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Pests And Pest Control
 

Pests And Pest Control

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    Pests And Pest Control Pests And Pest Control Presentation Transcript

    • Pests and Pest Control
      • Definition:
        • Any organism that is noxious, destructive or troublesome
      Gypsy Moth
    • May be one or more of the following:
      • Disease causing
      • Annoying
      • Feed on agricultural or ornamental plants
      • May harm/attack/kill domestic animals
      • Rotting or spoiling organisms (fungi, bacteria, termites, carpenter ants)
      • Weed plants that compete with cultivated plants
    • Different philosophies of pest control
      • Chemical technology – short lived
      • Ecological pest management – long lasting
      • Integrated pest management (IPM) –
        • Long term control
        • Minimal environmental impact
    • Pest Control Goal
      • Keep the pest population just below the size at which it causes economic loss.
      Economic Threshold Original Pest Population Introduction of Pest Control Reduced Pest Pop.
    • The perfect pesticide
      • It would be inexpensive
      • It would affect only the target organism
      • It would have a short half-life
      • It would break down into harmless materials
    • Insecticides
      • Stomach poisons: insects with chewing mouth parts
      • Contact poisons: sprayed directly on pest
      • Systemic poisons: sucking insects
      • Fumigants: interferes with respiratory systems
    • Herbicides
      • Contact
      • Systemic – example:Roundup
    • First generation pesticides
      • Highly toxic, nonspecific, persistent
      • Inorganic pesticides and botanicals
      • Arsenic, sulfur, caustic soda, olive oil, tobacco, lead, zinc, mercury
    • Second generation pesticides
      • Synthetic organic compounds
        • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
        • Organophosphates
        • Carbamates
        • Microbial agents and biological controls
          • Bacillus thuringiensis
    • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
      • DDT, chlordane, aldrin, lindane
        • Inhibit nerve membrane ion transport
        • Block nerve signal transmission
        • Fast acting
        • Highly toxic
        • Persistent in environment
        • Fat soluble
        • Bioaccumulates and biomagnifies
    • Organophosphates
      • Parathion, malathion
        • Inhibit cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for the removal of excess neurotransmitters for synapses in the peripheral nervous system
        • Extremely poisonous (10 to 100 times that of chlorinated hydrocarbons)
        • Less persistent
    • Carbamates
      • Carbaryl (sevin), aldicarb (temik)
        • Nervous system interference
        • Highly toxic
        • Low persistence
    • Animation: Pesticide Examples PLAY ANIMATION
    • Pesticide benefits
      • Disease control
        • Malaria – prevented 50 millions deaths from this mosquito transmitted disease
        • Yellow fever
        • Encephalitis
        • Bubonic plague (caused by bacteria carried by fleas on rats)
        • Typhus (carried by body lice)
    • Pesticide problems
      • First identified by Rachel Carson in 1962, in Silent Spring
      • Development of resistance by pests
      • Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks
      • Adverse environmental and human health effects
    • Development of resistance by pests
      • Resistant individuals selected for with the application of pesticide
      • These individuals continue to breed and pass along the resistant genes
    • Resurgences and secondary pest outbreaks
      • Resurgence – pest species explodes to higher levels
      • Natural enemies of pest are suppressed
      • Non pests can become pests
      Boll Weevil
    • Adverse environmental and human health effects
      • DDE (from DDT) interferes with calcium metabolism in birds
      • This interferes with the successful reproduction due to fragile eggs, especially of the birds at higher trophic levels
      • Biomagnification – accumulates in higher and higher concentrations higher in the food chain
      Osprey
    • Other Ways to Control Pests
      • There are cultivation, biological, and ecological alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides.
        • Fool the pest through cultivation practices.
        • Provide homes for the pest enemies.
        • Implant genetic resistance.
        • Bring in natural enemies.
        • Use pheromones to lure pests into traps.
        • Use hormones to disrupt life cycles.
    • Cultural Techniques
      • Rotation of crops
      • Removal of dead materials
      • Timing around the population maximum of the pest
      • Choose resistant plants
    • Reproductive controls
      • Use of sterile insects (males)
      • Sterilize either chemically or with radiation
      • Use of sex attractants (pheromones)
      • Use of hormones: speed up the metamorphosis of the insect – prevents full development and interferes with reproductive success
    • Biological control
      • Birds: geese
      • Spiders
      • Toads
      • Insects: ladybugs, praying mantis, lacewing
      • Microbial agents: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
    • Integrated Pest Management
      • Incorporates and coordinates various forms of control
      • Identify acceptable population level
      • Establish threshold levels of economic injury to pests
      • Learn the biology of the specific pest
      • Consider the economics of control