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CD Media CD Media Presentation Transcript

  • CD Media Edward Viau & Eric Pheterson
  • Hints
    • To pass the test
      • Pay attention to bullets and instructor
      • Look for text that stands out
      • Take notes
    • To help you understand
      • Relate information to own experience
  • Overview
    • 12cm wide, 1.22mm thick circular disk
    • Originally designed for Audio
    • Used to transport and save data or audio
  • How CD’s Work
    • Microscopic pits exist on the shiny surface on the top of the CD
    • Pits = 1, Non-Pits = 0
    • Lasers convert the burned pits into binary bits
  • Types
    • CD
    • DVD
    • Blu-Ray
    • Various forms of CDs exist, with more on their way in the future. Higher data capacity is achieved through condensing the pits on the media.
  • TypesCD
    • Full Name: Compact Disk
    • Capacity: 700mb
    • Primary Use: Audio or Data Storage
  • TypesDVD
    • Full Name: Digital Versatile Disk
    • Capacity: 4.7 GB
    • Primary Use: Data or Video storage
  • TypesBlu-Ray
    • Full Name: Blu-Ray
    • Capacity: 27 GB
    • Primary Use: HD-Video or Data storage
  • Comparison Dual Layer Single Layer 54 GB 8.74 GB N/A 27 GB 4.7 GB 700 MB Blu-Ray DVD CD
  • Formats
    • Audio
    • CD-DA (Compact Disk-Digital Audio)
    • Data
    • UDF (Universal Disk Format)
    • ISO-9660 a.k.a. High Sierra
    • Video/Audio
    • CD-I (Compact Disk-Interactive)
    • Photos
    • Photo-CD
  • MPC(Multimedia Personal Computer)
    • Set of minimum requirements for multimedia systems
    • MPC3 Specifications :
    • 8 MB RAM
    • 540 MB Hard Drive
    • 75 MHz Processor
    • 4X CD-ROM
    • MPEG Support
    • Obsolete, no more meaning in PC World.
  • Speeds Access Speeds Comparison -- -- 7800 52x -- -- 7200 48x -- -- 6000 40x -- -- 4800 32x -- -- 3600 24x -- -- 2400 16x -- -- 1800 12x -- 88.72 1200 8x -- 44.36 600 4x -- 22.16 300 2x 36 11.08 150 1x BR (MBps) DVD (MBps) CD (KBps)
  • Burning
    • CD-R
    • CD-R Burners
    • CD-RW
    • CD-RW Burners
    • Music CDs
    • Burning is the process of writing data onto CDs.
  • BurningCD-R
    • CD – Recordable
    • WORM – Write Once Read Many
    • Chemicals used create brightly-colored surface
    • Special organic dyes are embedded into the disk
    • Secondary laser heats the dye, changing the reflectivity of the surface, equivalent to pits
  • BurningCD-R Burners
    • Contain a second laser, 10x more powerful than read laser, which burns surface of disk
    • Single-Session – CD-R can only be written to once, whether or not it is full
    • Multisession drives – CD-R can be written to multiple times, until full
    • Appears as a normal drive in windows
    • Burner software required to burn CDs
    • Rare (Compared to CD-RW Drives)
  • BurningCD-RW
    • Contains Amorphous (non-crystalline) substance
    • Once burned and cooled, substance becomes crystalline
    • Crystalline surface is reflective whereas Amorphous is not, equivalent to pits
  • BurningCD-RW Burners
    • Capability to burn CD-R and CD-RW
    • Utilizes packet writing under Universal Data Format (UDF)
    • Speeds represented by
    • Write Speed/Rewrite Speed/Read (2x2x24)
    • Excels over CD-R, enables easy backups
    • CD-ROM Drives now enable Multi-Read features which allow them to read CD-RWs
  • BurningMusic CDs
    • Stereo system’s contain CD-Burners as well
    • Normally dual-deck player/recorder combo
    • May not use CD-Rs, only Music CD-Rs
    • Helps against duplication
  • Commercial Production
    • CD-ROMS are created as follows
    • CD-ROM producer creates a master
    • Expensive machines create plastic using a high tolerance injection molding process
    • The copies are then coated with a reflective metallic coating and then coated with lacquer for protection.
  • Connections
    • Proprietary
    • ATAPI
    • SCSI
    • Obviously a CD Drive needs to be connected in order to operate. The connectors went through proprietary to standard.
  • ConnectionsProprietary
    • In early years, no standard was created yet
    • Panasonic, Sony, Mitsumi ; First Generation
    • All worked well, looked similar
    • Creative Labs integrated CD-ROMS into sound cards
    • Because they were proprietary, they faded away
  • ConnectionsATAPI
    • ATA Packet Interface; Regular 40-pin cable
    • Proved all proprietary options obsolete
    • Treats CD Drive exactly like Hard Drive
    • Drives act as either master or slave; Jumpers
    • Requires no CMOS change
    • Because of requests, BIOS makers added a do-nothing option in the CMOS to show that the CD-ROM drive is connected
  • ConnectionsSCSI
    • Small Computers System Interface
    • Predates ATAPI
    • Enables many drives to be installed to one computer
    • SCSI LUN (Logical Unit Number) function perfect for jukebox-like devices that need to change between many drives
    • SCSI-Wide was speed overkill; now use Narrow
    • Drives need unique SCSI ID; termination
    • Common for External
  • DOS Drivers
    • Overview
    • SCSI
    • ATAPI
    • MSCDEX
    • Drivers contain the set of codes the computer uses to communicate with the drive. The goal is to make it seem like any other storage device (Drive Letter).
  • DOS DriversOverview
    • Although DOS is obsolete, it still exists on boot disks
    • Two step process to enable CD Support:
    • 1) Hardware-specific driver installed via CONFIG.SYS
    • 2) Higher Level, non-hardware specific program called MSCDEX (ran from AUTOEXEC.BAT) gives a drive letter
  • DOS DriversSCSI
    • Activating requires: DOS device driver and DOS ASPI driver (ASPICD.SYS)
    • Required D:/ option gives the drive a system name while MSCDEX assigns a letter
    • DOS CONFIG.SYS contains, at minimum, the following:
  • DOS DriversATAPI
    • ATAPI drives drivers aren’t standardized, but only one driver is needed.
    • Most ATAPI drivers work universally, but the OAKCDROM.SYS file is recommended.
    • Put that file on a 95 startup disk and set the CONFIG.SYS to read it and you’re set with CD ROM support!
  • DOS DriversMSCDEX
    • Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions assigns letter
    • Loaded after the device driver and starts from AUTOEXEC.BAT
    • If device driver looks like:
    • The MSCDEX will look like:
    • Located at C:WindowsCommand
  • Windows 9x-2000 Drivers
    • CDFS (CD File System) Replaced MSCDEX
    • CDFS is protected-mode and part of Windows Installable File System (IFS)
    • This enables tighter integration which results in more flexible caching, better cooperation with networked drives, and access to storage from other operation systems.
    • Windows contains pre-loaded drivers
    • If installed correctly, a drive letter is automatically assigned
  • Device Manager
    • Contains most of the information about the CD-ROM
      • General tab notifies the current status of the drive
      • Driver tab enables the user to update the driver
      • Settings tab contains many options to change the functionality of a drive and contains the following features:
        • Drive letters, Drive can be tricked into using any letter (besides C:, A: and B:)
        • Autorun feature, automatically detects a CD and does an appropriate action.
  • CD-ROM Applications
    • Typical drives require no installation application
    • Special drives (CD-R, DVD, etc..) require applications to enable their features
    • Ataptec’s Roxio Easy Easy-CD Creator enables drag-and-drop functionality to CD-R/RW drives
  • Booting to CD-ROMS
    • Change boot order in CMOS
    • Be sure to reset back to default
  • Troubleshooting,1
    • Most common problem is: improper connection
    • Check Connections
      • Power Cable
      • Backwards connection
      • Jumper Settings
    • BIOS should recognize drive and display info
    • Unless using SCSI w/ Onboard BIOS
    • If SCSI, press Ctrl-A to access config options
  • Troubleshooting,2
    • Check Drivers
    • Try with CD-ROM (instead of R/RW)
    • Clean drive and disk
    • Don’t put disk in dishwasher
  • Color Books
    • Standards to refer to CD Media
    N/A Blue Book CD Extra N/A White Book Video CD Part I CD-MO (Magneto-Optical) Part II CD-R, includes PhotoCD Part III CD-RW Orange Book Recordable CDs N/A Green Book CD-I Mode 1 Original Format Mode 2 Form 1 and Form 2 Yellow Book Data CDs N/A Red Book Audio CDs Subtypes Book Application
  • Issues
    • Burning Issues
      • Most commonly IO Problem (Ignorant Operator)
    • Know what your media can do
      • Don’t buy CD-R and expect it to be RW
    • Media Issues
      • Find a brand that works for you and stick with it
    • Buffer Underrun
      • Buffer = Onboard RAM on CD-Burner
      • Underrun = When Buffer cannot be full
      • BURN-Proof solves problem
  • DVD
    • History
    • Video
      • Decoder
      • Monitor
      • Speakers
    • Players
    • DVD-ROM
    • DVD-RAM
    • DVD = Digital Versatile Disk
  • DVDHistory
    • Successor to Laserdisc
    • Developed in 1990, released in 1995
    • Look identical to CDs
    • Fastest growing media format in history
    • Why better?
      • Smaller pits
      • Single Sided (SS) or Dual Sided (DS)
      • Single Layer (SL) or Dual layer (DL)
  • DVDVideo
    • Entire video fits on one side
    • 4:3 or 16:9 Aspect Ratio
    • Enables MPEG2 (Motion Pictures Experts Group) compression standards.
    • 1280 x 720, 60fps, CD-Quality audio
  • DVDVideoDecoder
    • MPEG needs to be decoded on the fly
    • Either software or hardware
    • Software good choice if you have adequate CPU power
    • Hardware good choice if willing to insert PCI card with monitor and speaker outputs.
    • Hardware is the option for high-quality results without CPU overload.
  • DVDVideoMonitor
    • Monitor needs to be able to handle resolution
    • If outputting to television, compatible video card required
    • If outputting to television, quality not comparable
    • Other option is HDTV (High Definition Television)
  • DVDVideoSpeakers
    • DVD stores up to eight audio tracks
    • Useful for language dubbing
    • Useful for surround sound
  • DVDDVD Players
    • Many avaliable
    • Designed for home-theater integration
    • Support surround sound
    • Include video outputs which usually go to TV
    • DVD equivalent to CD-ROM
    • Nearly all DVD-ROM drives support DVD-Video
    • Most DVD drives are DVD-ROM drives
    • DVD equivalent to CD-RW
    • Gotten off to slow start
    • Great replacement for tape backup
    • Requires Caddies
    • Older caddies require disk stay inside
    • Newer caddies allow removable disks