Introduction to oil & gas [read only]
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Introduction to oil & gas [read only]

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Credit to Dr Deva Gosh

Credit to Dr Deva Gosh

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Introduction to oil & gas [read only] Introduction to oil & gas [read only] Presentation Transcript

  • INTRODUCTION TO OIL & GAS Part 1 : Energy UTP Course For Beginners Dr Deva Ghosh Professor in Geophysics Head Center of seismic Imaging ( C.S. I )Compiled by Muhammad Najmi 6/10/2011
  • World Energy Sources
  • Future Prospects of Oil & Gas Oil Coal Gas Renewable Nuclear
  • Power Balance : Fossil Fuel Reserves LEGEND BARS OIL GAS COALENERGY USAGE
  • Electricity Usage at NightPower Map : The colour-coded image of the Earth at night shows the use of electricity for Lighting is concentrated in industrialized regions(yellow) The red parts correspond to oil flares.
  • Historical Development Wells Drilled in Malaysia
  • Countries With Natural Oil Reserves Greater Than 3 BSTB
  • Countries With Natural Gas Reserves Greater Than 20 TSCF
  • World –Wide Distribution of Natural Gas Reserves
  • G.O.M. Offshore Platforms in Deepwater
  • PETRONAS a Fortune 500 Company ** Has interest in 30 countries TOP TEN ** @ Profit @ Return in Asset & Revenue 44% of Malaysia’s Govt. revenue contributed by PETRONASIncluding Malaysia
  • Malaysia Oil and Gas FieldsM’SIA/THAI JOINTDEVELOPMENT JOINT DEVELOPMENT M’SIA/VIETNAM Production Breakdown Sabah 8% PM 42% Sarawak 50%
  • Malaysia Oil Production Breakdown and Gas Sabah 8% Reserves PM 42% (billion barrels) Sarawak 50% Reserve ( B.O.E ) (billion barrels) Production (million barrels)Oil & Condensate 23rd (World Ranking) Natural Gas 14th
  • Oil and gas fields/discoveries in Malay Basin
  • Geological History of The Earth Geological Period PRESENTPAST
  • Shifting ContinentAlfred Waegner Theory ofContinental driftBased on matching Coast line.However he saidGeological studies has togive the evidences
  • S.E. ASIA BASIN EVOLUTION EARLY EOCENE (~55 MA) TO Curreny 500ma 40 ma 10 ma 0 60 ma 20 ma 30 30 20 EarlyOligocene EarlyOligocene Late Eocene Paleocene Late Eocene Eocene Eocene Late Miocene Late Miocene Early Miocene Present Miocene Early day Present day1) Collision of India plate moving eastward with Asiaplate2) Further Collision with Australia plate movingNorthwardModified. from Scotese and PALEOMAP (2005) Courtesy Harry Doust
  • Delta Satellite Images Mekong Delta, Thailand Mahakam Delta, East Niger Delta, Nigeria Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Bay of Bengal, Ganges Delta, India India DELTA IMAGES Turkmenistan Ural Delta, Delta Kazakhstan
  • S.E. Asia Basin GeometrySatellite View Pacific Deepwater MatureVARIOUS CONSONBASINS MALAY SARAWAK SABAH SUMATRA 200 KM SEG Research Workshop, KL 2008
  • Malay Basin Geology Malay basin is a prolific Petroleum Tertiary basin that has seen four decades of extensive E & P activity. It is an extensional deep (12Km) mature, NW trending basin. With dimension 500 X 200 sq km Exploration is focused in Miocene stratigraphic. Units called Group E to K . Youngest to oldest. Courtesy PETRONAS
  • S.E. Asia Basin Geometry
  • Petroleum System Processes Gas Cap Oil Entrapment Water Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Migration 120° F 350° F Generation 24803 Source: AAPG Source: AAPG
  • Example of Gas Field in an Oil Field
  • H.C. OCCURRENCE PROBABILITY MAP MALAY BASIN K GRP SOURCE ROCK I GRP OIL & GAS FIELDS LACUSTRINE. COALY THICK THIN THINOil and gas distribution is a Combination ofthe source rock distribution & theirmaturity . Gas is generated at high maturity MATURITY MAP Oil and gas distribution function of source rock and their maturity
  • LIFE OF FIELD Exploration Block Frontier Prospect Planning Drilling Acquisition Exploration Evaluation Appraisal Reserve & Discovery Volumes Appraisal Economic Field Development PVT Reservoir Production Development Infill Simulation RFT Static Model DST Forecast Plan DrillingSecondary Recovery FLOODING SECONDARY PRODUCER & EOR INJECTION INJECTOR RECOVERY
  • THE G & G LINK GEOLOGYSEISMICDATA *ACQUISITIONVIBROSEIS SEISMIC DATASOURCE Subsurface is explored by exciting the earth by a SOURCE like , Dynamite or VIBROSEIS. This creates a seismic wave that enters the subsurface and is returned to the surface by the Reflection process in the form of a Seismic Response, that is recorded on the surface by a sensor ( geophone/hydrophone) 27
  • LIFE OF FIELD EXPLORATIO / APPRAISAL / DEVELOPME T / PRODUCTIO . GEOLOGY GEOPHYSICS OTHERS Outcrops Seismic Acquisition Gravity magnetic Basin Study Seismic Processing Positioning Sequence Strat Seismic Interpretation Remote Sensing Geochemistry Seismic Evaluation Core & Sidewall SampleStructural Geology Rock Physics Pressure Sedimentlogy Wire line Log Biostratigraphy Integrated G&G Studies DRILLING 28
  • ALLIED DISCIPLINES INFLUENCING G & G PETROLEUMPETROPHYSICS RESERVOIR ENGG. G&GCOMPUTER PETROLEUMTECHNOLOGY DRILLING ECONOMICS
  • Carbonate G @ G Link PSTM Stack Line 1990Seismic Outcrop 30
  • DEEPWATER SUBMARINE FANMODELS - sandy channels confined by muddy levees 31
  • DEEP WATER TURBIDITESEDIMENT TRANSPORT 32
  • DEEPWATER IMAGESBrazil West Nile DeltaCourtesy Enterprise Oil/Shell West Africa L in e 3 Courtesy BG plc Courtesy BP 500m 33
  • SUMANDAK BURIED HILL PLAY DEPOSITIONAL MODEL N N SB3 SB2 SB1 FS1 TS1 TS2 FS1 TS1 TS2Deposition of sand during high stand Truncation during low stand event N SB4 IVC SB3 SB2 SB1 IVA FS1 SEAL? TS2 TS1 Overlain by clay during subsequence transgressive event 34
  • SUMANDAK COMPLEX TIME STRUCTURE AMPLITUDE MAP SEISMIC 35
  • FORWARD & INVERSE SEISMIC PROBLEM START END ACQUISITION Structure SYSTEMS Velocity Rock, Fluid, Lithology tMODELLING WAVELET RECOVER GEOLOGY EARTH PROPOGATION INVERSION EFFECT t * DECONVOLVE CONVOLVE * EARTH MODEL • Vp, Vs, ρ • Porosity SEISMIC RESPONSE • Structure • Saturation 36
  • EOR Application in Malay Basin EOR CHALLENGES 1) Production comes from offshore fields where EOR is challenging and expensive. 2) Well spacing is coarse at 1000ft to 3000ft. 3) Many wells are deviated 4) Facilities are ageing 20 years or older. 5) 5) The reservoirs are complex, and compartmentalized. 6) Fields are mature and reservoirs depleted. 7) Oil is light with API around 45 degrees. 8)Reservoir temperatures are high 37
  • GEOHAZARD CLASSIFICATION FLOWCHART SHALLOW GAS FLUID EXPULSIO MUD VOLCA OES POCKMARKS SHALLOW WATER FLOW SAND FLOWGAS HYDRATES FISSURES B.S.R. CRATERS GEO-HAZARD CLASSIFICATIO SLUMPI G OVER-PRESSURES LA DSLIDES BLOW-OUT FAULTS GORGES I STABILITY
  • GEOHAZARD IMAGES GAS CHIMNEYA B Ring faulting of seabed BC Gas wipeout A Fissures/erocis C
  • GEOHAZARD IMAGES MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE Gas bubbling in waterMagic of Seismic in detecting Gas bubbling in water
  • MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE HAZARD(GAS BUBBLING NEAR PLATFORM)
  • SINKING OF DRILLING RIG DUE TO GAS HAZARD 1 2 3 4Gas escape causes Seawater density to drop resulting in the Platform to sink
  • Improving Pore Pressure Prediction Thermal Effects New Prospect P-T G radient = 0.5-1.0 M pa/°C Pore Pressure Prediction Pressure (ppg, M W E ) 7.0 12.0 17.0 22.0 In the Malay basin 2000 2500 Top of Overpressure 3000 Depth (m) 0 Seism ic P redic tion -200 Tangga-2 Bujang-4 Noring-2 Inas-1 3500 Bujang-2 Sepat-1 T.Barat Guling-1 Trend Estim ation -400 Bujang-3A Sepat-2 Melor-1 Melor-2 -600 Hard Overpressure 4000 -800 -1000 -1200 4500 -1400 Thermal Effects Included in TrendDepth (m TVDSS) -1600 Onset of Overpre ssure Generation -1800 L i th 5000 -2000 os ta ti -2200 cS tre ss -2400 P -T G r a d ie n t = 0 .5 - 1 .0 M p a /° C -2600 20 ppg -2800 P r e s s u r e (p p g , M W E ) 18 -3000 pp 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 g -3200 Expected High Pressure Zones 14 16 pp 1500 pp g -3400 g 10 8. 12 33 pp -3600 1700 pp pp g g g -3800 -4000 1900 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 500 1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500 8500 9500 Pressure (psi) 2100 Depth (m) 2300 2500 2700 Perfect Match with Observed 2900 pressure (green) in Well Trend Thermal Effects Included Perfect Match with Observed in Trend Generation pressure (green) in Well Trend Courtesy PRSB-UTP