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  • This is the presentation that I gave at the CIC CAO Conference in November 2009, were I focused on Balancing the two faces of e-portfolios. Janus is the Roman god of gates and doors, beginnings and endings, and hence represented with a double-faced head, each looking in opposite directions. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest time, planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings, especially the beginnings of important events in a person's life. Janus also represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, between the countryside and the city, peace and war, and the growing-up of young people.
  • There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
  • The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter,Facebook or Ning,Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
  • Essentially, industries, companies and people go through the 5 stages of: 1) heh, this is cool, 2) yeah, we all think this cool, 3) woah, we were sold down the river, 4) no, come to think of it, used in the right way, this can be good and finally 5) this has become part of what we do."
  • She started her students with a blog, but many of them went far beyond the blog and created their own presentation portfolios using one of the Web 2.0 tools. She herself had to use one of the commercial e-portfolio/assessment management systems in her graduate program, and she said,

Transcript

  • 1. Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios
    Dr. Helen Barrett http://slideshare.net/eportfolios
  • 2. Key Themes of My Presentation
    Purpose
    Process
    Product
  • 3. Raise your hands if you are…
    Implementing an ePortfolio System with your students
    Thinking about it
    Using e-portfolios to support student learning
    Using e-portfolio evaluation data for accreditation or institutional assessment
  • 4. Personal Learning Environment (PLE) Supports Self-Directed Learningwith a Personal Learning Network (PLN)
  • 5. “Purpose” Drives the Process
    This presentation will balance
    Student-Centered Purposes
    (Learning, Reflection, Showcase)
    with
    Institution-Centered Purposes
    (Evaluation, Accountability)
  • 6. Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia)
    http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html
  • 7. Knowing the learner (Self-awareness)
    Understanding prior knowledge
    Motivation for and attitudes toward learning
    Help learners understand themselves
    See their growth over time
  • 8. Planning for learning (Self management)
    Setting goals
    Develop a plan to achieve these goals
  • 9. Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning)
    Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning
    Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning
    Different Learning Styles
    Help learners recognize success
    Accommodate approaches that are not successful
  • 10. Evaluating learning (Self monitoring)
    Systematic analysis of learners’ performance
    Responsibility to construct meaning
    Be reflective & think critically
    Learners construct meaning, monitor learning,evaluate own outcomes
  • 11. Deep Learning
    involves reflection,
    is developmental,
    is integrative,
    is self-directive, and
    is lifelong
    Cambridge (2004)
  • 12. Confusion of Terminology
    Electronic portfolios
    Student-centered
    Lifelong and Life Wide
    Assessment
    About individual learning and growth over time
    Focus on personalization, reflection, deep learning
    Formative or summative?
    Accountability systems
    Institution-centered
    Limited Time Frame
    Evaluation
    About comparability and sorting into normed groups
    Focus on standardization, validity, reliability
    In many ways, our technology-based tools have defined the process… and exacerbated the confusion.
  • 13. Overlap of Assessment Types
    Positivist
    Constructivist
    Assessment Management Systems:
    that support
    Assessment
    OF
    Learning
    Electronic Portfolios:
    that support
    Assessment
    FOR
    Learning
    Institution-centered
    Learner-centered
    “Checklist of Competencies” • Balance • “Students’ Story of Learning”
  • 14. What is a Portfolio?
    Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc.
    Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscalcapital
    Educational portfolio: document development of humancapital
  • 15. What is a Portfolio in Education?
    A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student's efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas[over time].
    (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)
  • 16. What is an Electronic Portfolio?
    Digital Documents
    Organized and presented with some type of "authoring" software
    Stored in an electronic container
    CD-Recordable disc
    DVD-Recordable disc
    WWW – Changing the genre!
  • 17. Most of these documents began as digital documents!Today, we are moving from this container to the WWW
  • 18. E-Portfolio Components
    • Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes-Celebrating Learning-Personal Planning-Transition/entry to courses-Employment applications-Accountability/Assessment
    • 19. Multiple Tools to Support Processes-Capturing & storing evidence-Reflecting-Giving & receiving feedback-Planning & setting goals-Collaborating-Presenting to an audience
    • 20. Digital Repository
    (Becta, 2007; JISC, 2008)
  • 21. Questions to Ponder
    What happens to electronic portfolios once learners leave an institution?
    Can learners continue to maintain their own “digital documentation of development” throughout their lifetime? (Do they even want to?)
    Has the process of reflective practice become a habit of mind that will support lifelong learning?
    Cognitive Dissonance
  • 22. Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions
    What are yours?
    http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon-346082.png
  • 23. Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education
    Learning/ Process/ Planning
    Marketing/ Showcase
    Assessment/ Accountability
    "The Blind Men and the Elephant” by John Godfrey Saxe
  • 24. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
    Learning Portfolios (Formative assessment)
    Organized chronologically
    Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts
    Tools: Reflective Journal (blog)
    Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection
  • 25. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
    Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing)
    Organized thematically (position requirements)
    Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position
    Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages – digital footprint
    Personal online branding
  • 26. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
    Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment)
    Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards)
    Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale)
    Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics
    Faculty role: Evaluation
  • 27. Limitations of Portfolios
    Shavelson, Klein & Benjamin, Inside Higher Ed, October 16, 2009http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2009/10/16/shavelson
    Main Points
    Lack of Standardization
    Not Feasible for Large Scale Learning Assessment
    Bias
    Enlightening responses to article– titles of some entries:
    Vision that is too narrow
    What's in it for the students?
    Why standardized tests still have not changed
    Maybe this approach to assessment is the real problem
    Accountability does not equal comparability and standardization
    The easy way out. . .
    Assessment for What?
    Viewpoint or ad?
  • 28. A few thoughts about Assessment -- What Type?
    Assessment OF Learning? or
    Assessment FOR Learning? or
    Assessment AS Learning
  • 29. Purposes for Assessment
    AssessmentOFLearning = Summative Assessment
    Institution-centered
    Past-to-Present
    Assessment FOR Learning = Formative Assessment
    Teacher/student-centered
    Present-to-Future
    • Assessment AS Learning
    • 30. Student-centered – embedded in learning
    • 31. Focus on the Present
  • Principles of Assessment FOR Learning
    Definition:Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.
  • 32. Types of E-Portfolio Implementation
    Working Portfolio
    The Collection
    The Digital Archive
    Repository of Artifacts
    Reflective Journal(eDOL)
    Collaboration Space
    Portfolio as Process-- Workspace (PLE)“shoebox”
    Presentation Portfolio(s)
    The “Story” or Narrative
    Multiple Views (public/private)
    Varied Audiences(varied permissions)
    Varied Purposes
    Portfolio as Product-- Showcase
  • 33.
  • 34. Structure of E-Portfolio Types
    Portfolio as Process/ Workspace
    Organization: Chronological – eDOL(Electronic Documentation of Learning – U. of Calgary) Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences
    Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection
    Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience
    Portfolio as Product/ Showcase
    Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences
    Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment
    Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes)
  • 35. QUOTE
    The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.-Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
  • 36. Student-Centered Philosophy
    "A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
  • 37. Constructed Meaning
    "The portfolio is a laboratorywhere students construct meaningfrom theiraccumulated experience."(Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.5)
  • 38. What is the best tool?
    Do you need an all-in-one system or multiple tools?
  • 39. Categories of E-Portfolio Software
    Created as part of my study of different online tools:
    http://electronicportfolios.org/categories.html
    “Not just tools for telling
    [presentation]
    but more tools for talking![conversation]”
    - Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
    Conversation transforms!
  • 40. http://electronicportfolios.org/categories.html
    Web 2.0
  • 41. Major Categories of ePortfolio Tools
    Higher
    Individual & Institutional
    Authoring Tools
    Static Web Services
    Interactive Web Services
    Institutional
    Software - Server required
    Hosted Services
    Assessment Systems - Hosted Services
    Lower
    Level of interactivity
    Higher
    Level of personalization & creativity
    Lower
  • 42. Web 2.0 tag cloud
  • 43. Recent changes in technology
  • 44. Architectureof InteractionArchitecture of Participation (Web 2.0)
    allows a
    Pedagogyof Interaction
    (ePortfolio 2.0)
  • 45. Web 2.0 is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation”
    Learning that is…
    • Social and Participatory
    • 46. Lifelong and Life Wide
    • 47. Increasingly Self-Directed
    • 48. Motivating and Engaging
    • 49. … and Online!
  • Social Learning
    How can we integrate ePortfolios with what we know about social learning and interactivity?
  • 50. Some Basic Concepts
    “ePortfoliois both process and product”
    Process: A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result- From Old French proces(“‘journey’”)
    Product: the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process- Destination
    Wiktionary
  • 51. Think!
    What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
  • 52. Processes
    Portfolio
    Collecting
    Selecting
    Reflecting
    Directing
    Presenting
    Feedback
    Technology
    Archiving
    Linking/Thinking
    Digital Storytelling
    Collaborating
    Publishing
    Social Networks
    Connecting(“Friending”)
    Listening(Reading)
    Responding(Commenting)
    Sharing(linking/tagging)
  • 53. Similarities in Process
    Major differences:
    extrinsic vs.
    intrinsic motivation
    Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation:
    Autonomy
    Mastery
    Purpose
  • 54. Boundaries Blurring (between e-portfolios & social networks)
    Structured Accountability Systems? or…
    Lifelong interactive portfolios
    Picasa
    Mash-ups
    Facebook
    Flickr
    blogs
    YouTube
    Ning
    wikis
    Twitter
  • 55. Digital Archive (for Life) Supports Lifelong & Life-wide Learning
  • 56. Premises of Deep Learning
    Motivation
    Active Learning
    Interaction with others
    A deep foundational knowledge
    “Because portfolios get students into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own learning experiences, portfolios are highly motivating. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints.
    Zubizarreta, J. (2009) Learning Portfolios. Jossey-Bass , p. xx
  • 57. How can you leverage the technologies learners own?
    Accessibility from “net books” and home computers
    Connectivity with cell phones
    Audio (podcasts) and Video (digital stories)
  • 58. “every day-ness”
    How can we make ePortfolio development
    a natural process integrated into
    everyday life?
    Lifelongand Life Wide Learning
  • 59. Making ePortfolios Stick
    Will your students want to use the e-portfolio process after they graduate?
    Will ePortfoliotools be available to them after graduation?
    Gartner Group “Hype Cycle for Education” has ePortfolios "Sliding Into the Trough"
  • 60.
  • 61. Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008)
    Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content
  • 62. Opportunity Cost
    The alternative you give up when you make a decision…
    The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action
    What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability/compliance in e-portfolios over improvement/reflection and deep learning?
  • 63. Opportunity Cost – a conversation with a high school teacher:
    "It took all the thinking out of it. They gave me the standards and told me which artifacts to put into each one! It wasn't as effective as what my students did!” http://electronicportfolios.org/blog/2008/07/necc-2008-update.html
    What learning opportunities are we missing when we completely structure the learner’s portfolio?
  • 64. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
    Purpose
    Accountability/
    Compliance
    (Institution-Centered)
    Improvement
    (Student-Centered)
    (Or Course-Centered)
    Along a Continuum
    ??
    ??
    Opportunity Cost
  • 65. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
    Purpose
    Improvement
    Accountability
    Highly Structured
    Uniformity and Standardization
    Required Assignments
    Faculty Evaluation
    Complexity
    Checklist
    Data!
    Engagement
    Deep Learning
    Personalization
    Choice and Voice
    Lifelong Skills
    Ease of Use
    Ownership
    Time
    Opportunity Cost
  • 66. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
    Purpose
    Accountability
    Improvement
    Flexible Structure
    Self-Assessment & Feedback
    Lifelong Learning Skills
    More Social Learning
    Personalization
    Choice and Voice
    Engagement
    Story
    Faculty Time Involvement
    Ease of Scoring for…
    Collection of Data for… Accountability
    Institutional Support
    & Funding?
    Opportunity Cost
  • 67. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
    Purpose
    Accountability
    Faculty Feedback
    Uniformity
    Flexible Requirements
    Data
    Program Improvement
    Improvement
    Self-Assessment
    Personalization
    Choice and Voice
    Student Engagement
    Increased Achievement
    Social Learning
    Faculty Time Involvement
    Complexity
    Opportunity Cost
  • 68. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation
    Tools
    Use separate tools for assessment management and student e-portfolios?
    Ball State’s rGrade & WSU’s Harvesting Gradebook
    Incorporate blogging and social networking tools for interactivity and engagement
    Open Source Tools: WordPress, Movable Type, Mahara
    Allow embedding student Web 2.0 links, including video, into their e-portfolios
    Enable exporting e-portfolio to students’ lifetime personal webspace
  • 69. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation
    Strategies
    Acknowledge the importance of both portfolio as workspace (process) & showcase (product)
    Support student choice and voice in e-portfolios
    Facilitate reflection for deep learning
    Provide timely and effective feedback for improvement
    Encourage student use of multimedia in portfolios for visual communication and literacy
    Digital Storytelling & Podcasting
    Picasa/Flickr slideshows
    Acknowledge/Encourage students’ Web 2.0 digital identity
  • 70. Move beyond text-only artifacts
    Encourage development of multimedia artifacts
    Introduce alternative strategies for reflection
    Blogging
    Digital storytelling
  • 71. Why Digital Stories in ePortfolios?
    Reflection is the “heart and soul” of portfolios
    Digital Stories can humanize any model of ePortfolio
    Digital Stories add VOICE
  • 72. Do Your e-Portfolios have VOICE?
    Individual Identity
    Reflection
    Meaning Making
    New Literacy
    “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”
    - Maya Angelou
  • 73. Convergence
  • 74. Ongoing dialogue about e-portfolios
    My Google Group: Researching Web 2.0 Portfolioshttp://groups.google.com/group/web2eportfolios
    EPAC: http://epac.pbworks.com/ Electronic Portfolio Action Committee
    Association for Authentic, Experiential and Evidence-Based Learning (AAEEBL) – a professional organization for e-portfolios in education http://www.aaeebl.org
    AAEEBL’s first National E-Portfolio Conference planned:Boston (co-located with Campus Technology Conference) July 19-22, 2010
    IUPUI Assessment Conference in October – e-portfolio track
  • 75. My Final Wish…
    May all yourelectronic portfolios become dynamic celebrationsandstories of deep learningacross the lifespan.
  • 76. Dr. Helen Barrett
    Researcher & Consultant
    Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling forLifelong and Life Wide Learning
    Center for Advanced Technology in EducationUniversity of Oregon College of Education
    eportfolios@gmail.com
    http://electronicportfolios.org/
    http://slideshare.net/eportfolios