Exploring national strategicimperatives.Name: Nonkululeko MakhubuProfessional studies 3A
INTRODUCTIONEducational technology is the study and proper preparationof simplifying learning and improving performance bycreating, using and managing applicable technologicalmethods and resources.Technology of education is most simply and easily definedas a collection of tools that might prove supportive inadvancing student learning and may be measured in howand why individuals behave.
Cont…..Educational technology depends on an extensive definitionof the term “technology.” Technology can refer to materialobjects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware,but it can also include expansive themes, including systems,methods of organizations, and techniques. Some recenttools contain but are not limited to overhead projectors,laptop computers and smartphones.
Cont……Newer tools such as smartphones are beginning to draw seriousattention for their learning potential.In this presentation, I am going to explore national strategic imperativesand I am going to cover all the following themes: Knowledge society agenda. Pervasiveness of technology. Education for all goals. Present future national strategic objectives. Highlight the broad aims of the various national and internationalinitiatives regarding continuous professional development of teacherswith regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs andprofessional aptitudes.
Pervasiveness of TechnologyPLE= Personal Learning Environment defined A collection of tools, brought together under the conceptualnotion of openness, interoperability, and learner control (…)PLEs are concept-entity. (George Siemens, 2007:20). A Personal Learning Environment is facility for an individualto access, aggregate, configure and manipulate digitalartifacts of their ongoing learning experiences. (RonLubensky, 2006).
PLE= Personal Learning Environment“Personal Learning Environment (PLE), are systems that helplearners take control of and manage their own learning. Thisincludes providing support for learners to set their own learninggoals, manage their learning; managing both content andprocess, communicate with others in the process of learning andthereby achieve learning goals. A PLE maybe composed of oneor more sub-systems: as such it may be a desktop application,or composed of one or more web-based services.”(http://mohamedaminechatti.blogspot.com/2010/03/lms-vs-ple.html)
Personal Learning Environments: Enable students to conclude the style and pace at which theylearn. help prepare them for university and workforce. Encourage students to approach learning in ways best suitedto their individual needs. Visual learners might be able to obtain material from differentsource than auditory learners.
Benefits of Personal Learning Environments: PLE makes learning learner centric rather than the current modelsof teacher or institution centric learning. Encourage learning through dialogue as well as praxis or learningby doing. Learners are taught how to construct, regulate and control theirown learning thus creating a lifelong learner. Helps create a culture of lifelong learning where the environmentcan continuously adapt to changing interests. PLEs allow self directed learners to think for themselves.
Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICTInformation and communication technology (ICT) is important to the application of e-education and offers greater opportunities to access learning, redress inequities andimprove the value of teaching and learning.The white paper characterizes schools that implement e-Education as institutions thathave: Learners who utilise ICT to improve learning. Qualified and competent leaders who use ICT for planning and management; Qualified and competent teachers who use ICT to enhance teaching and learning. Access to ICT resources that support the curriculum ;and Connections to ICT infrastructure.
Approach to Teacher Development in ICTThe holistic approach to teacher development has the following three dimensions:1. A pedagogical element which implies an understanding and application of theopportunities of the use of ICT for teaching and learning in a local curriculum context.2. A technical dimension, which implies• An ability to select, use and support range of ICT resources as appropriate toenhance personal and professional effectiveness ;and• The willingness to update skills and knowledge in the light of new developments.3. A collaboration and networking dimension which includes A critical understanding of the added value of learning networks and collaborationwithin and between partners; and The ability to create and participate in communities of practice.
ICT……..When ICT is successfully integrated into teaching and learning, it can ensure a more meaningfulinteraction of learners with information. ICT can promote the development of advanced cognitiveskills such as comprehension, reasoning, problem-solving and creative thinking, as well as the abilityof learners to: Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking strategies; work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation and community; organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively; collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information; communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes; use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others; and demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising thatproblems cannot be separated from their contexts.
Facilitating and inspiring student learning and creativity in ICTTEACHERS SHOULD: Engage students in exploring real-world issues and solving authentic problemsusing digital tools and resources. Promote student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarifystudents’ conceptual understanding and thinking, planning, and creativeprocesses Model collaborative knowledge construction by engaging in learning withstudents, colleagues, and others in face-to-face and virtual environments Design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools andresources to promote student learning and creativity Develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students topursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting theirown educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their ownprogress
Technology literacyThe use of new technologies in education implies new teacher roles, new pedagogies and new approaches toteacher education. The successful integration of ICT into the classroom will depend on the ability of teachers to: structure the learning environment in new ways, to merge new technology with a new pedagogy To develop socially active classrooms, Encouraging co-operative interaction Collaborative learning and group work.This requires a different set of classroom management skills.Technology literacyThe policy goal of the technology literacy approach is to enable learners, citizens and the workforce to use ICTto support social development and improve economic productivity.Related policy goals include: Increasing enrolments, making high quality resources available to all and Improving literacy skillsTeachers must also be able to use ICT to manage classroom data and support their own professional learning.
Knowledge deepeningThe aim of the knowledge deepening approach is to increase the ability of students, citizens, andthe workforce to add value to society and to the economy by applying the knowledge gained inschool subjects to solve complex, high priority problems encountered in real world situations ofwork, society and in life generally.Teaching is student-centred and the teachers role is to: Structure tasks, Guide student understanding, and To support students as they tackle collaborative projects.Teachers help students : Create Implement and Monitor project plans and solutions.
Knowledge creationo The aim of the knowledge creation approach is to increase productivity by creating students, citizens, and aworkforce that is continually engaged in, and benefits from, knowledge creation, innovation and life-long learning.o Teachers, in this approach, should not only be able to design classroom activities that advance these policy goalsbut also participate in the development of programmes within their school that advance these goals.Knowledge society skills that are needed to create new knowledge.These are skills such as: Problem solving, Communication Collaboration Experimentation Critical thinking and creative expression.These skills become curricular goals in themselves and the objects of new assessment methods.The most significant aim is for students to be able to: Create their own learning goals and plans Establish what they already know Assess their strengths and weaknesses Design a learning plan Stay on task Track their own progress Build on success and adjust to failures.
EDUCATION FOR ALL
Education for all GoalsBy 2030, all children should start their learning and development atearly childhood development centers. These centers should be setup and properly monitored.Early Childhood Development.Early childhood development is defined in the children’s act (2005)as the process of children developing theiremotional, cognitive, sensory, spiritual, moral, physical, social, andcommunication capabilities from birth to school going age.
Eradicate Child Under NutritionThe benefits of investing in early intervention programs include Improvements in school enrolment rates. Retention and academic performance. Decline in antisocial behavior; and Higher rates of high school completionAttention should focus on establishing the most effective intervention andappropriate delivery mechanism. The feeding scheme at schools havecontributed greatly to reducing under-nutrition. In 2030, feeding schemes inschools should cover all children in need and provide food that is high innutritional content and rich in vitamins.
Education for all cont….The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996) requires education tobe transformed and democratised in accordance with the values of humandignity, equality, human rights and freedom, non-racism and non-sexism. Itguarantees access to basic education for all, with the provision thateveryone has the right to basic education, including adult basic education.
Education for all cont….The South African Schools Act (SASA) (1996) promotes access, quality anddemocratic governance in the schooling system. Its purpose is to : Ensure that all learners have right of access to quality education withoutdiscrimination; and Makes schooling compulsory for children aged 7-15.= Education White Paper 6 on Inclusive Education (2001) described the intentionof the Department of Education to implement inclusive education at all levels in thesystem by 2020. Such an inclusive system will facilitate the inclusion of vulnerablelearners and reduce the barriers to learning, through targeted support structuresand mechanisms that will improve the retention of learners in the educationsystem, particularly learners who are prone to dropping out.
Education for all cont…. Basic Education Makes a DifferenceIn general , countries with more educated populations enjoy higher rates of economic growth and lessinequality. More recent y, evidence has shown it is not only years in school , but what is learned n school ,that counts. A recent study found that whilst an additional year of schooling was associated with a 0.37%increase n GDP, the increased to 1% when combined with improved learning outcomes. EarningsEducation is positively associated with improved lifetime earnings. Each extra year of education raiseslifetime earnings by about 10%. Returns to education are higher for low income countries and for women. HealthEducation, especially for girls, helps to improve health and to reduce fertility. Children of educated mothersare healthier, better nourished and more likely to survive as infants. Across the developing world, anadditional year of schooling reduces infant mortality rate by between 5 and 10% EnvironmentResearch has shown a strong relationship between levels of school achievement in science and awarenessof global environmental problems. Both are associated with a greater sense of responsibility for supportingsustainable environmental management. Fragility and ConflictEducation can p lay an important part n the emergency response to conflict or fragility, in the long termprocess of reconstruction and building stability and in promoting civil engagement and democracy.Empirical evidence links events and distribution of education achievement to indicators of democracy,stability and security
Millennium Development and Education ForAll Goals….Millennium development andeducation for all goals.Ensure that by 2015 all children,particularly girls, children indifficult circumstances and thosebelonging to ethnic minorities,have access to, and complete freeand compulsory primary educationof good quality.Ensure that by 2015, childreneverywhere, boys and girls alike willbe able to complete a full course ofprimary schooling.
Millennium Development and Education For All Goals andTargets for Education. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015. Achieve 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially forwomen, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, andachieve gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. Improve all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all sothat recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all,especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY
Six Educational goals are to:1. Expand early childhood care and education2. Provide free and compulsory primary education to all3. Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults4. Increase adult literacy by 50 percent5. Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender quality by 20156. Improve the quality of education
Educational goals are to:• Improve the average performance in languages of Grade 6 learners.• Improve the average performance in mathematics of Grade 6 learners.• Improve the average performance in mathematics of Grade 8 learners.• Ensure that all children remain effectively enrolled in school up to the year inwhich they turn 15.• Improve the access of children to quality early childhood development(ECD) below Grade 1.• Improve the grade promotion of learners through the Grades 1 to 9 phasesof school.• Improve the access of youth to Further Education and Training beyondGrade 9.
EDUCATION FOR ALL GOALS VIDEO.NB: PLAY AND PAUSE TO READ THEWORDS.
Knowledge society agendaInformation: Facts, comments, opinions, expressed through words, images,sounds…It can be stored, circulated…Knowledge: the output of the reconstruction of information by a person,according to his/her history and context.Knowledge depends on the person.Information can be transmitted, knowledge must be acquired, constructed.
Knowledge society.A society in whichinformation is a goodthat one canexchange, buy, sell, store, transport, process.The society of thedigital divide.A human society, inwhich knowledgeshould bring justice,solidarity, democracy,peace. A society inwhich knowledgecould be a force forchanging society.Informationsociety.Knowledgesociety.
Knowledge society.The knowledge Society needs new kinds of Knowledge,that cannot reduce to traditional disciplines.ICT change knowledge itself: Each discipline, its concepts,processes, methods, resources available.
Knowledge society…Education in a networked society.Education needs networks of knowledgeThe links: contribute to the elaboration andacquisition of knowledge.
Education in a networked society…Take into account: New knowledge Access to knowledge Communication in a network New teaching, new learning New tools, new resources, new pedagogies New space and time New teaching profession
Collective intelligenceAn aim for education: build a collective intelligence; a role forTeachers.The (open) classroom is the first place where collectiveintelligence can be built and used.Develop collective intelligence of pupilsDevelop the capacity for collaborative workUse collaborative work
Being a teacher in the knowledge societyICT confirm the essential and core role of the teacher: be the MEDIATOR between knowledge and the studentThe face-to-face relationship between the teacher and the pupilremains essential.The human dimension of teaching supported and enhanced bytechnology
Being a teacher in the knowledge societyCommon European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications (2005) Making it work: the key competences:Work with others… individually and collectively, building a « collective intelligence »Work with knowledge, technology and information… networked knowledge, complex knowledge, in the Knowledge SocietyWork with and in society… social, political, ethical responsibility
The Stellenbosch Declaration ICT in EducationEducators not only seek Information society but also knowledgesociety which will enable all children and all people to accessknowledge and to benefit from being educated. Education is akey issue in the knowledge society and educators have majormission. Bellow are some of the major areas that will shape abeneficial use of ICT in education:
Learners and lifelong learningIn the knowledge society, every learner is a lifelong learner.ICT is a key tool for developing lifelong learning.The development of lifelong learning needs an integration of education into thereal world- ICT should be used for this purpose.
NetworkingThe knowledgesociety isnetworked.Networks in education offer manyways to access knowledge, offermany possibilities for networkingpeople and developingcollaborative work and enhancingthe ‘collective intelligence.
PRESENT FUTURE NATIONAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVESThe five strategic goalsthat have been factoredinto the programmeobjectives are:Output 1: Improve thequality of teaching andlearning.Output 3: improve earlychildhood development.output 4: ensure acredible outcomes-focused planning andaccountability system.Output 2: undertakeregular assessment totrack progress.Output 5: improvementsin the capacity of theDepartment of BasicEducation.
Programme 1: AdministrationThe purpose of programme 1: administration is to manage the Departmentand provide strategic and administrative support services.The key functions of the programme are: To provide overall management of the education system in accordancewith the National Education Policy Act, the Public Finance ManagementAct, and other relevant policies and acts. To provide for the functioning of the office of the Ministry for BasicEducation. To provide management services that are not education specific for theeducation system To provide education management services for the education system To provide human resource development for office-based staff; To provide for project support and oversight under Programme 1 asspecified by the Department of Basic Education and funded by conditionalgrants; and To provide an Education Management Information System in accordancewith the National Education Information Policy
Continuous professional development of teachers with regard toteacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professionalaptitudes. Targets for initial and continuing teacher development The following targets are set for ICT skills development for practising and student teachers: All students leaving higher education for the teaching profession should have reached at least theadoption level. This means that they should have the knowledge and skills to use a computer andapplication software. Furthermore, they should have the ability to use various ICT, including a computer,to support traditional management, administration, teaching and learning, and be able to teach learnershow to use ICT. All practising teachers that have access to ICT should, as a minimum, be trained to the adoption level. The adaptation and appropriation levels focus on the knowledge, skills and values to integrate ICT intoteaching and learning. At least 60% of teachers with access to ICT should reach the adaptation level and20% should reach the appropriation level. Continuing professional development and advanced certificateof education programmes should respond to this target. The innovation level focuses on the transformational use of ICT to redefine the role of the teacher andclassroom environments. At this level, entirely new learning environments that use ICT as a flexible toolfor whole-school development and for collaborative and interactive learning are developed. Theinnovation level is a specialisation level and is suited for study at advanced postgraduate levels. At least10% of practising teachers should reach this level.
Approaches that should be adopted in ICT skills development for students and practisingteachers All higher education institutions should offer compulsory ICT in teachingand learning in teacher development courses (up to appropriation level). Students currently in higher education institutions should be fast-trackedto bring them to at least the adoption level by the end of their studies. From 2008, all students leaving higher education for the teachingprofession should have reached at least the adaptation level. All practising teachers who have access to ICT should, as a minimum, betrained to the adaptation level by 2010. Subject advisors are to be trained up to appropriation level through afocused intervention from the national Department of Education. Oncetrained, they will be able to assist teachers to utilise access to computers.
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