As defined in a JISC publication, Effective Practices with e-portfolios: The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. (Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios)
There are the two major approaches to implementing e-portfolios. Janus is the Roman god of gates and doors, beginnings and endings, and hence represented with a double-faced head, each looking in opposite directions. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest time, planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings, especially the beginnings of important events in a person's life. Janus also represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, between the countryside and the city, peace and war, and the growing-up of young people.
Essentially, industries, companies and people go through the 5 stages of: 1) heh, this is cool, 2) yeah, we all think this cool, 3) woah, we were sold down the river, 4) no, come to think of it, used in the right way, this can be good and finally 5) this has become part of what we do."
Electronic Portfolios have been with us for almost two decades (since 1991) used primarily in education to store documents and reflect on learning, provide feedback for improvement, and showcase achievements for accountability or employment.As defined in a JISC publication, Effective Practices with e-portfolios: The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. (Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios)
How is social networking impacting ePortfolio development? It is having a huge impact on our social and political world!Social networks have emerged over the last five years, and are used by individuals and groups to store documents and share experiences, showcase accomplishments, communicate and collaborate with friends and family, and, in some cases, facilitate employment searches.[Erin’s story – Messiah – feedback immediate.]
So I’d like you to think: What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter, Facebook or Ning, Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
“Portfolios should be less about tellingand more about talking!” Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
Do your e-portfolios have Voice? As Maya Angelou said, “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”Do your portfolios represent individual identity, include reflection, and provide an opportunity to make meaning? ePortfolios are essential for 21st Century Literacy.
How do portfolios and reflection fit into the learning process?BEFORE - goal-setting (reflection in the future tense), DURING - immediate reflection (in the present tense), where students write (or dictate) the reason why they chose a specific artifact to include in their collectionAFTER - retrospective (in the past tense) where students look back over a collection of work and describe what they have learned and how they have changed over a period of time (in a Level 3 portfolio)
There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
Pink says, “It is devoted to becoming better and better at something that matters. And it connects that quest for excellence to a larger purpose.” (p. 80-81) Pink identifies two types of Motivation Behavior: Type X Extrinsic, fueled by extrinsic rewards or desires. And Type I Intrinsic, where behavior is self-directed. I am on a campaign to make electronic portfolios a more intrinsically-motivated process.
Pink quotes Internet scholar Clay Shirky ...the most successful websites and electronic forums have a certain Type I approach [to motivation] in their DNA. They're designed-often explicitly--to tap into intrinsic motivation. You can do the same with your online presences if you listen to Shirky and: Create an environment that makes people feel good about participating.Give users autonomy.Keep the system as open as possible. That’s also good advice for developing ePortfolios.
The urge for Self-Direction is basic human need.It is a Natural state to be Active and EngagedePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of autonomy found in social networksChoiceVoiceSharing and FeedbackImmediacy
According to a tweet I read from Chad Hamady, True Mastery NOT possible without FUN! (Chad Hamady @chamady Twitter, January 16, 2010)There is an inherent exhilaration in Learning “It’s fun to get better at something!” – Why do we play Sports and Games?Is it for Compliance or Personal MasteryLook to the Open Source movement (popularity of Wikipedia vs. the demise of Microsoft’s Encarta) – Authors and programmers look for Challenge and Improvement – To make a contribution to the greater good
In their spare time, people gravitate toward activities where they gain masteryePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of mastery found in social networksFlow, Showcasing Achievements, Increased self-awareness and self-understanding“Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
Csíkszentmihályi popularized the concept of Flow as a feeling of energized focus. According to Wikipedia, it is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task.
According to Will Richardson, “Our job in education is to engage, deepen, and extend a student's passions and interestsThomas Friedman, in his book, The World is Flat, presents this formula: CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion > Innate Intelligence]Learners find their voice and passions through choice and personalization!A portfolio is a student’s Story of their own Learning. It’s Positive Digital Identity Development or Personal Online Branding – In my earlier research, some students called their ePortfolios, their “academic MySpace”
We should use ePortfolios to document our MASTERY of skills and content. Showcase our Achievements! Share our Expertise! Support Personal & Professional Development!
Pink’s third concept is Purpose. All of us want to be part of something larger than ourselvesWhen people learn, they want to know the relevance of what they are learningThe more people understand the big picture, the more they will be engaged
Much to learn fromthe literature onpaper-based portfolios
As adult learners, we have much to learn from how children approach portfolios
“Everything I know about portfolios was confirmed working with a kindergartener”
The Power of Portfolios what children can teach us about learning and assessment Author: Elizabeth Hebert Publisher: Jossey-Bass Picture courtesy of Amazon.com
The Power of Portfolios Author: Dr. Elizabeth Hebert, Principal Crow Island School, Winnetka, Illinois Picture taken by Helen Barrett at AERA, Seattle, April, 2001
From the Preface (1) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix “Portfolios have been with us for a very long time. Those of us who grew up in the 1950s or earlier recognize portfolios as reincarnations of the large memory boxes or drawers where our parents collected starred spelling tests, lacy valentines, science fair posters, early attempts at poetry, and (of course) the obligatory set of plaster hands. Each item was selected by our parents because it represented our acquisition of a new skill or our feelings of accomplishment. Perhaps an entry was accompanied by a special notation of praise from a teacher or maybe it was placed in the box just because we did it.”
From the Preface (2) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix “We formed part of our identity from the contents of these memory boxes. We recognized each piece and its association with a particular time or experience. We shared these collections with grandparents to reinforce feelings of pride and we reexamined them on rainy days when friends were unavailable for play. Reflecting on the collection allowed us to attribute importance to these artifacts, and by extension to ourselves, as they gave witness to the story of our early school experiences.”
From the Preface (3) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix-x “Our parents couldn’t possibly envision that these memory boxes would be the inspiration for an innovative way of thinking about children’s learning. These collections, lovingly stored away on our behalf, are the genuine exemplar for documenting children’s learning over time. But now these memory boxes have a different meaning. It’s not purely private or personal, although the personal is what gives power to what they can mean.”
Let’s get personal…Think for a minute about: Something about your COLLECTIONS:Suggested topics:
If you are a parent, what you saved for your children
The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.-Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes-Celebrating Learning-Personal Planning-Transition/entry to courses-Employment applications-Accountability/Assessment
Multiple Tools to Support Processes-Capturing & storing evidence-Reflecting-Giving & receiving feedback-Planning & setting goals-Collaborating-Presenting to an audience
Types of E-Portfolio Implementation Working Portfolio The Collection The Digital Archive Repository of Artifacts Reflective Journal(eDOL) Collaboration Space Portfolio as Process-- Workspace (PLE)“shoebox” Presentation Portfolio(s) The “Story” or Narrative Multiple Views (public/private) Varied Audiences(varied permissions) Varied Purposes Portfolio as Product-- Showcase
Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia) http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html
Knowing the learner (Self-awareness) Understanding prior knowledge Motivation for and attitudes toward learning Help learners understand themselves See their growth over time
Planning for learning (Self management) Setting goals Develop a plan to achieve these goals
Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning) Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Different Learning Styles Help learners recognize success Accommodate approaches that are not successful
Evaluating learning (Self monitoring) Systematic analysis of learners’ performance Responsibility to construct meaning Be reflective & think critically Learners construct meaning, monitor learning, evaluate own outcomes
Why Web 2.0? Access from Anywhere! Interactivity! Engagement! Lifelong Skills! Mostly FREE! All you need is an <EMBED> Code
ePortfolio “Mash-up” Lifetime Personal Web Space ePortfolio “Mash-up” Small pieces, loosely joined
Electronic Portfolios almost two decades (since 1991) used primarily in education to store documents reflect on learning feedback for improvement showcase achievements for accountability or employment
Social networks last five years store documents and share experiences, showcase accomplishments, communicate and collaborate facilitate employment searches
Think! Engagement Factors? Social networks? ePortfolios?
How might an e-portfolio support development of personal knowledge, reflection, and metacognition? knowledge for acting/doing reflection in action performance context forethought self-reflection knowledge for planning actions and imagination reflection for action knowledge of self derived from doing reflection on action Norman Jackson Higher Education Academy, U.K.
Reflective Questions that tie the Past to the Future
Self-Regulated LearningAbrami, P., et. al. (2008), Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, V34(3) Fall 2008. http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/507/238 Goals Captions/Journals Change over Time
What are Effective Self-Regulation Processes? Performance or Volitional Control Processes that occur in action and affect attention and action DURING Forethought Influential processes which precede efforts to act and set the stage for action. BEFORE Self-Reflection Processes which occur after performance efforts and influence a person’s response to that experience AFTER Wade, A. & Abrami, P., Presentation at ePortfolio Montreal, May 2008.
Before Goal setting increases self-efficacy and intrinsic interest Task Analysis Goal setting Strategic Planning Self-motivation beliefs increase commitment Self-motivational beliefs: Self-efficacy Outcome expectations Intrinsic interest/value Goal Orientation Forethought Influential processes which precede efforts to act and set the stage for action. GOALS Wade, A. & Abrami, P., Presentation at ePortfolio Montreal, May 2008.
During Self-control processes help learners to focus on tasks and optimize efforts Self-instruction Imagery Attention focusing Task Strategies Self-observation allows learners to vary aspects of their performance Self-recording Self-experimentation Performance or Volitional Control Processes that occur action and affect attention and action Captions Journals Wade, A. & Abrami, P., Presentation at ePortfolio Montreal, May 2008.
After Self-Reflection Processes which occur after performance efforts and influence a person’s response to that experience Planning and implementing a strategy provides an evaluation metric for learners to attribute successes or failures (to effort), rather than low ability Self-judgment Self-evaluation Casual attribution Self-reaction Self-satisfaction/affect Adaptive-defensive response Change over Time Wade, A. & Abrami, P., Presentation at ePortfolio Montreal, May 2008.
North Carolina Reflection Cycle Self-Assessment: The Reflective Practitioner
Writing a Reflection - 1http://www.ncpublicschools.org/pbl/pblreflect.htm Select: What evidence/artifacts have you included? Describe: This step involves a description of the circumstances, situation or issues related to the evidence or artifact. Four "W" questions are usually addressed: Who was involved? What were the circumstances, concerns, or issues? When did the event occur? Where did the event occur?
Writing a Reflection - 2http://www.ncpublicschools.org/pbl/pblreflect.htm Analyze: "digging deeper."
"Why" of the evidence or artifact
"How" of its relationship to teaching practice
Appraise: In the previous three steps, you have described and analyzed an experience, a piece of evidence, or an activity. The actual self-assessment occurs at this stage as you interpret the activity or evidence and evaluate its appropriateness and impact. Transform:This step holds the greatest opportunity for growth as you use the insights gained from reflection in improving and transforming your practice.
Strategies for Helping Students Reflect Interactive tools Journals: Blogs & Wikis ePortfolio tools with built-in reflection Survey tools Student self-expression Digital Storytelling http://electronicportfolios.org/reflection.html
How do you motivate students to develop ePortfolios? Discussion
Similarities in Process Major differences: extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation: Autonomy Mastery Purpose
Pink’s Motivation Behavior Type X - Extrinsic fueled more by extrinsic rewards or desires (Grades?) Type I – Intrinsic Behavior is self-directed. X I
My Final Wish… dynamic celebrations stories of deep learning across the lifespan 65
Dr. Helen Barrett Researcher & ConsultantElectronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning firstname.lastname@example.org http://electronicportfolios.org/ http://www.slideshare.net/eportfolios