CD Media


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CD Media

  1. 1. CD Media Edward Viau & Eric Pheterson
  2. 2. Hints <ul><li>To pass the test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to bullets and instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for text that stands out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take notes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To help you understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate information to own experience </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>12cm wide, 1.22mm thick circular disk </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed for Audio </li></ul><ul><li>Used to transport and save data or audio </li></ul>
  4. 4. How CD’s Work <ul><li>Microscopic pits exist on the shiny surface on the top of the CD </li></ul><ul><li>Pits = 1, Non-Pits = 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Lasers convert the burned pits into binary bits </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types <ul><li>CD </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Blu-Ray </li></ul><ul><li>Various forms of CDs exist, with more on their way in the future. Higher data capacity is achieved through condensing the pits on the media. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TypesCD <ul><li>Full Name: Compact Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 700mb </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Use: Audio or Data Storage </li></ul>
  7. 7. TypesDVD <ul><li>Full Name: Digital Versatile Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 4.7 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Use: Data or Video storage </li></ul>
  8. 8. TypesBlu-Ray <ul><li>Full Name: Blu-Ray </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 27 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Use: HD-Video or Data storage </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comparison Dual Layer Single Layer 54 GB 8.74 GB N/A 27 GB 4.7 GB 700 MB Blu-Ray DVD CD
  10. 10. Formats <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>CD-DA (Compact Disk-Digital Audio) </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>UDF (Universal Disk Format) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO-9660 a.k.a. High Sierra </li></ul><ul><li>Video/Audio </li></ul><ul><li>CD-I (Compact Disk-Interactive) </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Photo-CD </li></ul>
  11. 11. MPC(Multimedia Personal Computer) <ul><li>Set of minimum requirements for multimedia systems </li></ul><ul><li>MPC3 Specifications : </li></ul><ul><li>8 MB RAM </li></ul><ul><li>540 MB Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>75 MHz Processor </li></ul><ul><li>4X CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG Support </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolete, no more meaning in PC World. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Speeds Access Speeds Comparison -- -- 7800 52x -- -- 7200 48x -- -- 6000 40x -- -- 4800 32x -- -- 3600 24x -- -- 2400 16x -- -- 1800 12x -- 88.72 1200 8x -- 44.36 600 4x -- 22.16 300 2x 36 11.08 150 1x BR (MBps) DVD (MBps) CD (KBps)
  13. 13. Burning <ul><li>CD-R </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R Burners </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW Burners </li></ul><ul><li>Music CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Burning is the process of writing data onto CDs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. BurningCD-R <ul><li>CD – Recordable </li></ul><ul><li>WORM – Write Once Read Many </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals used create brightly-colored surface </li></ul><ul><li>Special organic dyes are embedded into the disk </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary laser heats the dye, changing the reflectivity of the surface, equivalent to pits </li></ul>
  15. 15. BurningCD-R Burners <ul><li>Contain a second laser, 10x more powerful than read laser, which burns surface of disk </li></ul><ul><li>Single-Session – CD-R can only be written to once, whether or not it is full </li></ul><ul><li>Multisession drives – CD-R can be written to multiple times, until full </li></ul><ul><li>Appears as a normal drive in windows </li></ul><ul><li>Burner software required to burn CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Rare (Compared to CD-RW Drives) </li></ul>
  16. 16. BurningCD-RW <ul><li>Contains Amorphous (non-crystalline) substance </li></ul><ul><li>Once burned and cooled, substance becomes crystalline </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline surface is reflective whereas Amorphous is not, equivalent to pits </li></ul>
  17. 17. BurningCD-RW Burners <ul><li>Capability to burn CD-R and CD-RW </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes packet writing under Universal Data Format (UDF) </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds represented by </li></ul><ul><li>Write Speed/Rewrite Speed/Read (2x2x24) </li></ul><ul><li>Excels over CD-R, enables easy backups </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM Drives now enable Multi-Read features which allow them to read CD-RWs </li></ul>
  18. 18. BurningMusic CDs <ul><li>Stereo system’s contain CD-Burners as well </li></ul><ul><li>Normally dual-deck player/recorder combo </li></ul><ul><li>May not use CD-Rs, only Music CD-Rs </li></ul><ul><li>Helps against duplication </li></ul>
  19. 19. Commercial Production <ul><li>CD-ROMS are created as follows </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM producer creates a master </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive machines create plastic using a high tolerance injection molding process </li></ul><ul><li>The copies are then coated with a reflective metallic coating and then coated with lacquer for protection. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Connections <ul><li>Proprietary </li></ul><ul><li>ATAPI </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously a CD Drive needs to be connected in order to operate. The connectors went through proprietary to standard. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ConnectionsProprietary <ul><li>In early years, no standard was created yet </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic, Sony, Mitsumi ; First Generation </li></ul><ul><li>All worked well, looked similar </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Labs integrated CD-ROMS into sound cards </li></ul><ul><li>Because they were proprietary, they faded away </li></ul>
  22. 22. ConnectionsATAPI <ul><li>ATA Packet Interface; Regular 40-pin cable </li></ul><ul><li>Proved all proprietary options obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>Treats CD Drive exactly like Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Drives act as either master or slave; Jumpers </li></ul><ul><li>Requires no CMOS change </li></ul><ul><li>Because of requests, BIOS makers added a do-nothing option in the CMOS to show that the CD-ROM drive is connected </li></ul>
  23. 23. ConnectionsSCSI <ul><li>Small Computers System Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Predates ATAPI </li></ul><ul><li>Enables many drives to be installed to one computer </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI LUN (Logical Unit Number) function perfect for jukebox-like devices that need to change between many drives </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI-Wide was speed overkill; now use Narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Drives need unique SCSI ID; termination </li></ul><ul><li>Common for External </li></ul>
  24. 24. DOS Drivers <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>SCSI </li></ul><ul><li>ATAPI </li></ul><ul><li>MSCDEX </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers contain the set of codes the computer uses to communicate with the drive. The goal is to make it seem like any other storage device (Drive Letter). </li></ul>
  25. 25. DOS DriversOverview <ul><li>Although DOS is obsolete, it still exists on boot disks </li></ul><ul><li>Two step process to enable CD Support: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Hardware-specific driver installed via CONFIG.SYS </li></ul><ul><li>2) Higher Level, non-hardware specific program called MSCDEX (ran from AUTOEXEC.BAT) gives a drive letter </li></ul>
  26. 26. DOS DriversSCSI <ul><li>Activating requires: DOS device driver and DOS ASPI driver (ASPICD.SYS) </li></ul><ul><li>Required D:/ option gives the drive a system name while MSCDEX assigns a letter </li></ul><ul><li>DOS CONFIG.SYS contains, at minimum, the following: </li></ul><ul><li>DEVICE=A:DOSHIMEM.SYS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVICE=A:SCSIASPI2DOS.SYS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVICE=A:SCSIASPICD.SYS /D:ASPICD </li></ul>
  27. 27. DOS DriversATAPI <ul><li>ATAPI drives drivers aren’t standardized, but only one driver is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most ATAPI drivers work universally, but the OAKCDROM.SYS file is recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>Put that file on a 95 startup disk and set the CONFIG.SYS to read it and you’re set with CD ROM support! </li></ul>
  28. 28. DOS DriversMSCDEX <ul><li>Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions assigns letter </li></ul><ul><li>Loaded after the device driver and starts from AUTOEXEC.BAT </li></ul><ul><li>If device driver looks like: </li></ul><ul><li>DEVICE=C:DEVHIT-IDE.SYS /D:CHIMCHIM </li></ul><ul><li>The MSCDEX will look like: </li></ul><ul><li>MSCDEX /D:CHIMCHIM </li></ul><ul><li>Located at C:WindowsCommand </li></ul>
  29. 29. Windows 9x-2000 Drivers <ul><li>CDFS (CD File System) Replaced MSCDEX </li></ul><ul><li>CDFS is protected-mode and part of Windows Installable File System (IFS) </li></ul><ul><li>This enables tighter integration which results in more flexible caching, better cooperation with networked drives, and access to storage from other operation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Windows contains pre-loaded drivers </li></ul><ul><li>If installed correctly, a drive letter is automatically assigned </li></ul>
  30. 30. Device Manager <ul><li>Contains most of the information about the CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General tab notifies the current status of the drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver tab enables the user to update the driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings tab contains many options to change the functionality of a drive and contains the following features: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive letters, Drive can be tricked into using any letter (besides C:, A: and B:) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autorun feature, automatically detects a CD and does an appropriate action. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. CD-ROM Applications <ul><li>Typical drives require no installation application </li></ul><ul><li>Special drives (CD-R, DVD, etc..) require applications to enable their features </li></ul><ul><li>Ataptec’s Roxio Easy Easy-CD Creator enables drag-and-drop functionality to CD-R/RW drives </li></ul>
  32. 32. Booting to CD-ROMS <ul><li>Change boot order in CMOS </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to reset back to default </li></ul>
  33. 33. Troubleshooting,1 <ul><li>Most common problem is: improper connection </li></ul><ul><li>Check Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backwards connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jumper Settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIOS should recognize drive and display info </li></ul><ul><li>Unless using SCSI w/ Onboard BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>If SCSI, press Ctrl-A to access config options </li></ul>
  34. 34. Troubleshooting,2 <ul><li>Check Drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Try with CD-ROM (instead of R/RW) </li></ul><ul><li>Clean drive and disk </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t put disk in dishwasher </li></ul>
  35. 35. Color Books <ul><li>Standards to refer to CD Media </li></ul>N/A Blue Book CD Extra N/A White Book Video CD Part I CD-MO (Magneto-Optical) Part II CD-R, includes PhotoCD Part III CD-RW Orange Book Recordable CDs N/A Green Book CD-I Mode 1 Original Format Mode 2 Form 1 and Form 2 Yellow Book Data CDs N/A Red Book Audio CDs Subtypes Book Application
  36. 36. Issues <ul><li>Burning Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly IO Problem (Ignorant Operator) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know what your media can do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t buy CD-R and expect it to be RW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a brand that works for you and stick with it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffer Underrun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer = Onboard RAM on CD-Burner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underrun = When Buffer cannot be full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BURN-Proof solves problem </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. DVD <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Players </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-RAM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD = Digital Versatile Disk </li></ul>
  38. 38. DVDHistory <ul><li>Successor to Laserdisc </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1990, released in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Look identical to CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest growing media format in history </li></ul><ul><li>Why better? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller pits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Sided (SS) or Dual Sided (DS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Layer (SL) or Dual layer (DL) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. DVDVideo <ul><li>Entire video fits on one side </li></ul><ul><li>4:3 or 16:9 Aspect Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Enables MPEG2 (Motion Pictures Experts Group) compression standards. </li></ul><ul><li>1280 x 720, 60fps, CD-Quality audio </li></ul>
  40. 40. DVDVideoDecoder <ul><li>MPEG needs to be decoded on the fly </li></ul><ul><li>Either software or hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software good choice if you have adequate CPU power </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware good choice if willing to insert PCI card with monitor and speaker outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware is the option for high-quality results without CPU overload. </li></ul>
  41. 41. DVDVideoMonitor <ul><li>Monitor needs to be able to handle resolution </li></ul><ul><li>If outputting to television, compatible video card required </li></ul><ul><li>If outputting to television, quality not comparable </li></ul><ul><li>Other option is HDTV (High Definition Television) </li></ul>
  42. 42. DVDVideoSpeakers <ul><li>DVD stores up to eight audio tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for language dubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for surround sound </li></ul>
  43. 43. DVDDVD Players <ul><li>Many avaliable </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for home-theater integration </li></ul><ul><li>Support surround sound </li></ul><ul><li>Include video outputs which usually go to TV </li></ul>
  44. 44. DVDDVD-ROM <ul><li>DVD equivalent to CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all DVD-ROM drives support DVD-Video </li></ul><ul><li>Most DVD drives are DVD-ROM drives </li></ul>
  45. 45. DVDDVD-RAM <ul><li>DVD equivalent to CD-RW </li></ul><ul><li>Gotten off to slow start </li></ul><ul><li>Great replacement for tape backup </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Caddies </li></ul><ul><li>Older caddies require disk stay inside </li></ul><ul><li>Newer caddies allow removable disks </li></ul>