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  • This is the presentation that I gave at the CIC CAO Conference in November 2009, were I focused on Balancing the two faces of e-portfolios. Janus is the Roman god of gates and doors, beginnings and endings, and hence represented with a double-faced head, each looking in opposite directions. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest time, planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings, especially the beginnings of important events in a person's life. Janus also represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, between the countryside and the city, peace and war, and the growing-up of young people.
  • There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
  • The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter,Facebook or Ning,Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
  • Essentially, industries, companies and people go through the 5 stages of: 1) heh, this is cool, 2) yeah, we all think this cool, 3) woah, we were sold down the river, 4) no, come to think of it, used in the right way, this can be good and finally 5) this has become part of what we do."
  • She started her students with a blog, but many of them went far beyond the blog and created their own presentation portfolios using one of the Web 2.0 tools. She herself had to use one of the commercial e-portfolio/assessment management systems in her graduate program, and she said,
  • Transcript

    • 1. Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios
      Dr. Helen Barrett
    • 2. Key Themes of My Presentation
    • 3. Raise your hands if you are…
      Implementing an ePortfolio System with your students
      Thinking about it
      Using e-portfolios to support student learning
      Using e-portfolio evaluation data for accreditation or institutional assessment
    • 4. Personal Learning Environment (PLE) Supports Self-Directed Learningwith a Personal Learning Network (PLN)
    • 5. “Purpose” Drives the Process
      This presentation will balance
      Student-Centered Purposes
      (Learning, Reflection, Showcase)
      Institution-Centered Purposes
      (Evaluation, Accountability)
    • 6. Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia)
    • 7. Knowing the learner (Self-awareness)
      Understanding prior knowledge
      Motivation for and attitudes toward learning
      Help learners understand themselves
      See their growth over time
    • 8. Planning for learning (Self management)
      Setting goals
      Develop a plan to achieve these goals
    • 9. Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning)
      Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning
      Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning
      Different Learning Styles
      Help learners recognize success
      Accommodate approaches that are not successful
    • 10. Evaluating learning (Self monitoring)
      Systematic analysis of learners’ performance
      Responsibility to construct meaning
      Be reflective & think critically
      Learners construct meaning, monitor learning,evaluate own outcomes
    • 11. Deep Learning
      involves reflection,
      is developmental,
      is integrative,
      is self-directive, and
      is lifelong
      Cambridge (2004)
    • 12. Confusion of Terminology
      Electronic portfolios
      Lifelong and Life Wide
      About individual learning and growth over time
      Focus on personalization, reflection, deep learning
      Formative or summative?
      Accountability systems
      Limited Time Frame
      About comparability and sorting into normed groups
      Focus on standardization, validity, reliability
      In many ways, our technology-based tools have defined the process… and exacerbated the confusion.
    • 13. Overlap of Assessment Types
      Assessment Management Systems:
      that support
      Electronic Portfolios:
      that support
      “Checklist of Competencies” • Balance • “Students’ Story of Learning”
    • 14. What is a Portfolio?
      Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc.
      Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscalcapital
      Educational portfolio: document development of humancapital
    • 15. What is a Portfolio in Education?
      A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student's efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas[over time].
      (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)
    • 16. What is an Electronic Portfolio?
      Digital Documents
      Organized and presented with some type of "authoring" software
      Stored in an electronic container
      CD-Recordable disc
      DVD-Recordable disc
      WWW – Changing the genre!
    • 17. Most of these documents began as digital documents!Today, we are moving from this container to the WWW
    • 18. E-Portfolio Components
      • Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes-Celebrating Learning-Personal Planning-Transition/entry to courses-Employment applications-Accountability/Assessment
      • 19. Multiple Tools to Support Processes-Capturing & storing evidence-Reflecting-Giving & receiving feedback-Planning & setting goals-Collaborating-Presenting to an audience
      • 20. Digital Repository
      (Becta, 2007; JISC, 2008)
    • 21. Questions to Ponder
      What happens to electronic portfolios once learners leave an institution?
      Can learners continue to maintain their own “digital documentation of development” throughout their lifetime? (Do they even want to?)
      Has the process of reflective practice become a habit of mind that will support lifelong learning?
      Cognitive Dissonance
    • 22. Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions
      What are yours?
    • 23. Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education
      Learning/ Process/ Planning
      Marketing/ Showcase
      Assessment/ Accountability
      "The Blind Men and the Elephant” by John Godfrey Saxe
    • 24. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
      Learning Portfolios (Formative assessment)
      Organized chronologically
      Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts
      Tools: Reflective Journal (blog)
      Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection
    • 25. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
      Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing)
      Organized thematically (position requirements)
      Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position
      Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages – digital footprint
      Personal online branding
    • 26. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes
      Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment)
      Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards)
      Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale)
      Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics
      Faculty role: Evaluation
    • 27. Limitations of Portfolios
      Shavelson, Klein & Benjamin, Inside Higher Ed, October 16, 2009
      Main Points
      Lack of Standardization
      Not Feasible for Large Scale Learning Assessment
      Enlightening responses to article– titles of some entries:
      Vision that is too narrow
      What's in it for the students?
      Why standardized tests still have not changed
      Maybe this approach to assessment is the real problem
      Accountability does not equal comparability and standardization
      The easy way out. . .
      Assessment for What?
      Viewpoint or ad?
    • 28. A few thoughts about Assessment -- What Type?
      Assessment OF Learning? or
      Assessment FOR Learning? or
      Assessment AS Learning
    • 29. Purposes for Assessment
      AssessmentOFLearning = Summative Assessment
      Assessment FOR Learning = Formative Assessment
      • Assessment AS Learning
      • 30. Student-centered – embedded in learning
      • 31. Focus on the Present
    • Principles of Assessment FOR Learning
      Definition:Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.
    • 32. Types of E-Portfolio Implementation
      Working Portfolio
      The Collection
      The Digital Archive
      Repository of Artifacts
      Reflective Journal(eDOL)
      Collaboration Space
      Portfolio as Process-- Workspace (PLE)“shoebox”
      Presentation Portfolio(s)
      The “Story” or Narrative
      Multiple Views (public/private)
      Varied Audiences(varied permissions)
      Varied Purposes
      Portfolio as Product-- Showcase
    • 33.
    • 34. Structure of E-Portfolio Types
      Portfolio as Process/ Workspace
      Organization: Chronological – eDOL(Electronic Documentation of Learning – U. of Calgary) Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences
      Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection
      Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience
      Portfolio as Product/ Showcase
      Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences
      Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment
      Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes)
    • 35. QUOTE
      The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.-Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
    • 36. Student-Centered Philosophy
      "A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
    • 37. Constructed Meaning
      "The portfolio is a laboratorywhere students construct meaningfrom theiraccumulated experience."(Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.5)
    • 38. What is the best tool?
      Do you need an all-in-one system or multiple tools?
    • 39. Categories of E-Portfolio Software
      Created as part of my study of different online tools:
      “Not just tools for telling
      but more tools for talking![conversation]”
      - Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
      Conversation transforms!
    • 40.
      Web 2.0
    • 41. Major Categories of ePortfolio Tools
      Individual & Institutional
      Authoring Tools
      Static Web Services
      Interactive Web Services
      Software - Server required
      Hosted Services
      Assessment Systems - Hosted Services
      Level of interactivity
      Level of personalization & creativity
    • 42. Web 2.0 tag cloud
    • 43. Recent changes in technology
    • 44. Architectureof InteractionArchitecture of Participation (Web 2.0)
      allows a
      Pedagogyof Interaction
      (ePortfolio 2.0)
    • 45. Web 2.0 is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation”
      Learning that is…
      • Social and Participatory
      • 46. Lifelong and Life Wide
      • 47. Increasingly Self-Directed
      • 48. Motivating and Engaging
      • 49. … and Online!
    • Social Learning
      How can we integrate ePortfolios with what we know about social learning and interactivity?
    • 50. Some Basic Concepts
      “ePortfoliois both process and product”
      Process: A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result- From Old French proces(“‘journey’”)
      Product: the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process- Destination
    • 51. Think!
      What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
    • 52. Processes
      Digital Storytelling
      Social Networks
    • 53. Similarities in Process
      Major differences:
      extrinsic vs.
      intrinsic motivation
      Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation:
    • 54. Boundaries Blurring (between e-portfolios & social networks)
      Structured Accountability Systems? or…
      Lifelong interactive portfolios
    • 55. Digital Archive (for Life) Supports Lifelong & Life-wide Learning
    • 56. Premises of Deep Learning
      Active Learning
      Interaction with others
      A deep foundational knowledge
      “Because portfolios get students into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own learning experiences, portfolios are highly motivating. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints.
      Zubizarreta, J. (2009) Learning Portfolios. Jossey-Bass , p. xx
    • 57. How can you leverage the technologies learners own?
      Accessibility from “net books” and home computers
      Connectivity with cell phones
      Audio (podcasts) and Video (digital stories)
    • 58. “every day-ness”
      How can we make ePortfolio development
      a natural process integrated into
      everyday life?
      Lifelongand Life Wide Learning
    • 59. Making ePortfolios Stick
      Will your students want to use the e-portfolio process after they graduate?
      Will ePortfoliotools be available to them after graduation?
      Gartner Group “Hype Cycle for Education” has ePortfolios "Sliding Into the Trough"
    • 60.
    • 61. Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008)
      Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content
    • 62. Opportunity Cost
      The alternative you give up when you make a decision…
      The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action
      What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability/compliance in e-portfolios over improvement/reflection and deep learning?
    • 63. Opportunity Cost – a conversation with a high school teacher:
      "It took all the thinking out of it. They gave me the standards and told me which artifacts to put into each one! It wasn't as effective as what my students did!”
      What learning opportunities are we missing when we completely structure the learner’s portfolio?
    • 64. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
      (Or Course-Centered)
      Along a Continuum
      Opportunity Cost
    • 65. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
      Highly Structured
      Uniformity and Standardization
      Required Assignments
      Faculty Evaluation
      Deep Learning
      Choice and Voice
      Lifelong Skills
      Ease of Use
      Opportunity Cost
    • 66. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
      Flexible Structure
      Self-Assessment & Feedback
      Lifelong Learning Skills
      More Social Learning
      Choice and Voice
      Faculty Time Involvement
      Ease of Scoring for…
      Collection of Data for… Accountability
      Institutional Support
      & Funding?
      Opportunity Cost
    • 67. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
      Faculty Feedback
      Flexible Requirements
      Program Improvement
      Choice and Voice
      Student Engagement
      Increased Achievement
      Social Learning
      Faculty Time Involvement
      Opportunity Cost
    • 68. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation
      Use separate tools for assessment management and student e-portfolios?
      Ball State’s rGrade & WSU’s Harvesting Gradebook
      Incorporate blogging and social networking tools for interactivity and engagement
      Open Source Tools: WordPress, Movable Type, Mahara
      Allow embedding student Web 2.0 links, including video, into their e-portfolios
      Enable exporting e-portfolio to students’ lifetime personal webspace
    • 69. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation
      Acknowledge the importance of both portfolio as workspace (process) & showcase (product)
      Support student choice and voice in e-portfolios
      Facilitate reflection for deep learning
      Provide timely and effective feedback for improvement
      Encourage student use of multimedia in portfolios for visual communication and literacy
      Digital Storytelling & Podcasting
      Picasa/Flickr slideshows
      Acknowledge/Encourage students’ Web 2.0 digital identity
    • 70. Move beyond text-only artifacts
      Encourage development of multimedia artifacts
      Introduce alternative strategies for reflection
      Digital storytelling
    • 71. Why Digital Stories in ePortfolios?
      Reflection is the “heart and soul” of portfolios
      Digital Stories can humanize any model of ePortfolio
      Digital Stories add VOICE
    • 72. Do Your e-Portfolios have VOICE?
      Individual Identity
      Meaning Making
      New Literacy
      “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”
      - Maya Angelou
    • 73. Convergence
    • 74. Ongoing dialogue about e-portfolios
      My Google Group: Researching Web 2.0 Portfolios
      EPAC: Electronic Portfolio Action Committee
      Association for Authentic, Experiential and Evidence-Based Learning (AAEEBL) – a professional organization for e-portfolios in education
      AAEEBL’s first National E-Portfolio Conference planned:Boston (co-located with Campus Technology Conference) July 19-22, 2010
      IUPUI Assessment Conference in October – e-portfolio track
    • 75. My Final Wish…
      May all yourelectronic portfolios become dynamic celebrationsandstories of deep learningacross the lifespan.
    • 76. Dr. Helen Barrett
      Researcher & Consultant
      Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling forLifelong and Life Wide Learning
      Center for Advanced Technology in EducationUniversity of Oregon College of Education