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Chapter 2 summarising

Chapter 2 summarising



Gurdip Saini

Gurdip Saini



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    Chapter 2 summarising Chapter 2 summarising Presentation Transcript

    • Learning Outcomes
      • At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
      • understand the techniques of summarizing
      • apply the techniques of summarizing
    • What is a Summary?
      • A shorter version of a piece of information.
      • Presents the main ideas or the most important information.
      • Demonstrates understanding of the materials in a condensed form.
      • Involves Writing, Reading and Critical thinking.
    • Summaries
      • Effective summary writing involves a good understanding of the original article, the author’s purpose, main idea and supporting points.
      • A good summary presents a clear, concise idea of the main points.
      • It reports what the reader has read but without any personal interpretations or opinions.
    • Example:
      • Source
      • Amphibians, which is the animal class of frogs and toads, were the first creatures to crawl from the sea and inhabit the earth.
      • Summary
      • The first animals to leave the sea and live on dry land were amphibian.
    • Language use
      • Paraphrase information using different grammar and vocabulary.
      • Write in the present tense and omit personal pronouns like ‘I’ and ‘me’
      • Use transitional words for a smooth and logical flow of ideas.
      • Use verbs such as the following to indicate summarized information: suggest, report, argue, tell, say, ask, question, conclude, believe, contend, compare, etc.
    • Guidelines
      • 1. Read to determine the author’s thesis.
      • 2. Reread and take notes of the main points.
      • 3. Use the notes as a guide and write the first draft including:
      • □ a thesis statement stating the author/title of
      • the article and the main point.
      • □ identify the topic sentences to explain the main
      • idea/ideas presented (what, where, when, who,why)
        • Include supporting details to support topic sentences where necessary
      • 4. Edit for correct grammar, spelling, punctuation
      • and capitalization.
    • Gathering materials
      • Preview the reading
      • Highlight or underline the main ideas and important supporting details. Locate the main ideas from:
      • □ headings within a chapter
      • □ topic sentences of paragraphs
      • □ end of the chapter or article
      • For shorter readings, main ideas can be located in the
      • □ opening paragraph
      • □ first sentence of body paragraph
      • □ conclusion
    • Arranging materials
      • Write in the present tense as you are explaining as you read.
      • Paraphrase using your own vocabulary and sentence structure. (Make the tone and style your own)
      • When short phrases are copied they must be quoted exactly.
      • Place all quotations in quotation marks.
      • Use ellipsis marks [ … ] to show where information from the original has been omitted in the quotation.
    • Draft revision checklist
      • √ Does the summary begin with the author and date?
      • √ Does the topic sentence state the controlling idea?
      • √ Are all the main ideas of the original article included?
      • √ Is the summary clear and concise?
      • √ Does the summary avoid copying from the original?
      • √ If quotations are used, are they incorporated with “quotation marks”?
    • Avoid copying
      • Original text: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
      • Lester, J. D. (1976). Writing Research Papers, pp.46-47.
      An acceptable summary: When writing the final research paper, students are advised to limit direct quotations taken from sources (Lester, 1976: 46-47). A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
    • References
      • Blanchard, K. & Root, C. (2004). Ready to write more – From paragraph to essay (2 nd ed.). London:Longman
      • Blass, L., Friesen, H. & Block,K. (2008). Creating Meaning – Advanced Reading and Writing. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
      • Folse, K.S., Mahnke, M.K., Solomon, E.V. & Williams, L. (2003). Blueprints – Composition skills for Academic Writing. London:Thomson Heinle.
      • Harris Leonhard,B. (2002). Discoveries in Academic Writing. London:Thomson Heinle.
      • Meyers, A. (2005). Gateways to Academic Writing – Effective sentences, paragraphs and essays. London : Longman
      • THE END