CrossRefImproving scholarly communications                                Ed Pentz                                Executiv...
Strategic .org•   CrossRef: membership    association of publishers•   Founded for strategic reasons:    services best ach...
Persistence....for a very long time
How to ensure long-term persistence?•   Technical: two data centers, backups,    disaster recovery plan•   IP and trademar...
Founding publishers• AAAS, Academic Press, AIP, ACM,  Blackwell, Elsevier, IEEE, Kluwer  Academic, Nature Publishing Group...
61 members2 million articles
● AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING ● ACADEMY OF TRAUMATOLOGY ● ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA ● ACTA PRESS ● AGRICULTURAL HISTORY SOCI...
Top	  US	  Web	  Properties    Nov-­‐99                         Visits	  (Millions)   Sep-­‐09                      Visits...
Computer scientist Diomidis Spinellis, for instance, examined    4,224 URLs in 2,471 computer science articles… and discov...
Photo: `R4cH3L on Flickr
The solution
Technical           Infrastructure•   IDs + Metadata•   Service - persistent    reference linking•   Managed system – no  ...
Business           Infrastructure•   One agreement with    CrossRef is a linking    agreement with all    CrossRef partici...
What is a DOI?DigitalObjectIdentifier
E Pentz7 Chestnut Square                         E Pentz                    7 Chestnut Square
E Pentz7 Chestnut Square                         E Pentz                    7 Chestnut Square                             ...
G BilderPO Box 1827                   E Pentz              12 Courtland Road                 E Pentz              29 Silve...
Pyschoceramics                          Reviewdoi:10.234/pcr45676                         www.puba.com                    ...
User clicks on                                                                                    User accesses         Cr...
So why else is this   important?
om                    o.c                .fo          w   ww     p ://  tht
What’s in a name?  doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100  doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100  doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100http://dx.doi.o...
International DOI         Foundation•Oversees central DOI System•Infrastructure for all RAs•Agencies rules of the road for...
IDF Registration Agencies(RAs)•   Bowker               •   mEDRA•   CrossRef             •   MovieLabs•   DataCite        ...
CrossRef and           DataCite•   CrossRef = scholarly publishers•   DataCite = National libraries and data    centers
Blog Posts
Journals   Books   Conferences   Components
Content beyond journals…•Books•Standards        DOIs	  Registered   Journals•Proceedings                           Books•I...
!""#$%&($                                             !"#$%&()*+,#%,#!)-%.#*/+&&0%1$""&                                   ...
DOI Assignment and Reference Linking•   Maximize reference linking among books,    journals and conference proceedings•   ...
Linking 5 centuries of contentCentury     # of DOIs deposited17th                       1,68618th                       4,...
30,000,000
Services                         • Cross-publisher                           reference linking                         • C...
The Cross-Publisher Plagiarism Screening Initiative
ctrl + c   ctrl + v
Plagiarism Detection
plagiarism [play‐jă‐rizm], the theft of ideas... orof written passages or works, where these arepassed off as ones own work...
Legitimate Duplication
Software that analyses and compares textDatabase of content to check text against
● AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING ● ACADEMY OF TRAUMATOLOGY ● ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA ● ACTA PRESS ● AGRICULTURAL HISTORY SOCI...
● AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING ● ACADEMY OF TRAUMATOLOGY ● ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA ● ACTA PRESS ● AGRICULTURAL HISTORY SOCI...
Technology       Est. 1996       8,500 schools, colleges &       universities worldwide
Manuscript                         Triage       Acceptance    Submission                                                 Y...
Manuscript              Triage   AcceptanceSubmission                                Yes                           No     ...
129 publishers28 million content items indexed    51,200 titles12,000 manuscripts checked each month
0                      2,600                              5,200                                      7,800                ...
Deterrence Factor
CrossCheck CommunityUsers’ email discussion listCrossRef supportFormation of guidelines, best practices etc.
Dealing with PlagiarismOffice of Research Integrity    http://ori.dhhs.gov/misconduct/index.shtmlCommittee on Publication Et...
Positive Feedback“This is an invaluable tool and muchappreciated by our Editors.”                         “By far the most...
PricingAnnual admin fee (20% of CrossRefmembership fee)Per-document checking fee ($0.75– $0.25)
Why join?Increase trust in your content by validatingits originalityDeter would-be plagiarists from submittingto your publ...
CrossMark
How Tim we determine whether there needed to be new  Sir can told BBC News that we can trust the material emanating      f...
Registration, Certification, Awareness, Stewardship
“The Web is by nature an interactive environment,yet online journals are mostly static, befitting theirtraditional role as...
Certification of the version of recordOngoing stewardship of scholarly content
erratum corrigendum   updatesenhancements withdrawals  retractions new editions
Industry Problems•   The scholarly pre-publication process is    largely invisible•   The common belief that the publisher...
•   A logo that identi es a publisher certi ed    version of record•   Clicking the logo tells you    •   If the copy is p...
What Does it Cost?                 Cu                    rre                Bac nt                   kfil con              ...
•   Participation is optional•   Participants maintain their content•   Participants agree to keep CrossMark metadata    u...
What do Publishers        Have to do?•   Deposit CrossMark metadata - with CrossRef deposit•   Keep CrossMark metadata upd...
When is it happening?Current: test system: usability testingDec-Feb: limited pilot: live on real contentApril 2011: launch
What’s the problem?    • Variations - normalize: authority files    • Common Family Names: Smith    • Asian Family Names: ...
What’s the problem?                 		            	   	   Wei Wang    	   	        	            	   	   	   	         	   ...
Who will benefit from ORCID?            Researchers              Libraries             Institutions          Funding agenc...
• Open Researcher & Contributor ID - a  unique number for researchers• ORCID, Inc - a US not-for-profit company• Will solve...
How will ORCID do this? •  Motivate Registration  •  Universities – require ORCID for job application  •  Funding Bodies –...
ORCID BoardLiz Allen, Wellcome TrustAmy Brand, Harvard UniversityCraig Van Dyck, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Martin Fenner, Han...
125+ Participants                    8
Participant Organization Types?5F#:G#H-:(I16%(            ;C&D%5(                                       BCDE,@%5(         ...
TimelineFeb	  	  	  	  	  	  March	  	  	  	  	  	  April	  	  	  	  	  	  	  May	  	  	  	  	  	  	  June	  	  	  	  	  	...
Express your interest at www.orcid.org
Conclusion•   CrossRef provides infrastructure to enable    publishers to enhance their content and    services•   CrossRe...
Conclusions•   CrossRef services enable publishers to    highlight the value they add to content•   CrossRef services give...
Final Thought•   No publisher is an island - collaboration and    connection are the keys
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CrossRef Overview

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An overview of CrossRef services given to Japanese publishers on 16 November 2010 in Tokyo.

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CrossRef Overview

  1. 1. CrossRefImproving scholarly communications Ed Pentz Executive Director
  2. 2. Strategic .org• CrossRef: membership association of publishers• Founded for strategic reasons: services best achieved collaboratively• 16 member board of directors from membership• Broad church: Commercial, societies, non-profits, university presses, OA publishers – 66% non-profit• A powerful NETWORK
  3. 3. Persistence....for a very long time
  4. 4. How to ensure long-term persistence?• Technical: two data centers, backups, disaster recovery plan• IP and trademarks: ownership of IP of system software and a strong brand• Sustainable org: good governance, sound business model (surpluses) and Cash Reserve Fund
  5. 5. Founding publishers• AAAS, Academic Press, AIP, ACM, Blackwell, Elsevier, IEEE, Kluwer Academic, Nature Publishing Group, OUP, Springer, Wiley
  6. 6. 61 members2 million articles
  7. 7. ● AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING ● ACADEMY OF TRAUMATOLOGY ● ACTA DERMATO-VENEREOLOGICA ● ACTA PRESS ● AGRICULTURAL HISTORY SOCIETY ● AHRC RESEARCH CENTRE ● AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ● AIS EDUCATOR ASSOCIATION ● AKADEMIAI KIADO RT ● ALEXANDRINE PRESS ● ALLERTON PRESS ● ALPHAMED PRESS ● AMERICAN ACADEMY OF IMPLANT DENTISTRY ● AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS ● AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PERIODONTOLOGY ● AMERICAN ACCOUNTING ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR CANCER RESEARCH ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE (AAAS) (the publisher of SCIENCE) ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS (AAPG/DATAPAGES) ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENTISTS ● AMERICAN ASSOCIATION ON MENTAL RETARDATION ● AMERICAN BOARD OF FAMILY MEDICINE ● AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (ACS) ● AMERICAN CLEFT PALATE ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS ● AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MEDICAL PHYSICS (ACMP) ● AMERICAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE ● AMERICAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY PATHOLOGISTS ● AMERICAN DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN DENTAL SOCIETY OF ANESTHESIOLOGY ● AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY ● AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION (AGU) ● AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS (AIAA) ● AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS (AIP) ● AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEURORADIOLOGY ● AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE ● AMERICAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY (AMS) ● AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY ● AMERICAN PEANUT RESEARCH AND EDUCATION SOCIETY ● AMERICAN PHARMACISTS ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY (APS) ● AMERICAN PHYSICAL THERAPY ASSOCIATION (APTA) ● AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING ● AMERICANPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) ● AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN ROENTGEN RAY SOCIETY ● AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS ● AMERICAN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHERS ● AMERICAN SCIENTIST ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ASBMB) ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR CELL BIOLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION (ASCI) ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR CLINICAL PATHOLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL NEUROTHERAPEUTICS ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INVESTIGATIVE PATHOLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANDROLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANIMAL SCIENCE ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY (ASCO) ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEALTH SYSTEM PHARMACISTS ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT BIOLOGISTS (ASPB) ● AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT TAXONOMISTS ● AMERICAN SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION ● AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY ● AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION ● AMMONS SCIENTIFIC ● THE ANGLE ORTHODONTIST ● ANNALS OF FAMILY MEDICINE ● ANNUAL REVIEWS ● ARNOLD PUBLISHERS ● ASM INTERNATIONAL ● ASME INTERNATIONAL ● ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS ● ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY (ACM) ● ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN VISION AND OPHTHALMOLOGY (ARVO) ● ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION ● ASSOCIATION FOR VASCULAR ACCESS ● ASSOCIATION OF LEARNED AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY PUBLISHERS (ALPSP) ● ASTM INTERNATIONAL ● ATLANTIS PRESS ● AUSTRALIAN ACADEMIC PRESS ● AUSTRALIAN COMPUTER SOCIETY ● BAYWOOD PUBLISHING COMPANY INC. ● BC DECKER INC. ● BEECH TREE PUBLISHING ● BEGELL HOUSE ● BELLWETHER PUBLISHING ● BENTHAM SCIENCE ● BERGHAHN BOOKS ● BERKELEY ELECTRONIC PRESS ● BIOLOGICAL PROCEDURES ONLINE ● BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. ● BIOONE ● BIOPHYSICAL SOCIETY ● BIOSCIENTIFICA ● BLACKHORSE PUBLISHING ● BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP ● BRILL ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS ● BRITISH EDITORIAL SOCIETY OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY ● BRITISH INSTITUTE OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING ● BRITISH INSTITUTE OF RADIOLOGY ● BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS ● CABI PUBLISHING ● CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN SCIENCE ● CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS (CUP) ● CANADIAN ACADEMIC ACCOUNTING ASSOCIATION ● CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS ● CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION ● CANADIAN METEOROLOGICAL AND OCEANOGRAPHIC SOCIETY ● CANADIAN OPTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● CARDEN JENNINGS PUBLISHING CO. ● CARL HANSER VERLAG ● CARTOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SOCIETY ● CELL STRESS SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL ● CENTER FOR PSYCHIATRIC REHABILITATION ● CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION ● CENTRAALBUREAU VOOR SCHIMMELCULTURES ● CENTRE FOR BIOSCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS ● CFA INSTITUTE ● CLAY MINERALS SOCIETY ● COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS (CSHL) ● COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION ● COMMON GROUND ● COMMONWEALTH FORESTRY ASSOCIATION ● THE COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS ● COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE RESEARCH CENTER ● COMPETENCE NETWORK PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY & HEMATOLOGY ● CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL ● CORNELL LABORATORY OF ORNITHOLOGY ● CROP SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● CSIRO PUBLISHING ● CURRENT BIODATA ● CZECH GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● CZECH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ● DAAAM INTERNATIONAL ● DARTMOUTH COLLEGE LIBRARY ● DATA TRACE PUBLISHING COMPANY ● DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL IMAGING, UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA ● DEPARTMENT OF POLYMER ENGINEERING, SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, (BME) ● DIETITIANS OF CANADA ● DOVE MEDICAL PRESS ● DOWN SYNDROME EDUCATIONAL TRUST ● DUKE UNIVERSITY PRESS ● E-MED LTD. ● ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● ECOMED PUBLISHERS ● EDICIONES DOYMA ● EDP SCIENCES ● THE ELECTROMAGNETICS ACADEMY ● ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ● ELSEVIER ● EMERALD (formerly MCB UP) ● EMW PUBLISHING ● THE ENDOCRINE SOCIETY ● ENGLISH LITERATURE IN TRANSITION ● ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES ● EPI SCP (EL PROFESIONAL DE LA INFORMACION) ● EPP PUBLICATIONS LTD. ● EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL LTD. ● EQUINOX PUBLISHING LTD. ● ERDKUNDE ● ESTONIAN ACADEMY PUBLISHERS ● EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF AQUATIC MAMMALS ● EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF CARDIOTHORACIC SURGERY ● EUROPEAN OPTICAL SOCIETY ● EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOCIETY ● FACULTY OF FAMILY PLANNING AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE ● FDI WORLD DENTAL PRESS LTD. ● FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SOCIETIES FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY (FASEB) ● THE FEINSTEIN INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH ● FIBRE DIFFRACTION REVIEW ● FISHERIES SCIENCES.COM ● FORUM FOR GLOBAL HEALTH PROTECTION ● FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUT FUR MATERIALFLUSS UND LOGISTIK ● FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE ● FUNDACION INFANCIA Y APRENDIZAJE ● FUTURE DRUGS ● FUTURE MEDICINE LTD ● GAZI UNIVERSITY - TECHNICAL EDUCATION FACULTY ● THE GENETICS SOCIETY OF AMERICA ● GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA (GSA) ● GEOPHYSICAL CENTER OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ● GEOSCIENCEWORLD ● GUILFORD PUBLICATIONS ● GUNTHER EYSENBACH, JMIR PUBLICATIONS ● GWV FACHVERLAGE GmbH/VIEWEG PUBLISHING ● THE ALAN GUTTMACHER INSTITUTE ● HARVEY WHITNEY BOOKS CO. ● THE HAWORTH PRESS, INC. ● HEALTH AFFAIRS (PROJECT HOPE) ● HELDREF PUBLICATIONS ● THE HIGHER EDUCATION ELECTRONIC & AUDIO-VIDEO PRESS ● HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION ● THE HISTOCHEMICAL SOCIETY ● THE HISTORIC BRASS SOCIETY ● HOGREFE & HUBER PUBLISHING GROUP ● HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY ● HUMANA PRESS ● IFIS PUBLISHING ● ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA (IESNA) ● IM PUBLICATIONS ● IMPROBABLE RESEARCH INC. ● INDERSCIENCE ENTERPRISES ● INDIANA UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR GENOMICS AND BIOINFORMATICS ● INDIANA UNIVERSITY MATHEMATICS JOURNAL ● INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS ● INFORMA UK LIMITED ● INSTITUTE FOR OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND THE MANAGEMENT SCIENCES (INFORMS) ● INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS ● INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IET) ● THE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE) ● INSTITUTE OFORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY, ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC ● INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL OPTICS ● INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS (IOP) ● INSTITUTE OF PURE AND APPLIED PHYSICS (IPAP) ● INSTITUTE OFSOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES ● INTEGRATED OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM- MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL ● INTEL CORPORATION ● INTELLECT ● INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BRIDGE AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING (IABSE)● INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCES ● INTERNATIONAL BONE AND MINERAL SOCIETY ● INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL ● INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE ● INTERNATIONAL GLACIOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● INTERNATIONAL HORMESIS SOCIETY ● INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, LONDON ● INTERNATIONAL LIFE SCIENCES INSTITUTE ● INTERNATIONAL PHYCOLOGICAL SOCIETY ● INTERNATIONAL READING ASSOCIATION ● INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ENDOVASCULAR SPECIALISTS ● INTERNATIONAL UNION OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (IUCr) ● INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) ● IWA PUBLISHING ● JAPAN LASER PROCESSING SOCIETY ● JAPAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AGENCY (JST) ● JOHN BENJAMINS PUBLISHING COMPANY ● JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS (Project Muse)● JOHNSON GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, CORNELL UNIVERSITY ● JOHNSON MATTHEY ● JORNAL DE PEDIATRIA ● JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY ● JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY PUBLISHING GROUP (JNSPG) ● JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH/YALE UNIVERSITY ● JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC & SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY ● JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (JRRD) ● JOURNAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY SCIENCE ● JSTOR ● S. KARGER AG ● LAMAZE INTERNATIONAL ● LANDSCAPE ONLINE ● LASER PAGES PUBLISHING LTD. ● LAVOISIER ● LIBRAPHARM ● LOGICAL METHODS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE ● LOGOS INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING EDUCATION FOUNDATION ● M.E. 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KG ● WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION ● WESTBURN PUBLISHERS LTD ● WILDERNESS MEDICAL SOCIETY ● WHO PRESS ● JOHN WILEY & SONS ● WHITE HORSE PRESS ● WITPRESS LTD. ● WOLTERS KLUWER HEALTH ● WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LTD. ● WORLD ADVERTISING RESEARCH CENTER ● THE WORLD BANK ● THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION (IUCN) ● WORLD SCIENTIFIC ●
  8. 8. Top  US  Web  Properties Nov-­‐99 Visits  (Millions) Sep-­‐09 Visits  (Millions)1 AOL 54 Google  Sites 1642 Yahoo 42 Yahoo  Sites 1603 Microsoft 38 Microsoft  Sites 1334 Lycos 29 AOL 1005 Go  Network 22 Facebook 956 Amazon 15 Ask  Network 937 Excite@Home 15 Fox  Interactive  Media 858 Bluemountainarts.com 13 eBay 709 Time  Warner  Online 12 Amazon  Sites 6910 Go2Net  Network 11 Wikimedia 68
  9. 9. Computer scientist Diomidis Spinellis, for instance, examined 4,224 URLs in 2,471 computer science articles… and discovered that nearly half of the references could not be accessed within four years of the publication date. Links become inaccessible as time passes…”Diomidis Spinellis. 2003. The decay and failures of web references. Commun. ACM 46, 1 (January 2003),71-77. DOI=10.1145/602421.602422 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/602421.602422
  10. 10. Photo: `R4cH3L on Flickr
  11. 11. The solution
  12. 12. Technical Infrastructure• IDs + Metadata• Service - persistent reference linking• Managed system – no broken links• Discoverable content
  13. 13. Business Infrastructure• One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with all CrossRef participants• Business Model Neutral• Powerful Network Effects – value of network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system
  14. 14. What is a DOI?DigitalObjectIdentifier
  15. 15. E Pentz7 Chestnut Square E Pentz 7 Chestnut Square
  16. 16. E Pentz7 Chestnut Square E Pentz 7 Chestnut Square E Pentz 12 Courtland Road
  17. 17. G BilderPO Box 1827 E Pentz 12 Courtland Road E Pentz 29 Silver Road
  18. 18. Pyschoceramics Reviewdoi:10.234/pcr45676 www.puba.com www.wileyblackwell.com
  19. 19. User clicks on User accesses CrossRef DOI cited article in reference link in Journal B Journal ATani, N., N. Tomaru, M. Araki, AND K. Ohba. 1996. Genetic diversityand differentiation in populations of Japanese stone pine (Pinus pumila) inJapan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1454–1462.[CrossRef] DOI directory returns URL
  20. 20. So why else is this important?
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  22. 22. What’s in a name? doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100 doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100 doi:10.1038/nphoton.2008.100http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.100http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.100http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v2/n7/abs/ nphoton.2008.100.html
  23. 23. International DOI Foundation•Oversees central DOI System•Infrastructure for all RAs•Agencies rules of the road for Registration High level•26324, Information and Documentation — Final Draft International Standard (ISO/DIS Digital Object Identifier System
  24. 24. IDF Registration Agencies(RAs)• Bowker • mEDRA• CrossRef • MovieLabs• DataCite • OPOCE • Wanfang Data Japan Link Center (JaLC)
  25. 25. CrossRef and DataCite• CrossRef = scholarly publishers• DataCite = National libraries and data centers
  26. 26. Blog Posts
  27. 27. Journals Books Conferences Components
  28. 28. Content beyond journals…•Books•Standards DOIs  Registered Journals•Proceedings Books•Images 1% 5% Conf  Proceedings•Figures 5% Components•Datasetspapers•Working 89%•Dissertations
  29. 29. !""#$%&($ !"#$%&()*+,#%,#!)-%.#*/+&&0%1$""& !"###"$%#& !*(((( !#(((( !"#$#%&!"("& !)((((!""& !((((( 345.1670 +((((%"("& 84490 *((((%""& #(((( )(((( :41;/./1</ ("& =.4<//>?1@0 ( & 2 (# (% (* (, (+ (& !( /1 )( )( )( )( )( )( )( /0 !)& !(& !*& !#& !+& !,& !%& -. Books are the fastest growing content type at CrossRef
  30. 30. DOI Assignment and Reference Linking• Maximize reference linking among books, journals and conference proceedings• Enhance discovery, visibility, and usage• Improve functionality for users• Support development of book citation metrics
  31. 31. Linking 5 centuries of contentCentury # of DOIs deposited17th 1,68618th 4,20019th 651,58420th 20,804,03121st 13,914,241 1665
  32. 32. 30,000,000
  33. 33. Services • Cross-publisher reference linking • Cross-publisher cited- by linking • Cross-publisher third metadata feeds to parties • Cross-publisher plagiarism screeningPowered by iThenticate
  34. 34. The Cross-Publisher Plagiarism Screening Initiative
  35. 35. ctrl + c ctrl + v
  36. 36. Plagiarism Detection
  37. 37. plagiarism [play‐jă‐rizm], the theft of ideas... orof written passages or works, where these arepassed off as ones own work withoutacknowledgement of their true origin... Plagiarism is not always easily separable fromimitation, adaptation, or pastiche, but is usuallydistinguished by its dishonest intention. http://www.answers.com/plagiarism
  38. 38. Legitimate Duplication
  39. 39. Software that analyses and compares textDatabase of content to check text against
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  42. 42. Technology Est. 1996 8,500 schools, colleges & universities worldwide
  43. 43. Manuscript Triage Acceptance Submission Yes No Prior to acceptance?Author? On Submission? Triage?
  44. 44. Manuscript Triage AcceptanceSubmission Yes No $£€¥ #
  45. 45. 129 publishers28 million content items indexed 51,200 titles12,000 manuscripts checked each month
  46. 46. 0 2,600 5,200 7,800 10,400D 13,000 ec -0 9Ja n- 10Fe b- 10M ar -1 0Ap r- 1 0M ay -1 0Ju n- 10Ju l-1 0Au g- 10Se p- 10O ct -1 0N ov -1 0 Documents Checked
  47. 47. Deterrence Factor
  48. 48. CrossCheck CommunityUsers’ email discussion listCrossRef supportFormation of guidelines, best practices etc.
  49. 49. Dealing with PlagiarismOffice of Research Integrity http://ori.dhhs.gov/misconduct/index.shtmlCommittee on Publication Ethics http://publicationethics.org/ owchartsCouncil of Science Editors http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/ editorial_policies/white_paper.cfm
  50. 50. Positive Feedback“This is an invaluable tool and muchappreciated by our Editors.” “By far the most effective and nancially feasible software that I have found.”“CrossCheck is a valuable tool... Previously I would use GoogleScholar, then need to access the journal article to con rmsuspicions of plagiarism, which was very time consuming.”
  51. 51. PricingAnnual admin fee (20% of CrossRefmembership fee)Per-document checking fee ($0.75– $0.25)
  52. 52. Why join?Increase trust in your content by validatingits originalityDeter would-be plagiarists from submittingto your publicationsDeter would-be plagiarists from plagiarizingyour publicationsProtect your reputationPromote the value of the publishing process
  53. 53. CrossMark
  54. 54. How Tim we determine whether there needed to be new Sir can told BBC News that we can trust the material emanating from a site? The Web was originally conceived as a tool for systems that would give websites a label for researchers who trusted one another implicitly; strong models of trustworthiness oncebuilt in.had have been livingreliable security were not they We been proved with the consequences ever be interested insubstantial organisations be sources…So Id since. As a result, different research should labeling to engineering layers of trust and provenance into Web devoted websites in different ways. interactions. ..." !
  55. 55. Registration, Certification, Awareness, Stewardship
  56. 56. “The Web is by nature an interactive environment,yet online journals are mostly static, befitting theirtraditional role as a never-changing scholarly record.”
  57. 57. Certification of the version of recordOngoing stewardship of scholarly content
  58. 58. erratum corrigendum updatesenhancements withdrawals retractions new editions
  59. 59. Industry Problems• The scholarly pre-publication process is largely invisible• The common belief that the publisher’s job is done on publication of the “ nal” version• A proliferation of versions of content online that are not stewarded• Trust metrics have not been established on
  60. 60. • A logo that identi es a publisher certi ed version of record• Clicking the logo tells you • If the copy is publisher-maintained and whether there have been any corrections • Where the publisher-maintained version is • Other metadata the publisher chooses to include
  61. 61. What Does it Cost? Cu rre Bac nt kfil con e c ten on t: 2 ten 0¢ t: 2 ¢Current Content: published in the past two years.
  62. 62. • Participation is optional• Participants maintain their content• Participants agree to keep CrossMark metadata up to date!• Participants adhere to logo display guidelines• Participants link (via DOI) to explanatory “policy” page• Anything with a CrossRef DOI can have a CrossMark
  63. 63. What do Publishers Have to do?• Deposit CrossMark metadata - with CrossRef deposit• Keep CrossMark metadata updated• Display CrossMark logo on HTML publication pages (there’s a widget for that)• Add CrossMark metadata and logo to PDFs (there’s and app for that)can help• Decide on and collect optional metadata
  64. 64. When is it happening?Current: test system: usability testingDec-Feb: limited pilot: live on real contentApril 2011: launch
  65. 65. What’s the problem? • Variations - normalize: authority files • Common Family Names: Smith • Asian Family Names: Lee • Changing names • Familiar/short forms: Bill-William; Sri-Srinivasan • Middle name: van Helsing • Anglicized names: Jonghua-John • Phoneticization: Zhang, Xang, Jang • Name order • Initials only 2
  66. 66. What’s the problem? Wei Wang doi:10.1103/ PhysRevLett.99.230001 3
  67. 67. Who will benefit from ORCID? Researchers Libraries Institutions Funding agencies Societies Publishers 4
  68. 68. • Open Researcher & Contributor ID - a unique number for researchers• ORCID, Inc - a US not-for-profit company• Will solve the name ambiguity problem
  69. 69. How will ORCID do this? •  Motivate Registration •  Universities – require ORCID for job application •  Funding Bodies – require ORCID for grant application •  Publishers – require ORCID for upon submission •  Leverage existing scholarly name identification projects •  Scopus •  RePEC •  ACM •  University of Hong Kong, Harvard, MIT •  VIVO – enabling national network of scientists, $12M NIH grant, Mike Conlon PI •  Develop/Acquire Disambiguation Technology •  VIAF Virtual International Authority File – matching technology from OCLC •  Author Resolver – from ProQuest •  BKN - Bibliographic Knowledge Network, Jim Pitman, Berkeley, funded by NSF
  70. 70. ORCID BoardLiz Allen, Wellcome TrustAmy Brand, Harvard UniversityCraig Van Dyck, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Martin Fenner, Hannover Medical SchoolThomas Hickey, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.David Kochalko, Thomson ReutersSalvatore Mele, CERN — European Organization for Nuclear ResearchEd Pentz, Publishers International Linking Association, Inc.Howard Ratner, Nature Publishing GroupBernard Rous, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.Chris Shillum, ElsevierMacKenzie Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LibrariesHideaki Takeda, National Institute of Informatics (NII) (Japan)Simeon Warner, Cornell University Library
  71. 71. 125+ Participants 8
  72. 72. Participant Organization Types?5F#:G#H-:(I16%( ;C&D%5( BCDE,@%5( )>+(!"#$%&"( )*( !"#$%&"( )*+(!++,"-.,"%/0( 12( ?0@%5(3,45,4#/%( 1*( A+(6,7%48&%8/( 11( ;-:<65-=0( 2>+( !,,-"./-"%01( 23+(9,8:54,;/( 1)(</=%4( *( 4-56-5#0%(>?@A+=%4( B2( 8-9%5:&%:0( 27+( *+(I-0#E( 2)A( 9
  73. 73. TimelineFeb            March            April              May              June              July            Aug            Sept            Oct            Nov            Dec                Q1-­‐2 Build Sandbox Alpha Prototyping ORCID Members Demonstration and Alpha Testing Organization Creation Beta Development Public Beta Rollout Profile Exchange Research & Development
  74. 74. Express your interest at www.orcid.org
  75. 75. Conclusion• CrossRef provides infrastructure to enable publishers to enhance their content and services• CrossRef services drive traffic to publishers content
  76. 76. Conclusions• CrossRef services enable publishers to highlight the value they add to content• CrossRef services give researchers useful tools to make decisions about content
  77. 77. Final Thought• No publisher is an island - collaboration and connection are the keys

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