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History of music

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  • 1. HISTORY OF MUSIC FIRST YEAR MUSIC OPTIONS
  • 2. Musical Eras  Music History is divided into different periods or eras  Music History is linked closely with European History  Each Era or period in Music history has its own set of values – aspects of music that were most important to the musicians and composers at that time.  The orchestra grows steadily through each Musical Era see: http://www.dsokids.com/visit-thesymphony/orchestra-seating-chart.aspx
  • 3. There are 5 main Eras in Music History 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. RENAISSANCE BAROQUE CLASSICAL ROMANTIC MODERN 1400-1600 1600-1750 1750-1820 1820-1900 1900- present (Technically, Music composed from 1990 to present is regarded as POST MODERN)
  • 4. Renaissance 1400-1600  Most of the music from this time is associated with either the church or the castle court.  Music from this time emphasises the vocal parts  There were few instruments (NO orchestra) Types of music:  Madrigals (a song for a choir)  Dances  Music for the Catholic Mass
  • 5. Renaissance – Listening Examples Listen Carefully the following examples from Renaissance Music  1. Palestrina – madrigal  2. Instrumental music from a Medieval Castle Court
  • 6. Baroque 1600-1750  Baroque is the word used to describe the highly decorative and extravagant style of artistry at this time  In music, it marks the beginning of the orchestra  Music focused on harmony and was complicated and decorative  Instrumental music becomes more popular Types of Music  Cantatas (for choirs and instrumentalists)  Concertos (for orchestra)  Overtures (for orchestra)  Ritornello Form (where a theme keeps returning in the music)
  • 7. Baroque – Beginning of the orchestra
  • 8. Baroque – Listening Examples Listen Carefully the following examples from Baroque Music  1. Hallelujah Chorus from Handel’s Messiah
  • 9. Watch this example of a Baroque Orchestra Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No 5
  • 10. Homework  Using the DSO site http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer.aspx Name 1 composers from the Renaissance and Baroque Eras
  • 11. Classical 1750-1820  A time of new ideas and     new ways of thinking Music focuses on structure and precision, balance and control Piano started to take over from the harpsichord Music is neat, elegant with clear structures Orchestra begins to develop and grow Types of music  Symphony (music written for an orchestra)  Sonata form (music written for a solo instrument with three sections)  Opera (music drama written for voice and orchestra)  String Quartets
  • 12. Classical – Growth of the Orchestra
  • 13. Classical – Listening examples  1. Mozart’s piano concerto No 21 in C major  2. Haydn’s 45th Symphony, first movement  3. A string quartet by Mozart  4. An aria (song) from Mozart’s opera ‘The Marriage of Figaro’
  • 14. Romantic 1820-1920  Romantic composers     reacted against the control of the Classics Expression and Emotion are central to Romantic music Rich harmonies Massive melodies that take over the music Orchestra grows with more new instruments Types of music  Programme music  Symphonies including Choral Symphonies  Tone poem (music written for an orchestra based on a poem)  Art Songs (a poem set to music written for the voice and another instrument) including German lied  Ballet and Opera develop
  • 15. Romantic – Expansion of the Orchestra
  • 16. Romantic – Listening Examples  Tchaikovsky’s Romeo and Juliet Overture  Schumann’s Lieder ‘Sanger’s Trost’
  • 17. Modern 1920- present  Music from the Modern Era started to experiment with sound and mix all different types of music together  Harmonies have clashing sounds called discords  Fragments of melodies (a reaction against the Romantics)  Unfamiliar sounds on orchestral instruments Types of music  Serialism – a technique of composing where an order is given to the 12 notes of the chromatic scale and then this order is changed around a lot  Atonal music – music that is not in any key
  • 18. Modern 1920- present  Music from the Modern Era started to experiment with sound and mix all different types of music together  Harmonies have clashing sounds called discords  Fragments of melodies (a reaction against the Romantics)  Unfamiliar sounds on orchestral instruments Types of music  Serialism – a technique of composing where an order is given to the 12 notes of the chromatic scale and then this order is changed around a lot  Atonal music – music that is not in any key  Unusal harmonies and rhythms
  • 19. Listening Examples: Modern Era  1. ‘The Rite of Spring’ ballet by Igor Stravinsky. When this was first performed there were RIOTS outside the opera house because of its strange harmonies and rhythms  2. Cello Sonata by Kodaly
  • 20. Modern – FULL ORCHESTRA!!
  • 21. Serialism Explained
  • 22. Serialism Example  This listening example is called ‘Red Shoes’ by the Irish composer Marian Ingoldsby. It was composed using the 12 note scale
  • 23. RESEARCH: Try these websites dsokids.com  Listen by composer: http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer.aspx  Listen by instrument: http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-instrument/.aspx  More information can be found by typing the name of a composer into a search engine like Google. Look for the official webpage of the composer (do not rely on wikipedia for all your information)  Images of composers can be found be typing the name into Google Images.
  • 24. HISTORY OF MUSIC: RESEARCH PROJECT For this project you must present a detailed account of ONE famous music composer. Please present your project on A4 paper In your project you must:  Give a short biography of the composer  Find a picture of the composer  Explain a little about the Music Era the composer is linked to  Mention one important historical event during this time  Show what the typical fashion was at this time for your chosen composer  Give one listening example of music composed by your chosen composer