01+/-0.77 1.09+/-1.63 1.49+/-1.16 0.80+/-0.38SiO2, % 1.86+/-0.95 1.36+/-0.67 2.0+/-1.58 1.64+/-1.33 2.45+/-2.38 1.19+/-1.09Fe2O3, % 0.99+/-0.79 0.64+/-0.45 1.54+/-0.99 1.16+/-0.85 1.9+/-0.89 1.01+/-0.49
    • PM2.5 conc. 160 2100 160 2100 PM2.5 conc. 120 120 1400 S ppm 1400 S ppm 80 80 700 700 40 40 0 0 0 0 0 120 240 360 0 120 240 360 S ampling day, starting 2009/11/17 S ampling day, starting 2009/11/17 PM 2.5, micrograms/m3, av= 31.5 +/- 14.0 PM 2.5, micrograms/m3, av= 31.5 +/- 14.0 S in diesel, ppm S in diesel, ppm PM 2.5 and sulfate in PM 2.5 concentrations diminish with lower S in diesel fuel for the samples taken in the urban areas. 30Sulfates in PM2.5 % . 30 Sulfate in PM 2.5,% . 25 20 20 10 15 10 0 5 0 120 240 360 0 Day of sampling (starting 2009/11/17) 0 800 1600 2400 S in diesel ppm Itagüi Bello S an Antonio Poli Unal Itagüi Bello S an Antonio Poli Unal
    • CONCLUSIONA clear link was established between diesel sulfur contentand PM 2.5 compositions and concentrations, whichindicates the large influence of diesel fuel vehicles impacton the pollution situation in the region and the importanceof this sulfur diminution.The impact is quite clear on the chemical PM 2.5compositions which show a significant diminution ofsulfates and ammonium salts.The impact on concentrations is detectable but is affectedby the operational conditions of diesel equipment, vehicleage and operational practices.The impact was detectable in PM2.5 urban concentrationsand sulfate salts in PM2.5
    • Thank you very much for your kind attention COLOMBIA IS PASSION