Rarely called portfolios outside of formal education, there are still shared processes and similarities across the generations.
Portfolios in Formal Education: Exploring Personal and Professional IdentityBuilding a Professional Online Brand.
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As defined in a JISC publication, Effective Practices with e-portfolios: The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. (Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios)
In his newest book still to be released, called From Brain to Mind: Using Neuroscience to Guide Change in Education, coming out in May
Who knows what this means?
Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how best they perform.
I will be emphasizing this purpose for portfolio development.
The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter, Facebook or Ning, Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
How is social networking impacting ePortfolio development? It is having a huge impact on our social and political world!Social networks have emerged over the last five years, and are used by individuals and groups to store documents and share experiences, showcase accomplishments, communicate and collaborate with friends and family, and, in some cases, facilitate employment searches.[Erin’s story – Messiah – feedback immediate.]
How do we implement ePortfolios in a manner that engages students and helps achieve the purposes?
Common Tools vs. Proprietary systems
So I’d like you to think: What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
BUT! “Portfolios should be less about tellingand more about talking!” Julie Hughes, University of WolverhamptonLearning is a Conversation. (Chris Betcher)
I’m not convinced that deep reflection can be represented in 140-160 characters of a tweet or SMS message. But this format can be an effective way to document process over time --to capture the moment-- and can later be aggregated and analyzed for deeper understanding. As a current example, the tweets that were coming out of Egypt prior to February 11 told a very compelling story of the revolution as it was happening (as curated and retweeted by PBS’s Andy Carvin [@acarvin] - an incredible service!). We have seen the power of digital media in social change; it can also be part of individual transformation through understanding oneself and showcasing achievements in reflective portfolios. “tiny bursts of learning”: http://chrisbetcher.com/2011/04/1483/
There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
Pink says, “It is devoted to becoming better and better at something that matters. And it connects that quest for excellence to a larger purpose.” (p. 80-81) Pink identifies two types of Motivation Behavior: Type X Extrinsic, fueled by extrinsic rewards or desires. And Type I Intrinsic, where behavior is self-directed. I am on a campaign to make electronic portfolios a more intrinsically-motivated process.
Pink quotes Internet scholar Clay Shirky ...the most successful websites and electronic forums have a certain Type I approach [to motivation] in their DNA. They're designed-often explicitly--to tap into intrinsic motivation. You can do the same with your online presences if you listen to Shirky and: Create an environment that makes people feel good about participating.Give users autonomy.Keep the system as open as possible. That’s also good advice for developing ePortfolios.
The urge for Self-Direction is basic human need.It is a Natural state to be Active and EngagedePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of autonomy found in social networksChoiceVoiceSharing and FeedbackImmediacy
According to a tweet I read from Chad Hamady, True Mastery NOT possible without FUN! (Chad Hamady @chamady Twitter, January 16, 2010)There is an inherent exhilaration in Learning “It’s fun to get better at something!” – Why do we play Sports and Games?Is it for Compliance or Personal MasteryLook to the Open Source movement (popularity of Wikipedia vs. the demise of Microsoft’s Encarta) – Authors and programmers look for Challenge and Improvement – To make a contribution to the greater good
In their spare time, people gravitate toward activities where they gain masteryePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of mastery found in social networksFlow, Showcasing Achievements, Increased self-awareness and self-understanding“Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
Csíkszentmihályi popularized the concept of Flow as a feeling of energized focus. According to Wikipedia, it is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task.
According to Will Richardson, “Our job in education is to engage, deepen, and extend a student's passions and interestsThomas Friedman, in his book, The World is Flat, presents this formula: CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion > Innate Intelligence]Learners find their voice and passions through choice and personalization!A portfolio is a student’s Story of their own Learning. It’s Positive Digital Identity Development or Personal Online Branding – In my earlier research, some students called their ePortfolios, their “academic MySpace”
We should use ePortfolios to document our MASTERY of skills and content. Showcase our Achievements! Share our Expertise! Support Personal & Professional Development!
Pink’s third concept is Purpose. All of us want to be part of something larger than ourselvesWhen people learn, they want to know the relevance of what they are learningThe more people understand the big picture, the more they will be engaged
Here is a good question:
Because Purpose and Passion Co-Exist.
How do portfolios and reflection fit into the learning process?BEFORE - goal-setting (reflection in the future tense), DURING - immediate reflection (in the present tense), where students write (or dictate) the reason why they chose a specific artifact to include in their collectionAFTER - retrospective (in the past tense) where students look back over a collection of work and describe what they have learned and how they have changed over a period of time (in a Level 3 portfolio)
Do your e-portfolios have Voice? As Maya Angelou said, “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”Do your portfolios represent individual identity, include reflection, and provide an opportunity to make meaning? ePortfolios are essential for 21st Century Literacy.
In TELL ME A STORY, Schank argues that storytelling is at the heart of intelligence. We think of storytelling primarily as entertainment, secondarily as a form of art, yet it also—and perhaps more fundamentally—has a cognitive function:
Balancing the Two Faces of E-Portfolios Dr. Helen Barrett University of Alaska Anchorage (retired) Seattle Pacific University (adjunct) New England College (adjunct) REAL ePortfolio Academy (founding faculty) International Researcher & ConsultantElectronic Portfolios and Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning
Key Concepts• Definitions, Portfolios for Lifelong Learning• Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios• Peter Ewell’s 2 paradigms of assessment• Identity Development & Online Professional Branding• Metacognition, Reflection, Motivation & Engagement• Digital Storytelling and Reflection
What is a Portfolio?• Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc.• Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscal capital• Educational portfolio: document development of human capital
What is a Portfolio in Education?A portfolio is a purposeful collection of [academic] work that exhibits the *learner/worker’s+ efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas [over time]. (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)
+Electronic• digital artifacts organized online combining various media (audio/video/text/images)
E-Portfolio Components < Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes -Celebrating Learning -Personal Planning -Transition/entry to courses -Employment applications -Accountability/Assessment < Multiple Tools to Support Processes -Capturing & storing evidence -Reflecting -Giving & receiving feedback -Planning & setting goals -Collaborating -Presenting to an audience < Digital Repository(Becta, 2007; JISC, 2008)
Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions What are yours? • Showcase • Assessment • Learning •http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon- 346082.png
Hostos CC VisionTo bring about an integratedinstitution-wide e-Portfolioenvironment to maximize thecreative, academic, andprofessional potential ofevery student.
Hostos CC MissionEncourage integrative learning bycreating online learning spacesthat foster student reflection onacademic learning, personal andprofessional goals, and career planning toincrease student performance, retention, andengagement.
Purpose• The overarching purpose of portfolios is to create a sense of personal ownership over one’s accomplishments, because ownership engenders feelings of pride, responsibility, and dedication. (p.10)• Paris, S & Ayres, L. (1994) Becoming Reflective Students and Teachers. American Psychological Association
http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/201 Digital Birth: 01006006722/en/Digital-Birth-Online-World Welcome to the Online World • Mothers with children aged under two (N=2200) that have uploaded images of their child (2010) • Overall – 81% – USA – 92% – Canada - 84% – (EU5 - 73%) UK - 81% France - 74% Italy - 68% Germany - 71% Spain – 71% – Australia – 84% – New Zealand – 91% – Japan - 43% http://www.flickr.com/photos/sailbit/3329477282/The research was conducted by Research Now among 2200 mothers with young (under two) children during the week of 27September. Mothers in the EU5 (UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain), Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and Japanwere polled.
Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia) http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html
Knowing the learner (Self-awareness)• Understanding prior knowledge• Motivation for and attitudes toward learning• Help learners understand themselves• See their growth over time
Planning for learning (Self management)• Setting goals• Develop a plan to achieve these goals
Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning)• Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning• Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning• Different Learning Styles• Help learners recognize success• Accommodate approaches that are not successful
Evaluating learning (Self monitoring)• Systematic analysis of learners’ performance• Responsibility to construct meaning• Be reflective & think critically• Learners construct meaning, monitor learning, evaluate own outcomes
Deep Learning• involves reflection,• is developmental,• is integrative,• is self-directive, and• is lifelong Cambridge (2004)
QUOTE The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student learning experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. -Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
Portfolio Learning Experience Reviewing Feeling Publishing & Recording Selecting Sharing &Receiving Feedback Synthesizing Dialogue Organizing Planning Collaborating Understanding Reflecting Conceptualizing & Constructing Meaning Figure 2 A model of e-portfolio-based learning, adapted from Kolb (1984) JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios, p. 9
“metacognition lies at the root of all learning”“…self-knowledge, awareness of how and whywe think as we do, and the ability to adapt and learn, are critical to our survival as individuals…”- James Zull (2011) From Brain to Mind: Using Neuroscience to Guide Change in Education
Managing Oneself Peter Drucker, (2005) Harvard Business Review• “Success in the • What are my strengths? knowledge economy • How do I perform? comes to those who • What are my values? know themselves – their strengths, their • Where do I belong? values, and how best • What should I they perform.” contribute?• Purpose: Use • Responsibility for ePortfolios for Relationships managing knowledge • The Second Half of your workers career Life development
Some Basic Concepts “ePortfoliois both process and product” Process: A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result - From Old French proces(“‘journey’”) Product: the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process - Destination Wiktionary
Balancing the Two Faces of E-PortfoliosWorking Portfolio Presentation Portfolio(s)Digital Archive Docs The “Story” or Narrative (Repository of Artifacts) Multiple ViewsCollaboration Space Sites (public/private)Reflective Journal Blog Varied Audiences & PurposesPortfolio as Process Portfolio as ProductWorkspace Showcase
Structure of E-Portfolio Types• Portfolio as Process/ • Portfolio as Product/ Workspace Showcase – Organization: – Organization: Chronological – Thematic – Documenting Documenting growth over achievement of Standards, Goals time for both internal and or Learning Outcomes for external audiences primarily external audiences – Primary Purpose: – Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection Accountability or Employment or Showcaseblog website – Reflection: immediate – Reflection: retrospective focus on artifact or learning focus on Standards, Goals or experience Learning Outcomes (Themes)
Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions What are yours? • Showcase • Assessment • Learning •http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon- 346082.png
Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education – Learning/ Process/ Planning – Marketing/ Showcase/ Employment – Assessment/ Accountability"The Blind Men and the Elephant”by John Godfrey Saxe
ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes• Learning Portfolios –Organized chronologically –Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts –Tools: Reflective Journal (blog) –Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection
ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing) Organized thematically (position requirements) Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages – digital footprint Personal online branding
ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes• Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment) – Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards) – Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale) – Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics – Faculty role: Evaluation
Forms of AssessmentFormative Summative Assessments Assessments Provides insights (Assessment OF for the teacher Learning or Evaluation)Assessment FOR Provides insights Learning (and data) for the Provides insights institution for the learnerNick Rate (2008) Assessment for Learning &ePortfolios, NZ Ministry of Ed
Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008) Assessment for Assessment for Continuous Improvement AccountabilityStrategic Dimensions: Purpose Formative (Improvement) Summative (Judgment) Stance Internal External Predominant Ethos Engagement ComplianceApplication Choices: Instrumentation Multiple/Triangulation Standardized Nature of Evidence Quantitative and Quantitative QualitativeReference Points Over Time, Comparative, Comparative or Fixed Established Goal StandardCommunication of Results Multiple Internal Channels Public Communication and MediaUses of Results Multiple Feedback Loops Reporting Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content. P.170
Opportunity Cost• The alternative you give up when you make a decision…• The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability in portfolios over reflection, deep learning, and continuous improvement?
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios PurposeAccountability Improvement(Institution-Centered) (Student-Centered) (Or Course-Centered) Along a Continuum?? ?? Opportunity Cost
Goal: Balance in Electronic PortfoliosAccountability Purpose ImprovementHighly StructuredUniformity and StandardizationRequired AssignmentsFaculty Evaluation EngagementComplexity Deep LearningChecklist PersonalizationData! Choice and Voice Lifelong Skills Ease of Use Ownership Opportunity Cost Time
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios PurposeAccountability Improvement Flexible Structure Self-Assessment & Feedback Lifelong Learning SkillsFaculty Time More Social LearningEase of Scoring PersonalizationCollection of Data Choice and Voicefor Accountability EngagementInstitutional StorySupport& Funding? Opportunity Cost
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios PurposeAccountability ImprovementFaculty Feedback Self-AssessmentUniformity PersonalizationFlexible Requirements Choice and VoiceData Student EngagementProgram Improvement Increased AchievementFaculty Time Involvement Social LearningComplexity Opportunity Cost
Finding Balance in E-Portfolio ImplementationTools Use separate tools for assessment management and student e-portfolios? Ball State’s rGrade& WSU’s Harvesting Gradebook Incorporate blogging and social networking tools for interactivity and engagement Open Source Tools: WordPress, Movable Type, Mahara Allow embedding student Web 2.0 links, including video, into their e-portfolios Enable exporting e-portfolio to students’ lifetime personal webspace
Finding Balance in E-Portfolio ImplementationStrategies Acknowledge the importance of both portfolio as workspace (process) &showcase (product) Support student choice and voice in e-portfolios Facilitate reflection for deep learning Provide timely and effective feedback for improvement Encourage student use of multimedia in portfolios for visual communication and literacy Digital Storytelling & Podcasting Picasa/Flickr slideshows Acknowledge/Encourage students’ Web 2.0 digital identity
Why Web 2.0?Access from Anywhere!Interactivity!Engagement!Lifelong Skills!Mostly FREE!All you need is an <EMBED> Code
Mobile Web is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation”Learning that is…oSocial and ParticipatoryoLifelong and Life WideoIncreasingly Self-DirectedoMotivating and Engagingo… and Online all the time!
Post to from Mobile Phones• Send email to pre-arranged email address• Use BlogPressiOS app ($2.99)• Set up Blogger Mobile and send SMS
Blogging* by eMail *the act of sharing yourselfTumblr Posterous• Set up account on website • Just email to• Send email to: email@example.com myaccount.tumblr.com • iPhone App• iPhone App • Cross-post to Facebook&• Call in your posts for audio Twitter post to blog• Cross-post to Facebook& Twitter
Learning is a Conversation! E-portfolios should be more Conversation than Presentation Because Conversation transforms!
Twittermicro-blogging“tiny bursts of learning”
What about Motivation? Why would a student want to put allthat work into developing an ePortfolio? How do we make it relevant?
Similarities in Process• Major differences: – extrinsic vs. – intrinsic motivation• Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation: – Autonomy – Mastery – Purpose
Pink’s Motivation BehaviorType X - Extrinsic• fueled more by extrinsic X rewards or desires (Grades?)Type I – Intrinsic• Behavior is self-directed. I
Successful websites = Type I Approach People feel good about participating. Give users autonomy. Keep system as open as possible. - Clay Shirky
Mastery &ePortfolios• Exhilaration in Learning• Sports? Games?• Compliance vs. Personal Mastery• Open Source movement (Wikipedia vs. Encarta)• Make a contribution
Mastery &ePortfolios ePortfolio: Flow Showcasing Achievements Increased self-awareness and self- understanding“Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
FLOW• a feeling of energized focus (Csíkszentmihályi)• Creativity
Student Engagement! CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion > Intelligence] Find voice and passions through choice and personalization! Portfolio as Story Positive Digital Identity Development - Branding “Academic MySpace”
Help students findtheir Purpose and Passion through Reflection & Goal-Setting in E-Portfolio Development
Digital Toolsfor ReflectionReflective Journal (Blog)Digital Storytelling and Engagement
Self-Regulated Learning Abrami, P., et. al. (2008), Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, V34(3) Fall 2008. http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/507/238 Captions/Journals Blog Mobiles What? Now What? So What?Blog Pages Web Sites
Do Your e-Portfolios have CHOICE and VOICE?• Individual Identity• Reflection• Meaning Making• 21st Century Literacy• Digital Story of Deep Learning
Voice 6+1 Trait® Definition• Voice is the writer coming through the words, the sense that a real person is speaking to us and cares about the message. It is the heart and soul of the writing, the magic, the wit, the feeling, the life and breath. When the writer is engaged personally with the topic, he/she imparts a personal tone and flavor to the piece that is unmistakably his/hers alone. And it is that individual something–different from the mark of all other writers–that we call Voice.• http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/503#Voice
Portfolio as Story"A portfolio tells a story.It is the story of knowing. Knowingabout things... Knowing oneself...Knowing an audience... Portfolios arestudents own stories of what theyknow, why they believe they know it,and why others should be of the sameopinion.”(Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
Roger Schank, Tell Me a Story“Telling stories and listening to otherpeoples stories shape the memories we have of our experiences.”Stories help us organize our experience and define our sense of ourselves.
From Mead School District’s StudentPortfolio Handbook:Remember, you are telling us astory, and not just any story.Your portfolio is meant to beyour story of your life over thelast four years as well as thestory of where your life mightbe going during the next fouryears: tell it with pride!
Digital Storytelling Process• Create a 2-to-4 minute digital video clip – First person narrative [begins with a written script ~ 400 words] – Told in their own voice [record script] – Illustrated (mostly) by still images – Music track to add emotional tone
A Reminder…Reflection & Relationships… the “Heart and Soul” of an e- portfolio… NOT the Technology! 90
My Final Wish…• dynamic celebrations• stories of deep learning• across the lifespan
DR. HELEN BARRETT@EPORTFOLIOS Researcher & Consultant Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning firstname.lastname@example.org http://electronicportfolios.org/ http://slideshare.net/eportfolios https://sites.google.com/site/mportfolios/