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History of mt laws and code of ethics


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  • 1. History of MT LAWS Ephraimeen F. Guadalquiver,RMT
  • 2. At the End of the Discussion, Students are expected to: • Define What Is Medical Technology • Trace the History of Medical Technology • Trace the history of Medical technology in the Philippines • Identify the Different PAMET PRESIDENTS and their accomplishments or Legacy • Cite the different provisions in the various laws affecting the practice of Medical Technology • Describe the Medical Technology Ethics and its application
  • 3. Definition of Medical Technology RUTH HEINEMANN ANNE FAGELSON (1961) PHILIPPINE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY ACT The Application of principles of natural , physical and biological sciences to the performance of laboratory procedures which aid in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The Branch of medicine concerned with the performance of laboratory determinations and analysis used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and maintenance of health. An auxiliary branch of laboratory medicine which deals with the examination of various chemical, microscopic, bacteriologic, and other medical procedures, technique which will aid the physician in the diagnosis, study and treatment of disease and in the promotion of health in general.
  • 5. • In the year 460 B.C. when the Greek, physician Hippocrates also known as thefather of medicine formulated the famous Hippocratic Oath, the code of ethics for practicing physicians. Hippocrates described four "humors" or body fluids in man • namely- the blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. • These four humors or body fluids were felt to be the source of a person's disposition and disease in ancient times.
  • 6. VIVIAN HERRICK Traces the beginning of medical technology back to 1500 BC when instestinal parasites such as TAENIA and ASCARIS were mentioned in early writings.
  • 7. EBERS PAPYRUS A book for treatment of diseases contains description of the three stages of hookworm infection.
  • 8. RUTH WILLIAMS  A medical Technologist  Believes that medical technology began from the MEDIEVAL PERIOD (1096-1438) as supported by the fact that urinalysis was a fad.  Early Hindu doctors made the “SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION” that the urine of certain individuals attract ants, and that such urine has a sweetish taste.  QUACKS, calling themselves doctors reaped fortunes from diagnosing diseases by the appearance of the urine.
  • 9. ANNE FAGELSON  Prefers to date medical technology from the 14th Century when a prominent Italian physician at the University of Bologna employed one, ALESSANDRA GILIANI to perform tasks now under the domain of the medical technology.  Unfortunately, this young lady died from a laboratory acquired infection.
  • 10. ANTONIE VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632-1723) Invented and Improved the compound microscope The first to describe red blood cells, to see protozoa, and to classify bacteria according to shape. Invention of the microscope led to the rapid progress of microbiology and pathology.
  • 11. MALPHIGI ( 1628-1694)  Desribed as the “GREATEST” of the early microscopist.  His work on embryology and anatomy definitely marked him as “THE FOUNDER OF PATHOLOGY” . RUDOLPH VIRCHOW  One of the youngest medical specialists  Founded the ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY in BERLIN in 1847.
  • 12. HERMANN FEHLING > Performed the FIRST QUANTITATIVE TEST in URINE SUGAR in 1848. MIDDLE OF 15th CENTURY Aniline Dyes were used in staining microorganisms Bacterial staining and microscopic study on bacteria were made possible.
  • 13. ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORIES FIRST CHEMICAL LABORATORY  Established at the University of Michigan by Dr.Douglas (not identified)  Dr.Douglas pioneered laboratory instruction in this well- equipped laboratory. 1878 Dr. William H. Welch  established another laboratory at the BELLEVUE HOSPITAL MEDICAL COLLEGE.  He gave the first laboratory course in pathology offered in an American Medical School. 1885 Dr. Welch became the first professor of pathology at John Hopkins University.
  • 14. FIRST CLINICAL LABORATORY Opened in 1896 at JOHN HOPKINS HOSPITAL by DR. WILLIAM OSLER. In this laboratory, routine examinations were carried out, special attention being given to the search for malarial parasites in the blood. A clinical laboratory was also opened at the UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA in 1896 (WILLIAM PEPPER LABORATORY).
  • 15. 1908 DR. JAMES C. TODD wrote the book : A MANUAL OF CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS Retitled “ CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS BY LABORATORY METHODS” , in its 6th Edition by Dr. Todd and Dr. Arthur Sanford. The book became the standard reference for laboratories
  • 16. 1919 census • 100 technicians, all male were employed in the UNITED STATES. • This increased to 3500 in 1920. In 1922, 3035 hospitals had CLINICAL LABORATORIES.
  • 17. 1915 The state legislature of Pennsylvania enacted a law requiring all hospitals and institutions to have an adequate laboratory and to employ a full time laboratory technician WORLD WAR 1  It was an impact factor in the growth of clinical laboratory and produced a great demand for technicians.  The demand for technicians in clinical laboratories continued, so practicing physicians with knowledge on laboratory works began to teach their assistants to do some of the tests for them.
  • 18. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA  One of the First schools for training laboratory workers was established here.  A course bulletin titled : “COURSES IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR CLINICAL AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS” was issued in 1922.  They were the FIRST to offer a DEGREE LEVEL PROGRAM in 1923. 1931 DENVER SOCIETY OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGISTS were organized. 1936 AMERICAN BOARD OF PATHOLOGY ESTABLISHED
  • 19. WORLD WAR 2 Marked effects in laboratory medicine The use of blood increased and the “closed system” of bloo d collection was widely used. Instrumentation advanced and these instruments paved the measurement of the intensity of color produced. Automated equipment appeared and quality control programs became common
  • 20. MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRACTICE WAS INTRODUCED BY THE 26TH MEDICAL INFANTRY OF THE 6TH US ARMY. First Clinical Laboratory in the Philippines QUIRICADA ST., Sta. CRUZ, MANILA (MANILA PUBLIC HEALTH) > The lab offered traning programs to high school graduates as early as FEBRUARY,1944.
  • 21. 1943 • THE US ARMY LEFT in JUNE • Endorsed it to the NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH • The Department rendered the laboratory non- functional for sometime.
  • 22. DR. PIO DE RODA • ORGANIZED MANILA PUBLIC HEALTH LABORATORY from the remnants of the deserted laboratory. • OCTOBER 1,1945 With Dr. Mariano Icasiano as his assistant and who was then the MANILA CITY HEALTH OFFICER. One of the staffs of the Clinical Laboratory
  • 23. 1947 Training of high school graduates to work as medical technicians No period of training was set and No certificates were given. By: Dr. Pio De Roda Dr. Prudencia Sta. Ana
  • 24. 1954 A 6 months laboratory training with certificate upon completion was given to the trainees. Dr. Sta. Ana prepared the syllabus for the training program.
  • 25. Medical Technology Education in the Philippines • S.Y. 1957-1958 • Dr. Antonio Gabriel and Dr. Gustavo Reyes of the FACULTY of Pharmacy, University of Sto. Tomas offered medical technology as an elective subject to 4th and 5th year B.S. Pharmacy students. The Training program offered by Dr. Pio De Roda did not last long. The FIRST B.S. Degree course in Medical Technology was offered by the PHILIPPINE UNION COLLEGE and MANILA SANITARIUM. After 2 years, PUC produced its first graduate, Dr. Jesse Umali, now a successful OB- Gynecologist.
  • 26. • Rev., Fr. Lorenzo Rodriguez decided to offer it as a course because of the popularity of medical technology among pharmacy students. JUNE 17,1957 > Temporary permit was issued by the Dept. of Education, for first to third year students.
  • 27. • JUNE 1960 The permit for the internship program was issued. June 14,1961 > Full recognition of the 4 year B.S. Medical technology course was given on June 14, 1961.
  • 28. • Many schools followed to offer B.S. Medical Technology course. • DECS and CHED – 47 colleges and universitites offering the course. • University of the Phils > Offers a similar course but the degree being conferred in B.S. Public Health
  • 29. POST GRADUATE STUDIES • Offered to B.S. Medical Technology graduates MS in Medical Technology • UST Graduate School • Philippine Women’s University • Manila Central University MS in Public Health(one year, non thesis degree) • University of the Philippines