Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios
Dr. Helen Barrett
November 19, 2010
Key Concepts
• Definitions
• Portfolios for Lifelong Learning
• Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios
• Identity Developme...
Portfolio
One Word,
Many Meanings
DEFINITIONS
What is a Portfolio?
Who was the first famous “folio” keeper?
What is a Portfolio?
• Dictionary definition:
a flat, portable case
for carrying loose
papers, drawings, etc.
• Financial ...
What is a Portfolio in Education?
A portfolio is a purposeful
collection of [academic] work that
exhibits the [learner/wor...
+Electronic
• digital artifacts organized online
combining various media
(audio/video/text/images)
Purpose
• The overarching purpose of
portfolios is to create a sense of
personal ownership over one’s
accomplishments, bec...
Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning
(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia)
http://lsn.curtin.edu....
Knowing the learner
(Self-awareness)
• Understanding prior knowledge
• Motivation for and attitudes
toward learning
• Help...
Planning for learning
(Self management)
• Setting goals
• Develop a plan to
achieve these
goals
Understanding how to learn
(Meta-learning)
• Awareness of learners to
different approaches to
learning
• Deep vs. Surface ...
Evaluating learning
(Self monitoring)
• Systematic analysis of learners’
performance
• Responsibility to construct meaning...
Deep Learning
• involves reflection,
• is developmental,
• is integrative,
• is self-directive, and
• is lifelong
Cambridg...
“Know Thyself”
Temple at Delphi
Managing Oneself
• “Success in the
knowledge economy
comes to those who
know themselves –
their strengths, their
values, a...
DEFINITIONS
What is an
electronic
portfolio?
QUOTE
 The e-portfolio is the central
and common point for the student
learning experience… It is a reflection
of the stu...
Lifelong Context for ePortfolios
E-Portfolio Components
< Multiple Portfolios for
Multiple Purposes
-Celebrating Learning
-Personal Planning
-Transition/en...
Multiple Purposes
from Hidden Assumptions
What are yours?
• Showcase • Assessment • Learning
•
http://www.rsc-northwest.ac...
Multiple Purposes of
E-Portfolios in Education
–Learning/ Process/ Planning
–Marketing/ Showcase/ Employment
–Assessment/ ...
ePortfolio designs/strategies for
different purposes
 Showcase Portfolios
(Employment, Self-marketing)
 Organized themat...
ePortfolio designs/strategies for
different purposes
• Assessment/Accountability Portfolios
(Summative assessment)
–Organi...
Forms of Assessment
Formative
Assessments
Provides insights
for the teacher
Assessment FOR
Learning
Provides insights
...
Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008)
Assessment for
Continuous Improvement
Assessment for
Accountability
Strategic ...
Opportunity Cost
• The alternative you give up
when you make a decision…
• The cost of an alternative that must be
forgone...
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
Accountability
(Institution-Centered)
Improvement
(Student-Centered)
(Or Course-Cen...
Goal: Balance in Electronic
Portfolios
Accountability
Highly Structured
Uniformity and Standardization
Required Assignment...
Goal: Balance in Electronic
Portfolios
Accountability
Opportunity Cost
Faculty Time
Ease of Scoring
Collection of Data
for...
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios
Accountability
Faculty Feedback
Uniformity
Flexible Requirements
Data
Program Impro...
ePortfolio designs/strategies for
different purposes
• Learning Portfolios
–Organized chronologically
–Focus of Reflection...
Portfolio Learning
Figure 2 A model of e-portfolio-based learning, adapted
from Kolb (1984)
JISC, 2008, Effective Practice...
ePortfolio “Mash-up”
ePortfolio “Mash-up”
Small pieces, loosely joined
Lifetime Personal
Web Space
Creating Digital Identity
• “YouTube and other social media can mitigate
the cultural tension between teens’ conflicting
n...
Digital Identity
Some Basic Concepts
“ePortfolio is both process and
product”
Process: A series of events (time and
effort) to produce a ...
Types of E-Portfolio Implementation
Working Portfolio
– The Collection
– The Digital
Archive
– Repository of
Artifacts
– R...
Japanese
Catalan
Spanish
Mandarin
Structure of E-Portfolio Types
• Portfolio as Process/
Workspace
– Organization:
Chronological –
eDOL (Electronic Document...
Level 1 Workspace:
Collection in the Cloud
Level 1
Portfolio Development
• Collection -- Creating the Digital
Archive (regularly – weekly/monthly)
– Digital Conversi...
Level 2 Workspace: Learning/Reflection
Level 2
Portfolio Development
• Collection/Reflection (Immediate Reflection
on Learning & Artifacts in Collection)
(regula...
Level 3: Primary Purpose: Showcase/AccountabilityShowcase
Level 3
Portfolio Development
• Selection/Reflection and Direction
(each semester? End of year?)
– organized thematically ...
Timeline
51
Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Level 1 X X X X X X X X X
Level 2 X X X X X X X X
Level 3 ? XXX
Level 1: ...
Boundaries Blurring
(between e-portfolios & social networks)
• Structured
Accountability
Systems? or…
• Lifelong interacti...
Electronic Portfolios
• almost two decades (since 1991)
• used primarily in education to
–store documents
–reflect on lear...
Social networks
• last five years
–store documents and share
experiences,
–showcase accomplishments,
–communicate and coll...
55
Processes
Portfolio
Collection
Selection
Reflection
Direction/Goals
Presentation
Feedback
Technology
Archiving
Linking/...
Tools?
Expressive vs.
Structured Models
Institutional Portfolios
• What happens when a learner leaves or
transfers?
Learners’
Digital Archives
and presentation
po...
Separate Systems Learner-CenteredSeparate Systems Learner-Centered
• Learners maintain collection across the
lifespan, ins...
Why Web 2.0?
Access from Anywhere!
Interactivity!
Engagement!
Lifelong Skills!
Mostly FREE!
All you need is an <EMBED> Code
Web 2.0 is becoming the
Personal Learning Environment
of the “Net Generation”
Learning that is…
Social and Participatory
...
Think!
Engagement
Factors?
Social networks?
ePortfolios?
The Future?
• Future of Personal Metadata in the cloud
• World Economic Forum: potential impact on
human capital developme...
The Future ofThe Future of
mPortfoliosmPortfolios
(m=mobile)(m=mobile)
Reflection with WordPress App
iPhone App for PebblePad (U.K.)
More PebblePad Screens
Portfolios Can help learners
find their Voice…
and explore their
Purpose and Passions
through Choice!
ePortfolios should be more
Conversation
than Presentation
(or Checklist)
Because Conversation transforms!
Do Your e-Portfolios have
CHOICE and VOICE?
• Individual
Identity
• Reflection
• Meaning Making
• 21st
Century Literacy
Voice
6+1 Trait® Definition
• Voice is the writer coming through the
words, the sense that a real person is
speaking to us...
Strategies for Helping
Students Reflect
• Interactive tools
–Journals: Blogs & Wikis
–ePortfolio tools with built-in refle...
Self-Regulated Learning
Abrami, P., et. al. (2008), Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios.
Can...
What about Motivation?
Why would a student want to
put all that work into developing
an ePortfolio?
What about Motivation?
Why would a student want to
put all that work into developing
an ePortfolio?
Similarities in Process
• Major differences:
– extrinsic vs.
– intrinsic motivation
• Elements of True
(Intrinsic) Motivat...
Pink’s Motivation Behavior
Type X - Extrinsic
• fueled more by extrinsic
rewards or desires
(Grades?)
Type I – Intrinsic
•...
Successful websites = Type I
Approach
People
feel good
about
participating.
Give users
autonomy.
Keep system as open as...
Autonomy & ePortfolios
–Choice
–Voice
–Sharing
–Feedback
–Immediacy
http://www.flickr.com/photos/kenturamon/342946821/
Mastery & ePortfolios
• Exhilaration in Learning
• Sports? Games?
• Compliance vs.
Personal Mastery
• Open Source movement...
Mastery & ePortfolios (2)
 ePortfolio:
Flow
Showcasing
Achievements
Increased self-awareness and self-
understanding
“...
FLOW
• a feeling of
energized focus
(Csíkszentmihályi)
• Creativity
Student Engagement!
 CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006)
[Curiosity + Passion > Intelligence]
 Find voice and passions through...
USE E-PORTFOLIOS TO
DOCUMENT MASTERY
Purpose & ePortfolios
• Relevance
• Big picture
• Engagement
Good Question…
Because Purpose and Passion Co-Exist
Digital Tools
for Reflection
Digital Storytelling
and Engagement
Learner-Centered Philosophy
"A portfolio tells a story.
It is the story of knowing. Knowing
about things... Knowing onesel...
Digital Storytelling Process
• Create a 2-to-4 minute digital
video clip
–First person narrative
[begins with a written sc...
90
Reflection & Relationships
• … the “Heart and Soul” of an
ePortfolio…
• NOT the Technology!
My Final Wish…
• dynamic celebrations
• stories of deep learning
• across the lifespan
Dr. Helen Barrett
• Researcher & Consultant
Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for
Lifelong and Life Wide Learni...
Lisbon nov2010
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  • There are the two major approaches to implementing e-portfolios. Janus is the Roman god of gates and doors, beginnings and endings, and hence represented with a double-faced head, each looking in opposite directions. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest time, planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings, especially the beginnings of important events in a person&amp;apos;s life. Janus also represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, between the countryside and the city, peace and war, and the growing-up of young people.
  • Adjectives to describe purpose
  • What is a portfolio? Some people think about their investments. But the dictionary provides this definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc. A portfolio in education is a purposeful collection of work that demonstrates efforts, progress and achievement in one or more areas over time. Portfolios in education have traditionally been collections of papers, often stored in a notebook or file folder.
  • Lifelong learning is understood as a cyclical process with four key pillars: e-portfolios can support them all.
    While the above pillars are of importance in any effective teaching and learning process, the main characteristic of lifelong learning is the reflective nature of the entire cycle. A portfolio provides the best environment for that reflection.
  • &amp;quot;Knowing the learner (Self awareness)&amp;quot; focuses on understanding the learner&amp;apos;s prior knowledge, motivation for and attitudes towards learning. A portfolio can serve as a mirror, helping a learner understand themselves and see their growth over time.
  • &amp;quot;Planning for learning (Self management)&amp;quot; refers to the setting of goals and the development of a plan to achieve these goals. A portfolio can serve as a map for future learning.
  • &amp;quot;Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning)&amp;quot; describes the awareness that a learner has developed with respect to different approaches to learning (deep versus surface learning; rote versus meaningful learning) and different learning styles. Portfolios can contain different artifacts that can help learners recognize their successful learning strategies and become more aware of how to accommodate those learning approaches that are not as successful.
  • &amp;quot;Evaluating learning (Self monitoring)&amp;quot; refers to a systematic analysis of all aspects of the learner&amp;apos;s performance. &amp;quot;Self monitoring is synonymous with responsibility to construct meaning ... [and] is very much associated with the ability to be reflective and think critically&amp;quot; Portfolios can include reflective journals where learners construct meaning, monitor their own learning, and evaluate their own outcomes. Some more advanced portfolio management systems allow learners to align artifacts to outcomes, goals or standards on a systematic basis, which could help find gaps in performance.
  • Who knows what this means?
  • Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how best they perform.
  • As defined in a JISC publication, Effective Practices with e-portfolios: The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.
    (Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios)
  • Portfolios in Formal Education: Exploring Personal and Professional Identity
    Building a Professional Online Brand.
  • This diagram of the components of an e-portfolio system was developed for an e-portfolio research report published in 2007 by Becta in the U.K. This diagram shows some major distinctions: between the collection of work (the archive of evidence) on the bottom, the various presentations of a subset of that work (what we think of as multiple portfolios, depending on purpose and audience) on the top and the various tools used to mediate the process, in the middle.
  • There are multiple purposes for ePortfolios, which has led to a lot of confusion. It reminds me of the famous poem of the six blind men from India touching an elephant. Each man touched a different part of the elephant and, not seeing the big picture, described the animal as a snake or a spear or a fan, etc. The same can be said for ePortfolios, as shown in the picture on the right. There is no single purpose for creating an ePortfolio. A portfolio can be created for each of those purposes.
  • I will be emphasizing this purpose for portfolio development.
  • My vision of portfolios is David Weinberger’s concept of the Internet as “small pieces, loosely joined.” This is a visual model that I created that showed the ePortfolio as a “mash-up”. Many of my artifacts are on my website. My digital stories are stored on my .Mac account, or could be stored on YouTube. I have a blog where I maintain my learning journal. I store my images on Picasa, another Google service. Other people use Flickr. I can put my bookmarks in del-icio,us, my podcasts on iTunes, my social network on MySpace or FaceBook. My presentation portfolio is comprised of my reflections and links to my artifacts that are spread all over the Internet.
  • Michael Wesch is a cultural anthropologist from Kansas State University, famous for his YouTube videos on the impact of the Internet on our lives and learning (The computer is us/using us
  • There is a difference between the building blocks of a Personal Learning Environment [PLE} often called the working portfolio, and a particular story that is told to a specific audience -- often called a presentation portfolio. The working portfolio is the repository or the digital archive of the artifacts. A working portfolio also includes a lot of personal information about a learner, and may also include a reflective journal, sometimes called a blog if it is stored online. The presentation portfolio is the narrative or the story that the portfolio tells. There may be multiple views, both private or public, for various audiences and for various purposes.
    With the current approach to electronic portfolios, the digital archive and the presentation tool are most often combined in a single system.
  • Japanese!
  • Catalan
  • Spanish!
  • Mandarin
  • The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter, Facebook or Ning, Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
  • Electronic Portfolios have been with us for almost two decades (since 1991) used primarily in education to store documents and reflect on learning, provide feedback for improvement, and showcase achievements for accountability or employment.
  • How is social networking impacting ePortfolio development? It is having a huge impact on our social and political world!
    Social networks have emerged over the last five years, and are used by individuals and groups to store documents and share experiences, showcase accomplishments, communicate and collaborate with friends and family, and, in some cases, facilitate employment searches.
    [Erin’s story – Messiah – feedback immediate.]
  • The traditional portfolio literature identifies the processes shown in the left column. The value-added of technology shows in the right column. Social Networking is added in the middle. First, we have the collection process; with technology, that leads to creating a digital archive of the work. The second step involves selecting specific pieces or work from the collection to demonstrate a particular outcome, goal or standard. With technology, that process is done by creating a hyperlink to the documents in the archive. Some researchers have found that the process of hyperlinking may lead to higher levels of thinking about learning, or meta-cognitioin. The process of reflection helps the learner construct meaning from the work they have selected, and technology creates new models of storytelling to help with that meaning-making. Direction is setting goals for the future, and celebration is a formal exhibition before an audience, either real or virtual. Technology creates new opportunities for collaborating and publishing, especially with Web 2.0 tools. Social networks involve…
  • Common Tools vs. Proprietary systems
  • With the current approach to electronic portfolios, the digital archive and the presentation tool are most often combined in a single system. When a student leaves the educational institution, that work remains, and is often purged when a student leaves. When ePortfolio management systems are institution-centered, they tend to be limited to the time that the students are enrolled, and the contents tend to be focused on academic goals. However, learning is lifelong and life wide.
  • There is a need to separate the needs of the individual (for a personal learning space, to collect both the artifacts and a learner’s reflections on their learning over time) and the institution (for data about student learning/achievement, and the presentation portfolios created for institution-determined purposes). The digital archive belongs to the learner, and should be under the control of the learner throughout their life. Each artifact should have a unique identifier, so that a learner can access their work for use in a variety of contexts. This digital archive should have the capacity for meta-tags, searching by keywords, date created, date changed, etc.
    The ownership of electronic portfolios needs to be re-conceptualized, as well. Learners own the work they create. Institutions own the teachers’ evaluation of that work. Learners should be able to choose how much of that evaluation they will include in their own digital archive.
  • So I’d like you to think: What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
  • “Portfolios should be less about telling and more about talking!” Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
  • Do your e-portfolios have Voice? As Maya Angelou said, “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”
    Do your portfolios represent individual identity, include reflection, and provide an opportunity to make meaning? ePortfolios are essential for 21st Century Literacy.
  • How do portfolios and reflection fit into the learning process?
    BEFORE - goal-setting (reflection in the future tense),
    DURING - immediate reflection (in the present tense), where students write (or dictate) the reason why they chose a specific artifact to include in their collection
    AFTER - retrospective (in the past tense) where students look back over a collection of work and describe what they have learned and how they have changed over a period of time (in a Level 3 portfolio)
  • There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
  • Pink says, “It is devoted to becoming better and better at something that matters. And it connects that quest for excellence to a larger purpose.” (p. 80-81)
    Pink identifies two types of Motivation Behavior: Type X Extrinsic, fueled by extrinsic rewards or desires. And Type I Intrinsic, where behavior is self-directed. I am on a campaign to make electronic portfolios a more intrinsically-motivated process.
  • Pink quotes Internet scholar Clay Shirky ...the most successful websites and electronic forums have a certain Type I approach [to motivation] in their DNA. They&amp;apos;re designed-often explicitly--to tap into intrinsic motivation. You can do the same with your online presences if you listen to Shirky and: Create an environment that makes people feel good about participating.
    Give users autonomy.
    Keep the system as open as possible. That’s also good advice for developing ePortfolios.
  • The urge for Self-Direction is basic human need.
    It is a Natural state to be Active and Engaged
    ePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of autonomy found in social networks
    Choice
    Voice
    Sharing and Feedback
    Immediacy
  • According to a tweet I read from Chad Hamady, True Mastery NOT possible without FUN! (Chad Hamady @chamady Twitter, January 16, 2010)
    There is an inherent exhilaration in Learning “It’s fun to get better at something!” – Why do we play Sports and Games?
    Is it for Compliance or Personal Mastery
    Look to the Open Source movement (popularity of Wikipedia vs. the demise of Microsoft’s Encarta) – Authors and programmers look for Challenge and Improvement – To make a contribution to the greater good
  • In their spare time, people gravitate toward activities where they gain mastery
    ePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of mastery found in social networks
    Flow, Showcasing Achievements, Increased self-awareness and self-understanding
    “Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
  • Csíkszentmihályi popularized the concept of Flow as a feeling of energized focus. According to Wikipedia, it is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task.
  • According to Will Richardson, “Our job in education is to engage, deepen, and extend a student&amp;apos;s passions and interests
    Thomas Friedman, in his book, The World is Flat, presents this formula: CQ + PQ &amp;gt; IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion &amp;gt; Innate Intelligence]
    Learners find their voice and passions through choice and personalization!
    A portfolio is a student’s Story of their own Learning. It’s Positive Digital Identity Development or Personal Online Branding – In my earlier research, some students called their ePortfolios, their “academic MySpace”
  • We should use ePortfolios to document our MASTERY of skills and content. Showcase our Achievements! Share our Expertise! Support Personal &amp; Professional Development!
  • Pink’s third concept is Purpose. All of us want to be part of something larger than ourselves
    When people learn, they want to know the relevance of what they are learning
    The more people understand the big picture, the more they will be engaged
  • Here is a good question:
  • Because Purpose and Passion Co-Exist.
  • Not Digital Paper!
  • As I close my presentation, I want remind us that reflection and relationships are the “heart and soul: of a portfolio (and Social Networking)
    NOT the Technology!
  • My final wish to you is that all your electronic portfolios become dynamic celebrations and stories of deep learning across the lifespan as we are preparing and nurturing today’s children to create and inspire tomorrow’s world!
  • I welcome your dialogue and conversation about these ideas. I’m waiting to respond to your questions! Thank you very much!
  • Lisbon nov2010

    1. 1. Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios Dr. Helen Barrett November 19, 2010
    2. 2. Key Concepts • Definitions • Portfolios for Lifelong Learning • Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios • Identity Development • Online Professional Branding • Reflection, Motivation & Engagement • Digital Storytelling and Reflection
    3. 3. Portfolio One Word, Many Meanings
    4. 4. DEFINITIONS What is a Portfolio? Who was the first famous “folio” keeper?
    5. 5. What is a Portfolio? • Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc. • Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscal capital • Educational portfolio: document development of human capital
    6. 6. What is a Portfolio in Education? A portfolio is a purposeful collection of [academic] work that exhibits the [learner/worker’s] efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas [over time]. (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)
    7. 7. +Electronic • digital artifacts organized online combining various media (audio/video/text/images)
    8. 8. Purpose • The overarching purpose of portfolios is to create a sense of personal ownership over one’s accomplishments, because ownership engenders feelings of pride, responsibility, and dedication. (p.10) • Paris, S & Ayres, L. (1994) Becoming Reflective Students and Teachers. American Psychological Association
    9. 9. Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning (Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia) http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html
    10. 10. Knowing the learner (Self-awareness) • Understanding prior knowledge • Motivation for and attitudes toward learning • Help learners understand themselves • See their growth over time
    11. 11. Planning for learning (Self management) • Setting goals • Develop a plan to achieve these goals
    12. 12. Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning) • Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning • Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning • Different Learning Styles • Help learners recognize success • Accommodate approaches that are not successful
    13. 13. Evaluating learning (Self monitoring) • Systematic analysis of learners’ performance • Responsibility to construct meaning • Be reflective & think critically • Learners construct meaning, monitor learning, evaluate own outcomes
    14. 14. Deep Learning • involves reflection, • is developmental, • is integrative, • is self-directive, and • is lifelong Cambridge (2004)
    15. 15. “Know Thyself” Temple at Delphi
    16. 16. Managing Oneself • “Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how best they perform.” • New Purpose: Use ePortfolios for managing knowledge workers' career development • What are my strengths? • How do I perform? • What are my values? • Where do I belong? • What should I contribute? • Responsibility for Relationships • The Second Half of your Life Peter Drucker, (2005) Harvard Business Review
    17. 17. DEFINITIONS What is an electronic portfolio?
    18. 18. QUOTE  The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student learning experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. -Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
    19. 19. Lifelong Context for ePortfolios
    20. 20. E-Portfolio Components < Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes -Celebrating Learning -Personal Planning -Transition/entry to courses -Employment applications -Accountability/Assessment < Multiple Tools to Support Processes -Capturing & storing evidence -Reflecting -Giving & receiving feedback -Planning & setting goals -Collaborating -Presenting to an audience < Digital Repository (Becta, 2007; JISC, 2008)
    21. 21. Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions What are yours? • Showcase • Assessment • Learning • http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon- 346082.png
    22. 22. Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education –Learning/ Process/ Planning –Marketing/ Showcase/ Employment –Assessment/ Accountability "The Blind Men and the Elephant” by John Godfrey Saxe
    23. 23. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes  Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing)  Organized thematically (position requirements)  Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position  Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages – digital footprint  Personal online branding
    24. 24. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes • Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment) –Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards) –Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale) –Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics –Faculty role: Evaluation
    25. 25. Forms of Assessment Formative Assessments Provides insights for the teacher Assessment FOR Learning Provides insights for the learner Summative Assessments (Assessment OF Learning or Evaluation) Provides insights (and data) for the institution Nick Rate (2008) Assessment for Learning & ePortfolios, NZ Ministry of Ed
    26. 26. Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008) Assessment for Continuous Improvement Assessment for Accountability Strategic Dimensions: Purpose Stance Predominant Ethos Application Choices: Instrumentation Nature of Evidence Reference Points Communication of Results Uses of Results Formative (Improvement) Internal Engagement Multiple/Triangulation Quantitative and Qualitative Over Time, Comparative, Established Goal Multiple Internal Channels and Media Multiple Feedback Loops Summative (Judgment) External Compliance Standardized Quantitative Comparative or Fixed Standard Public Communication Reporting Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content. P.170
    27. 27. Opportunity Cost • The alternative you give up when you make a decision… • The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability in portfolios over reflection, deep learning, and continuous improvement?
    28. 28. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability (Institution-Centered) Improvement (Student-Centered) (Or Course-Centered) Opportunity Cost ?? ?? Purpose Along a Continuum
    29. 29. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Highly Structured Uniformity and Standardization Required Assignments Faculty Evaluation Complexity Checklist Data! Improvement Opportunity Cost Engagement Deep Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Lifelong Skills Ease of Use Ownership Time Purpose
    30. 30. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Opportunity Cost Faculty Time Ease of Scoring Collection of Data for Accountability Institutional Support & Funding? Improvement Flexible Structure Self-Assessment & Feedback Lifelong Learning Skills More Social Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Engagement Story Purpose
    31. 31. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Faculty Feedback Uniformity Flexible Requirements Data Program Improvement Improvement Self-Assessment Personalization Choice and Voice Student Engagement Increased Achievement Opportunity Cost Social LearningFaculty Time Involvement Complexity Purpose
    32. 32. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes • Learning Portfolios –Organized chronologically –Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts –Tools: Reflective Journal (blog) –Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection
    33. 33. Portfolio Learning Figure 2 A model of e-portfolio-based learning, adapted from Kolb (1984) JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios, p. 9 Experience Understanding FeelingReviewing Reflecting Publishing & Receiving Feedback Sharing & Collaborating Dialogue Selecting Synthesizing Recording Organizing Planning Conceptualizing & Constructing Meaning
    34. 34. ePortfolio “Mash-up” ePortfolio “Mash-up” Small pieces, loosely joined Lifetime Personal Web Space
    35. 35. Creating Digital Identity • “YouTube and other social media can mitigate the cultural tension between teens’ conflicting needs for independence and community by offering them ‘connection without constraints.’ What looks like narcissism and individuality is actually a search for identity and recognition. • Wesch: ‘In a society that doesn’t automatically grant identity and recognition, you have to create your own.’ • PopTech: Michael Wesch on Using Social Networking For Good, September 23, 2010
    36. 36. Digital Identity
    37. 37. Some Basic Concepts “ePortfolio is both process and product” Process: A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result - From Old French proces (“‘journey’”) Product: the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process - Destination
    38. 38. Types of E-Portfolio Implementation Working Portfolio – The Collection – The Digital Archive – Repository of Artifacts – Reflective Journal – Collaboration Space Portfolio as Process -- Workspace (PLE)“shoebox” Presentation Portfolio(s) – The “Story” or Narrative – Multiple Views (public/private) – Varied Audiences (varied permissions) – Varied Purposes Portfolio as Product -- Showcase
    39. 39. Japanese
    40. 40. Catalan
    41. 41. Spanish
    42. 42. Mandarin
    43. 43. Structure of E-Portfolio Types • Portfolio as Process/ Workspace – Organization: Chronological – eDOL (Electronic Documentation of Learning – U. of Calgary) Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences – Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection – Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience • Portfolio as Product/ Showcase – Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences – Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment or Showcase – Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes)
    44. 44. Level 1 Workspace: Collection in the Cloud
    45. 45. Level 1 Portfolio Development • Collection -- Creating the Digital Archive (regularly – weekly/monthly) – Digital Conversion (Collection) – Stored in GoogleDocs (Office docs) or Picasa (images) or YouTube (video) or links to other websites – Outcome of integrating technology across the curriculum
    46. 46. Level 2 Workspace: Learning/Reflection
    47. 47. Level 2 Portfolio Development • Collection/Reflection (Immediate Reflection on Learning & Artifacts in Collection) (regularly) – Organized chronologically (in Blogger or Google Sites Announcements Page Type) – Captions (Background Information on assignment, Response) – Feedback (Comments from Teachers and/or Peers – Goals set on a regular basis – In Blogger, use Labels to classify entries
    48. 48. Level 3: Primary Purpose: Showcase/AccountabilityShowcase
    49. 49. Level 3 Portfolio Development • Selection/Reflection and Direction (each semester? End of year?) – organized thematically (in web pages or wiki) – Select Blogger entries using labels? – Reflect: Why did I choose these pieces? What am I most proud to highlight about my work? – Reflect: What do they show about my learning?
    50. 50. Timeline 51 Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Level 1 X X X X X X X X X Level 2 X X X X X X X X Level 3 ? XXX Level 1: Collection - Archive Level 2: Reflection + Feedback Level 3: Selection + Presentation
    51. 51. Boundaries Blurring (between e-portfolios & social networks) • Structured Accountability Systems? or… • Lifelong interactive portfolios Mash-ups Flickr YouTubeblogs wikis Twitter Picasa Facebook Ning
    52. 52. Electronic Portfolios • almost two decades (since 1991) • used primarily in education to –store documents –reflect on learning –feedback for improvement –showcase achievements for accountability or employment
    53. 53. Social networks • last five years –store documents and share experiences, –showcase accomplishments, –communicate and collaborate – facilitate employment searches
    54. 54. 55 Processes Portfolio Collection Selection Reflection Direction/Goals Presentation Feedback Technology Archiving Linking/Thinking Digital Storytelling Collaborating Publishing Social Networking Connect (“Friending”) Listen (Reading) Respond (Commenting) Share (linking/tagging)
    55. 55. Tools? Expressive vs. Structured Models
    56. 56. Institutional Portfolios • What happens when a learner leaves or transfers? Learners’ Digital Archives and presentation portfolios Class portfolios Guidance portfoliosEmployment portfolios Institution’s server or online service Limited Time Frame Institutional data Blogs Faculty-generated evaluation data Academic focus Social networks
    57. 57. Separate Systems Learner-CenteredSeparate Systems Learner-Centered • Learners maintain collection across the lifespan, institutions maintain evaluation data & links Learners’ Digital Archive & Blog Learner-owned Lifelong Web Space Class portfolio Guidance portfolio Employment portfolio Institution’s Server or Service & Purposes Limited Time Frame hyperlinks Institutional data Meta-tags Faculty-generated evaluation data Life-wide focus Social networks
    58. 58. Why Web 2.0? Access from Anywhere! Interactivity! Engagement! Lifelong Skills! Mostly FREE! All you need is an <EMBED> Code
    59. 59. Web 2.0 is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation” Learning that is… Social and Participatory Lifelong and Life Wide Increasingly Self-Directed Motivating and Engaging … and Online!
    60. 60. Think! Engagement Factors? Social networks? ePortfolios?
    61. 61. The Future? • Future of Personal Metadata in the cloud • World Economic Forum: potential impact on human capital development and economic implications. (Quite big picture!) • (Paul Kim, Stanford University) PrPl and PCB: a new e-portfolio environment in th
    62. 62. The Future ofThe Future of mPortfoliosmPortfolios (m=mobile)(m=mobile)
    63. 63. Reflection with WordPress App
    64. 64. iPhone App for PebblePad (U.K.)
    65. 65. More PebblePad Screens
    66. 66. Portfolios Can help learners find their Voice… and explore their Purpose and Passions through Choice!
    67. 67. ePortfolios should be more Conversation than Presentation (or Checklist) Because Conversation transforms!
    68. 68. Do Your e-Portfolios have CHOICE and VOICE? • Individual Identity • Reflection • Meaning Making • 21st Century Literacy
    69. 69. Voice 6+1 Trait® Definition • Voice is the writer coming through the words, the sense that a real person is speaking to us and cares about the message. It is the heart and soul of the writing, the magic, the wit, the feeling, the life and breath. When the writer is engaged personally with the topic, he/she imparts a personal tone and flavor to the piece that is unmistakably his/hers alone. And it is that individual something–different from the mark of all other writers–that we call Voice. • http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/503#Voice
    70. 70. Strategies for Helping Students Reflect • Interactive tools –Journals: Blogs & Wikis –ePortfolio tools with built-in reflection –Survey tools • Student self-expression –Digital Storytelling • http://electronicportfolios.org/reflection.html
    71. 71. Self-Regulated Learning Abrami, P., et. al. (2008), Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, V34(3) Fall 2008. http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/507/238 Goals Captions/Journals Change over Time
    72. 72. What about Motivation? Why would a student want to put all that work into developing an ePortfolio?
    73. 73. What about Motivation? Why would a student want to put all that work into developing an ePortfolio?
    74. 74. Similarities in Process • Major differences: – extrinsic vs. – intrinsic motivation • Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation: – Autonomy – Mastery – Purpose
    75. 75. Pink’s Motivation Behavior Type X - Extrinsic • fueled more by extrinsic rewards or desires (Grades?) Type I – Intrinsic • Behavior is self-directed. XX II
    76. 76. Successful websites = Type I Approach People feel good about participating. Give users autonomy. Keep system as open as possible. - Clay Shirky
    77. 77. Autonomy & ePortfolios –Choice –Voice –Sharing –Feedback –Immediacy http://www.flickr.com/photos/kenturamon/342946821/
    78. 78. Mastery & ePortfolios • Exhilaration in Learning • Sports? Games? • Compliance vs. Personal Mastery • Open Source movement (Wikipedia vs. Encarta) • Make a contribution
    79. 79. Mastery & ePortfolios (2)  ePortfolio: Flow Showcasing Achievements Increased self-awareness and self- understanding “Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
    80. 80. FLOW • a feeling of energized focus (Csíkszentmihályi) • Creativity
    81. 81. Student Engagement!  CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion > Intelligence]  Find voice and passions through choice and personalization!  Portfolio as Story  Positive Digital Identity Development - Branding  “Academic MySpace”
    82. 82. USE E-PORTFOLIOS TO DOCUMENT MASTERY
    83. 83. Purpose & ePortfolios • Relevance • Big picture • Engagement
    84. 84. Good Question…
    85. 85. Because Purpose and Passion Co-Exist
    86. 86. Digital Tools for Reflection Digital Storytelling and Engagement
    87. 87. Learner-Centered Philosophy "A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
    88. 88. Digital Storytelling Process • Create a 2-to-4 minute digital video clip –First person narrative [begins with a written script ~ 400 words] –Told in their own voice [record script] –Illustrated (mostly) by still images –Music track to add emotional tone
    89. 89. 90 Reflection & Relationships • … the “Heart and Soul” of an ePortfolio… • NOT the Technology!
    90. 90. My Final Wish… • dynamic celebrations • stories of deep learning • across the lifespan
    91. 91. Dr. Helen Barrett • Researcher & Consultant Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning • eportfolios@gmail.com • http://electronicportfolios.org/ • http://www.slideshare.net/eportfolios

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