Gertude Simmons


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Gertude Simmons

  1. 1. BY: Eddie Pettis Sean Flynn Logan Drew
  2. 2. Gertrude Bonnin <ul><li>Born in 1876, on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota </li></ul><ul><li>Father - Felker (White man) </li></ul><ul><li>Mother - Ellen Tate Iyohinwin (She Reaches for the Wind) Simmons, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>full-blooded Sioux. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Gertrude Bonnin <ul><li>Age 8 left the Reservation </li></ul><ul><li>White's Manual Labor Institute in Wabash, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Age 19, Simmons enrolled at Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Taught at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gertrude Bonnin <ul><li>1902 - Married Raymond Talesfase Bonnin </li></ul><ul><li>The Society of the American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>1916 - Became the society’s secretary </li></ul><ul><li>1926 Bonnin founded the National Council of American Indians </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gertrude Bonnin <ul><li>Published short stories and autobiographical essays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Monthly and Harper’s Monthly under her pen name, Zitkala-Sa (Red Bird). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. First Period of her Literature <ul><li>Was one of the first Sioux women to write the stories and traditions of her people. </li></ul><ul><li>The period she was writing this was the turn of the century 1900 - 1904 </li></ul><ul><li>Such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressions of an Indian Childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The School Days of an Indian Girl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Indian Teacher among Indians </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Literature <ul><li>She continued to write after those stories but she did not publish them, such as the “Sun Dance Opera” & “Dreams and Thunder” which are published to by P. Jane Hafen. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Sun Dance Opera” was performed in 1913 presented at Orpheus Hall in Vernal, Utah, a town in the northeast. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Second Period of her Literature <ul><li>This period was almost exclusively made up of political writings </li></ul><ul><li> Such as : American Indian Stories. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong political voice for Native Americans </li></ul>
  9. 9. Literature <ul><li>Bonnin's masterful use of language. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: &quot;The Big Red Apples&quot; causes white readers to re-think traditional Christian conquests by suggesting that the Indian was corrupted by the dominant culture. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Native Americans <ul><li>Many Natives as well as Bonnin went through some tough times. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Native Americans were sent off to boarding school. </li></ul><ul><li>As a Native American growing up they were very free. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Wounded Knee Massacre <ul><li>Last of the Indian wars </li></ul><ul><li>Effected not only her life but her literature. </li></ul>
  12. 12. School Days <ul><li>She was very innocent </li></ul><ul><li>Innocence to experienced </li></ul>
  13. 13. Questions <ul><li>1. What College did Bonnin attend? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer- Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>2. How was her hair symbolized in “The Cutting of My Long Hair” </li></ul><ul><li>Answer- In the Native American culture that she came from, cutting one’s hair was symbolic of shame and or mourning. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Even though the Indians had a tough life in this time period how was Bonnin’s childhood? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer- Her childhood was nice she described it as free and was surrounded by people she trusted. </li></ul>