As defined in a JISC publication, Effective Practices with e-portfolios: The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. (Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios)
In his newest book still to be released, called From Brain to Mind: Using Neuroscience to Guide Change in Education, coming out in May
Who knows what this means?
Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how best they perform.
Collection -- Creating the Digital Archive (regularly – weekly/monthly)Digital Conversion (Collection)Artifacts represent integration of technology in one curriculum area (i.e., Language Arts) Stored in GoogleDocs
Level 2Collection/Reflection (Immediate Reflection on Learning & Artifacts in Collection) (regularly) organized chronologically (in a blog?)Captions (Background Information on assignment, Response)Artifacts represent integration of technology in most curriculum areas (i.e., Language Arts, Social Studies, Science, Math) (in GoogleDocs?)
Level 3Selection/Reflection and Direction (each semester? End of year?) organized thematically (in web pages or wiki)Why did I choose these pieces? What am I most proud to highlight about my work?What do they show about my learning? What more can I learn (Goals for the Future)?Presentation (annually)
The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter, Facebook or Ning, Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
How is social networking impacting ePortfolio development? It is having a huge impact on our social and political world!Social networks have emerged over the last five years, and are used by individuals and groups to store documents and share experiences, showcase accomplishments, communicate and collaborate with friends and family, and, in some cases, facilitate employment searches.[Erin’s story – Messiah – feedback immediate.]
How do we implement ePortfolios in a manner that engages students and helps achieve the purposes?
Common Tools vs. Proprietary systems
So I’d like you to think: What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
BUT! “Portfolios should be less about tellingand more about talking!” Julie Hughes, University of WolverhamptonLearning is a Conversation. (Chris Betcher)
I’m not convinced that deep reflection can be represented in 140-160 characters of a tweet or SMS message. But this format can be an effective way to document process over time --to capture the moment-- and can later be aggregated and analyzed for deeper understanding. As a current example, the tweets that were coming out of Egypt prior to February 11 told a very compelling story of the revolution as it was happening (as curated and retweeted by PBS’s Andy Carvin [@acarvin] - an incredible service!). We have seen the power of digital media in social change; it can also be part of individual transformation through understanding oneself and showcasing achievements in reflective portfolios. “tiny bursts of learning”: http://chrisbetcher.com/2011/04/1483/
There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
Pink says, “It is devoted to becoming better and better at something that matters. And it connects that quest for excellence to a larger purpose.” (p. 80-81) Pink identifies two types of Motivation Behavior: Type X Extrinsic, fueled by extrinsic rewards or desires. And Type I Intrinsic, where behavior is self-directed. I am on a campaign to make electronic portfolios a more intrinsically-motivated process.
Pink quotes Internet scholar Clay Shirky ...the most successful websites and electronic forums have a certain Type I approach [to motivation] in their DNA. They're designed-often explicitly--to tap into intrinsic motivation. You can do the same with your online presences if you listen to Shirky and: Create an environment that makes people feel good about participating.Give users autonomy.Keep the system as open as possible. That’s also good advice for developing ePortfolios.
The urge for Self-Direction is basic human need.It is a Natural state to be Active and EngagedePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of autonomy found in social networksChoiceVoiceSharing and FeedbackImmediacy
According to a tweet I read from Chad Hamady, True Mastery NOT possible without FUN! (Chad Hamady @chamady Twitter, January 16, 2010)There is an inherent exhilaration in Learning “It’s fun to get better at something!” – Why do we play Sports and Games?Is it for Compliance or Personal MasteryLook to the Open Source movement (popularity of Wikipedia vs. the demise of Microsoft’s Encarta) – Authors and programmers look for Challenge and Improvement – To make a contribution to the greater good
In their spare time, people gravitate toward activities where they gain masteryePortfolio Implementation should adopt the motivating characteristics of mastery found in social networksFlow, Showcasing Achievements, Increased self-awareness and self-understanding“Only engagement can produce Mastery.” (Pink, 2009, p.111)
Csíkszentmihályi popularized the concept of Flow as a feeling of energized focus. According to Wikipedia, it is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task.
According to Will Richardson, “Our job in education is to engage, deepen, and extend a student's passions and interestsThomas Friedman, in his book, The World is Flat, presents this formula: CQ + PQ > IQ (Friedman, 2006) [Curiosity + Passion > Innate Intelligence]Learners find their voice and passions through choice and personalization!A portfolio is a student’s Story of their own Learning. It’s Positive Digital Identity Development or Personal Online Branding – In my earlier research, some students called their ePortfolios, their “academic MySpace”
We should use ePortfolios to document our MASTERY of skills and content. Showcase our Achievements! Share our Expertise! Support Personal & Professional Development!
Pink’s third concept is Purpose. All of us want to be part of something larger than ourselvesWhen people learn, they want to know the relevance of what they are learningThe more people understand the big picture, the more they will be engaged
Here is a good question:
Because Purpose and Passion Co-Exist.
How do portfolios and reflection fit into the learning process?BEFORE - goal-setting (reflection in the future tense), DURING - immediate reflection (in the present tense), where students write (or dictate) the reason why they chose a specific artifact to include in their collectionAFTER - retrospective (in the past tense) where students look back over a collection of work and describe what they have learned and how they have changed over a period of time (in a Level 3 portfolio)
Do your e-portfolios have Voice? As Maya Angelou said, “When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”Do your portfolios represent individual identity, include reflection, and provide an opportunity to make meaning? ePortfolios are essential for 21st Century Literacy.
In TELL ME A STORY, Schank argues that storytelling is at the heart of intelligence. We think of storytelling primarily as entertainment, secondarily as a form of art, yet it also—and perhaps more fundamentally—has a cognitive function:
Balancing the Two Faces of E-Portfolios Dr. Helen Barrett University of Alaska Anchorage (retired) Seattle Pacific University (adjunct) New England College (adjunct) International Researcher & Consultant Electronic Portfolios and Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning
Key Concepts Definitions Portfolios for Lifelong Learning Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios Identity Development Online Professional Branding Reflection, Motivation & Engagement Digital Storytelling and Reflection
Much to learn fromthe literature onpaper-based portfolios
As adult learners, we have much to learn from how children approach portfolios
“Everything I know about portfolios was confirmed working with a kindergartener”
The Power of Portfolios what children can teach us about learning and assessment Author: Elizabeth Hebert Publisher: Jossey-Bass Picture courtesy of Amazon.com
The Power of Portfolios Author: Dr. Elizabeth Hebert, Principal Crow Island School, Winnetka, Illinois Picture taken by Helen Barrett at AERA, Seattle, April, 2001
From the Preface (1) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix “Portfolios have been with us for a very long time. Those of us who grew up in the 1950s or earlier recognize portfolios as reincarnations of the large memory boxes or drawers where our parents collected starred spelling tests, lacy valentines, science fair posters, early attempts at poetry, and (of course) the obligatory set of plaster hands. Each item was selected by our parents because it represented our acquisition of a new skill or our feelings of accomplishment. Perhaps an entry was accompanied by a special notation of praise from a teacher or maybe it was placed in the box just because we did it.”
From the Preface (2) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix “We formed part of our identity from the contents of these memory boxes. We recognized each piece and its association with a particular time or experience. We shared these collections with grandparents to reinforce feelings of pride and we reexamined them on rainy days when friends were unavailable for play. Reflecting on the collection allowed us to attribute importance to these artifacts, and by extension to ourselves, as they gave witness to the story of our early school experiences.”
From the Preface (3) Hebert, Elizabeth (2001) The Power of Portfolios. Jossey-Bass, p.ix-x “Our parents couldn’t possibly envision that these memory boxes would be the inspiration for an innovative way of thinking about children’s learning. These collections, lovingly stored away on our behalf, are the genuine exemplar for documenting children’s learning over time. But now these memory boxes have a different meaning. It’s not purely private or personal, although the personal is what gives power to what they can mean.”
Let’s get personal…Think for a minute about: Something about your COLLECTIONS:Suggested topics:
If you are a parent, what you saved for your children
What is a Portfolio? Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc. Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscal capital Educational portfolio: document development of human capital
What is a Portfolio in Education? A portfolio is a purposeful collection of [academic] work that exhibits the [learner/worker’s] efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas[over time]. (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)
+Electronic digital artifacts organized online combining various media (audio/video/text/images)
Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions What are yours? • Showcase • Assessment • Learning • http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon-346082.png
Your Vision To bring about an integrated institution-wide e-Portfolio environment to maximize the creative, academic, and professional potential of every student.
Your Mission Encourage integrative learning bycreating online learning spaces that foster student reflection on academic learning, personal and professional goals, and career planning to increase student performance, retention, and engagement.
Purpose The overarching purpose of portfolios is to create a sense of personal ownership over one’s accomplishments, because ownership engenders feelings of pride, responsibility, and dedication. (p.10) Paris, S & Ayres, L. (1994) Becoming Reflective Students and Teachers. American Psychological Association
Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia) http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html
Knowing the learner (Self-awareness) Understanding prior knowledge Motivation for and attitudes toward learning Help learners understand themselves See their growth over time
Planning for learning (Self management) Setting goals Develop a plan to achieve these goals
Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning) Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Different Learning Styles Help learners recognize success Accommodate approaches that are not successful
Evaluating learning (Self monitoring) Systematic analysis of learners’ performance Responsibility to construct meaning Be reflective & think critically Learners construct meaning, monitor learning, evaluate own outcomes
Deep Learning involves reflection, is developmental, is integrative, is self-directive, and is lifelong Cambridge (2004)
The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student learning experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.-Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
“metacognition lies at the root of all learning” “…self-knowledge, awareness of how and why we think as we do, and the ability to adapt and learn, are critical to our survival as individuals…” - James Zull (2011) From Brain to Mind: Using Neuroscience to Guide Change in Education
Managing Oneself Peter Drucker, (2005) Harvard Business Review “Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves – their strengths, their values, and how best they perform.” Purpose: Use ePortfolios for managing knowledge workers' career development What are my strengths? How do I perform? What are my values? Where do I belong? What should I contribute? Responsibility for Relationships The Second Half of your Life
Portfolio Learning Experience Feeling Reviewing Recording Organizing Planning Publishing & Receiving Feedback Sharing & Collaborating Selecting Synthesizing Dialogue Reflecting Understanding Conceptualizing & Constructing Meaning Figure 2 A model of e-portfolio-based learning, adapted from Kolb (1984) JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios, p. 9
Balancing the Two Faces of E-Portfolios Working Portfolio Presentation Portfolio(s) Digital Archive (Repository of Artifacts) Collaboration Space Reflective Journal Portfolio as ProcessWorkspace The “Story” or Narrative Multiple Views (public/private) Varied Audiences & Purposes Portfolio as ProductShowcase
Structure of E-Portfolio Types Portfolio as Process/ Workspace Organization: Chronological – Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience Portfolio as Product/ Showcase Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment or Showcase Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes)
Post to from Mobile Phones Send email to pre-arranged email address Use BlogPressiOS app ($2.99) Set up Blogger Mobile and send SMS
Blogging* by eMail*the act of sharing yourself Tumblr Posterous Set up account on website Send email to: myaccount.tumblr.com iPhone App Call in your posts for audio post to blog Cross-post to Facebook & Twitter Just email to email@example.com iPhone App Cross-post to Facebook & Twitter
Learning is a Conversation! E-portfolios should be more Conversation than Presentation Because Conversation transforms!
Twittermicro-blogging “tiny bursts of learning”
What about Motivation? Why would a student want to put all that work into developing an ePortfolio? How do we make it relevant?
Similarities in Process Major differences: extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation: Autonomy Mastery Purpose
Pink’s Motivation Behavior X Type X - Extrinsic fueled more by extrinsic rewards or desires (Grades?) Type I – Intrinsic Behavior is self-directed. I
Help students find their Purpose and Passion through Reflection & Goal-Setting in E-Portfolio Development
Digital Tools for Reflection Reflective Journal (Blog) Digital Storytelling and Engagement
Self-Regulated LearningAbrami, P., et. al. (2008), Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, V34(3) Fall 2008. http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/507/238 Goals Captions/Journals Change over Time
Do Your e-Portfolios have CHOICE and VOICE? Individual Identity Reflection Meaning Making 21st Century Literacy Digital Story of Deep Learning
Voice6+1 Trait® Definition Voice is the writer coming through the words, the sense that a real person is speaking to us and cares about the message. It is the heart and soul of the writing, the magic, the wit, the feeling, the life and breath. When the writer is engaged personally with the topic, he/she imparts a personal tone and flavor to the piece that is unmistakably his/hers alone. And it is that individual something–different from the mark of all other writers–that we call Voice. http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/503#Voice
Portfolio as Story "A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
Roger Schank, Tell Me a Story “Telling stories and listening to other people's stories shape the memories we have of our experiences.” Stories help us organize our experience and define our sense of ourselves.
Digital Storytelling Process Create a 2-to-4 minute digital video clip First person narrative [begins with a written script ~ 400 words] Told in their own voice [record script] Illustrated (mostly) by still images Music track to add emotional tone
Chevak Link to video:http://vimeo.com/eportfolios/chevak YouTube:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKV4mM2gBjM
A Reminder… Reflection & Relationships … the “Heart and Soul” of an e-portfolio… NOT the Technology! 82
My Final Wish… dynamic celebrations stories of deep learning across the lifespan
Dr. Helen Barrett@eportfolios Researcher & ConsultantElectronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning firstname.lastname@example.org http://electronicportfolios.org/ http://slideshare.net/eportfolios https://sites.google.com/site/mportfolios/