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    CD Media CD Media Presentation Transcript

    • CD Media Edward Viau & Eric Pheterson
    • Hints
      • To pass the test
        • Pay attention to bullets and instructor
        • Look for text that stands out
        • Take notes
      • To help you understand
        • Relate information to own experience
    • Overview
      • 12cm wide, 1.22mm thick circular disk
      • Originally designed for Audio
      • Used to transport and save data or audio
    • How CD’s Work
      • Microscopic pits exist on the shiny surface on the top of the CD
      • Pits = 1, Non-Pits = 0
      • Lasers convert the burned pits into binary bits
    • Types
      • CD
      • DVD
      • Blu-Ray
      • Various forms of CDs exist, with more on their way in the future. Higher data capacity is achieved through condensing the pits on the media.
    • TypesCD
      • Full Name: Compact Disk
      • Capacity: 700mb
      • Primary Use: Audio or Data Storage
    • TypesDVD
      • Full Name: Digital Versatile Disk
      • Capacity: 4.7 GB
      • Primary Use: Data or Video storage
    • TypesBlu-Ray
      • Full Name: Blu-Ray
      • Capacity: 27 GB
      • Primary Use: HD-Video or Data storage
    • Comparison Dual Layer Single Layer 54 GB 8.74 GB N/A 27 GB 4.7 GB 700 MB Blu-Ray DVD CD
    • Formats
      • Audio
      • CD-DA (Compact Disk-Digital Audio)
      • Data
      • UDF (Universal Disk Format)
      • ISO-9660 a.k.a. High Sierra
      • Video/Audio
      • CD-I (Compact Disk-Interactive)
      • Photos
      • Photo-CD
    • MPC(Multimedia Personal Computer)
      • Set of minimum requirements for multimedia systems
      • MPC3 Specifications :
      • 8 MB RAM
      • 540 MB Hard Drive
      • 75 MHz Processor
      • 4X CD-ROM
      • MPEG Support
      • Obsolete, no more meaning in PC World.
    • Speeds Access Speeds Comparison -- -- 7800 52x -- -- 7200 48x -- -- 6000 40x -- -- 4800 32x -- -- 3600 24x -- -- 2400 16x -- -- 1800 12x -- 88.72 1200 8x -- 44.36 600 4x -- 22.16 300 2x 36 11.08 150 1x BR (MBps) DVD (MBps) CD (KBps)
    • Burning
      • CD-R
      • CD-R Burners
      • CD-RW
      • CD-RW Burners
      • Music CDs
      • Burning is the process of writing data onto CDs.
    • BurningCD-R
      • CD – Recordable
      • WORM – Write Once Read Many
      • Chemicals used create brightly-colored surface
      • Special organic dyes are embedded into the disk
      • Secondary laser heats the dye, changing the reflectivity of the surface, equivalent to pits
    • BurningCD-R Burners
      • Contain a second laser, 10x more powerful than read laser, which burns surface of disk
      • Single-Session – CD-R can only be written to once, whether or not it is full
      • Multisession drives – CD-R can be written to multiple times, until full
      • Appears as a normal drive in windows
      • Burner software required to burn CDs
      • Rare (Compared to CD-RW Drives)
    • BurningCD-RW
      • Contains Amorphous (non-crystalline) substance
      • Once burned and cooled, substance becomes crystalline
      • Crystalline surface is reflective whereas Amorphous is not, equivalent to pits
    • BurningCD-RW Burners
      • Capability to burn CD-R and CD-RW
      • Utilizes packet writing under Universal Data Format (UDF)
      • Speeds represented by
      • Write Speed/Rewrite Speed/Read (2x2x24)
      • Excels over CD-R, enables easy backups
      • CD-ROM Drives now enable Multi-Read features which allow them to read CD-RWs
    • BurningMusic CDs
      • Stereo system’s contain CD-Burners as well
      • Normally dual-deck player/recorder combo
      • May not use CD-Rs, only Music CD-Rs
      • Helps against duplication
    • Commercial Production
      • CD-ROMS are created as follows
      • CD-ROM producer creates a master
      • Expensive machines create plastic using a high tolerance injection molding process
      • The copies are then coated with a reflective metallic coating and then coated with lacquer for protection.
    • Connections
      • Proprietary
      • ATAPI
      • SCSI
      • Obviously a CD Drive needs to be connected in order to operate. The connectors went through proprietary to standard.
    • ConnectionsProprietary
      • In early years, no standard was created yet
      • Panasonic, Sony, Mitsumi ; First Generation
      • All worked well, looked similar
      • Creative Labs integrated CD-ROMS into sound cards
      • Because they were proprietary, they faded away
    • ConnectionsATAPI
      • ATA Packet Interface; Regular 40-pin cable
      • Proved all proprietary options obsolete
      • Treats CD Drive exactly like Hard Drive
      • Drives act as either master or slave; Jumpers
      • Requires no CMOS change
      • Because of requests, BIOS makers added a do-nothing option in the CMOS to show that the CD-ROM drive is connected
    • ConnectionsSCSI
      • Small Computers System Interface
      • Predates ATAPI
      • Enables many drives to be installed to one computer
      • SCSI LUN (Logical Unit Number) function perfect for jukebox-like devices that need to change between many drives
      • SCSI-Wide was speed overkill; now use Narrow
      • Drives need unique SCSI ID; termination
      • Common for External
    • DOS Drivers
      • Overview
      • SCSI
      • ATAPI
      • MSCDEX
      • Drivers contain the set of codes the computer uses to communicate with the drive. The goal is to make it seem like any other storage device (Drive Letter).
    • DOS DriversOverview
      • Although DOS is obsolete, it still exists on boot disks
      • Two step process to enable CD Support:
      • 1) Hardware-specific driver installed via CONFIG.SYS
      • 2) Higher Level, non-hardware specific program called MSCDEX (ran from AUTOEXEC.BAT) gives a drive letter
    • DOS DriversSCSI
      • Activating requires: DOS device driver and DOS ASPI driver (ASPICD.SYS)
      • Required D:/ option gives the drive a system name while MSCDEX assigns a letter
      • DOS CONFIG.SYS contains, at minimum, the following:
    • DOS DriversATAPI
      • ATAPI drives drivers aren’t standardized, but only one driver is needed.
      • Most ATAPI drivers work universally, but the OAKCDROM.SYS file is recommended.
      • Put that file on a 95 startup disk and set the CONFIG.SYS to read it and you’re set with CD ROM support!
    • DOS DriversMSCDEX
      • Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions assigns letter
      • Loaded after the device driver and starts from AUTOEXEC.BAT
      • If device driver looks like:
      • The MSCDEX will look like:
      • Located at C:WindowsCommand
    • Windows 9x-2000 Drivers
      • CDFS (CD File System) Replaced MSCDEX
      • CDFS is protected-mode and part of Windows Installable File System (IFS)
      • This enables tighter integration which results in more flexible caching, better cooperation with networked drives, and access to storage from other operation systems.
      • Windows contains pre-loaded drivers
      • If installed correctly, a drive letter is automatically assigned
    • Device Manager
      • Contains most of the information about the CD-ROM
        • General tab notifies the current status of the drive
        • Driver tab enables the user to update the driver
        • Settings tab contains many options to change the functionality of a drive and contains the following features:
          • Drive letters, Drive can be tricked into using any letter (besides C:, A: and B:)
          • Autorun feature, automatically detects a CD and does an appropriate action.
    • CD-ROM Applications
      • Typical drives require no installation application
      • Special drives (CD-R, DVD, etc..) require applications to enable their features
      • Ataptec’s Roxio Easy Easy-CD Creator enables drag-and-drop functionality to CD-R/RW drives
    • Booting to CD-ROMS
      • Change boot order in CMOS
      • Be sure to reset back to default
    • Troubleshooting,1
      • Most common problem is: improper connection
      • Check Connections
        • Power Cable
        • Backwards connection
        • Jumper Settings
      • BIOS should recognize drive and display info
      • Unless using SCSI w/ Onboard BIOS
      • If SCSI, press Ctrl-A to access config options
    • Troubleshooting,2
      • Check Drivers
      • Try with CD-ROM (instead of R/RW)
      • Clean drive and disk
      • Don’t put disk in dishwasher
    • Color Books
      • Standards to refer to CD Media
      N/A Blue Book CD Extra N/A White Book Video CD Part I CD-MO (Magneto-Optical) Part II CD-R, includes PhotoCD Part III CD-RW Orange Book Recordable CDs N/A Green Book CD-I Mode 1 Original Format Mode 2 Form 1 and Form 2 Yellow Book Data CDs N/A Red Book Audio CDs Subtypes Book Application
    • Issues
      • Burning Issues
        • Most commonly IO Problem (Ignorant Operator)
      • Know what your media can do
        • Don’t buy CD-R and expect it to be RW
      • Media Issues
        • Find a brand that works for you and stick with it
      • Buffer Underrun
        • Buffer = Onboard RAM on CD-Burner
        • Underrun = When Buffer cannot be full
        • BURN-Proof solves problem
    • DVD
      • History
      • Video
        • Decoder
        • Monitor
        • Speakers
      • Players
      • DVD-ROM
      • DVD-RAM
      • DVD = Digital Versatile Disk
    • DVDHistory
      • Successor to Laserdisc
      • Developed in 1990, released in 1995
      • Look identical to CDs
      • Fastest growing media format in history
      • Why better?
        • Smaller pits
        • Single Sided (SS) or Dual Sided (DS)
        • Single Layer (SL) or Dual layer (DL)
    • DVDVideo
      • Entire video fits on one side
      • 4:3 or 16:9 Aspect Ratio
      • Enables MPEG2 (Motion Pictures Experts Group) compression standards.
      • 1280 x 720, 60fps, CD-Quality audio
    • DVDVideoDecoder
      • MPEG needs to be decoded on the fly
      • Either software or hardware
      • Software good choice if you have adequate CPU power
      • Hardware good choice if willing to insert PCI card with monitor and speaker outputs.
      • Hardware is the option for high-quality results without CPU overload.
    • DVDVideoMonitor
      • Monitor needs to be able to handle resolution
      • If outputting to television, compatible video card required
      • If outputting to television, quality not comparable
      • Other option is HDTV (High Definition Television)
    • DVDVideoSpeakers
      • DVD stores up to eight audio tracks
      • Useful for language dubbing
      • Useful for surround sound
    • DVDDVD Players
      • Many avaliable
      • Designed for home-theater integration
      • Support surround sound
      • Include video outputs which usually go to TV
      • DVD equivalent to CD-ROM
      • Nearly all DVD-ROM drives support DVD-Video
      • Most DVD drives are DVD-ROM drives
      • DVD equivalent to CD-RW
      • Gotten off to slow start
      • Great replacement for tape backup
      • Requires Caddies
      • Older caddies require disk stay inside
      • Newer caddies allow removable disks