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Referencing and Citing

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Gurdip Saini

Gurdip Saini

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • 1. Referencing and Citing 2.1 References and Bibliographies
  • 2.
    • Bibliography
    • Lists sources used for background reading
    • as part of research.
    • References
    • Lists the particular sources used e.g.
    • journal articles, books, websites, graphics
  • 3.
    • Bibliographies and References include
    • Author
    • Date of publication
    • Title of book or article
    • Periodical title
    • Place of publication
    • Publisher
    • Page numbers for journal articles
  • 4.
    • Bibliographic software
    • e.g. Endnote, Refworks etc.
    • Construct and organise bibliographies for theses and papers
    • Import citations
    • Format citations
  • 5. Referencing and Citing 2.2 Plagiarism
  • 6.
    • When you borrow another person’s words or ideas by quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing them, you must show where you got the ideas by putting certain information in parenthesis immediately after the material you have borrowed.
    • Source:Oshima & Hogue,1999
    • All work taken from another source must be acknowledged and documented
  • 7.
    • 2 ways of giving acknowledgement:
    • Direct method i.e. quotation
    • Indirect method by summarizing and paraphrasing
  • 8.
    • Quotation is copying word-for-word from a published text, transcript etc.
    • However, changing words or sentence structure from the original means it is no longer a direct quote.
    • Statistics are good supporting details for opinions. Like quotations their source must also be cited.
  • 9.
    • Ways of quoting
    • For a short quotation of less than 40 words, use a brief phrase as an introduction to the quotation e.g.
    • Pennycook (1996) claims “All language learning is to some extent a process of borrowing others’ words”
    • Longer quotations stand alone in the text e.g.
  • 10.
    • In a seminal article on plagiarism, Pennycook cautioned
    • All language learning is to some extent a process of borrowing others’ words and we need to be flexible, not dogmatic, about where we draw boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable textual borrowings.
    • (1996:227)
  • 11. Referencing and Citing 2.3 Documenting sources within the text
  • 12.
    • What?
    • The practice of citing original sources of information
    • When?
    • Direct quotations and paraphrased information from another source, except dictionaries and encyclopedias
    • Why?
    • Readers can find the original source
    • Writer not responsible for all information
    • Plagiarism is avoided
  • 13.
    • Although there are other methods for documenting sources,
    • APA or American Psychological Association
    • Number reference system
    • Are frequently used in natural science, social science and technical fields.
    • The conventions of the APA system are:
  • 14.
    • 1
    • When author’s name begins a sentence, place the date of the work in parentheses immediately after the documented information e.g.
    • As Neville (2007) emphasises, “you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references” (p.36)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 15.
    • 2
    • When an author is not referred to directly in a sentence, place both the author’s last name and the year of publication, separated by a comma, in parentheses e.g.
    • References list full details of all sources used (Neville,2007)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 16.
    • 3
    • When citing two or more authors within an in-text citation, use an ampersand in the parentheses e.g.
    • (Burns & Sinfield,2002)
    • However, when mentioning the authors in the text, use the word “and” e.g.
    • Burns and Sinfield (2002) argue…
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 17.
    • 4
    • When citing two or more authors within the text, use the full list of names the first time e.g.
    • (White, Green, Brown, Grey, Black & Pink, 2008)
    • Subsequently, use (White, et al.2008)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 18.
    • 5
    • When the same author and text is referred to more than once in a single paragraph, there is no need to give the date for the second reference
    • 6
    • When a direct quotation is used, give the year and page/s numbers immediately after the quotation
  • 19.
    • 7
    • Two works by the same author published in the same year are differentiated by a,b,c and cross-referenced accordingly
    • e.g. In-text (Carroll, 2007a)
    • References:
    • Carroll, J.(2007a) A handbook for deterring plagiarism in higher education . Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development: Oxford Brookes University
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 20.
    • 8
    • Two works by the same author published in different years require the year of publication for both works e.g.
    • Carroll (2005, 2007) maintains….
  • 21.
    • 9
    • When pulling together several sources to support your argument, use one in-text citation. List the names alphabetically as they appear in the bibliography e.g.
    • As widely stated in the literature…. (Carroll,2002; Mallon, 1991;Neville,2007)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 22.
    • 10
    • When two authors have the same family name include initials to avoid confusion e.g.
    • Hyland,K (2008) and Hyland,F (2007) reported…
    • Various studies were conducted on the effectiveness of written feedback (K.Hyland,2008; F.Hyland,2007)
  • 23.
    • 11
    • When there is an omission in a direct quotation use an ellipsis (three spaced periods) e.g.
    • Williams (2008) asks “Is Persaud a narcissist, in other words, or a man so plagued by self-doubt that he doesn’t obey the rules of academia?…He claims to have been so busy he became confused”
    • (p.37)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York
  • 24.
    • 12
    • When there is an omission in a direct quotation at the end of the sentence, use four periods to close the quotation e.g.
    • Williams (2008) asks “Is Persaud a narcissist, in other words, or a man so plagued by self-doubt ?....”(p.37)
    • Adapted from : Wiggins, C (2009) The University of York

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