A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND       TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL          EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS           WELFAR...
A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND         TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL            EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS             ...
Dedicated             to    The loving memories        of my mother             iii
FORWARDING SHEET       This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for School Effectivenes...
APPROVAL SHEET OF THE COMMITTEE       This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for Scho...
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION       Except where otherwise acknowledged in the text, this thesis represents theoriginal research of...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       I would like to express my deep & sincere gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr.Maqsood Alam Bukhari, ...
ABSTRACT       This research was designed to study the instructional process competenciesthrough class room observations i...
CONTENTS                                                                        Page    Acknowledgements1   INTRODUCTION  ...
2.6.2    Teacher Training and Professional Development   34           2.6.3    Professional Development                   ...
3.2   TOOLS FOR COLLECTION OF DATA                         60          3.2.1   Document Analysis                          ...
LIST OF TABLESTable No.                                                                        Page3.1    Target Populatio...
4.24   The teacher assesses students own work adequately                      884.25   The teacher always keeps record of ...
5.1   Items analysis of methodological competencies          1225.2   Items analysis of motivational competencies         ...
LIST OF FIGURESFigure No.                                                                       Page4.1    Gender wise    ...
4.26   Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness.    904.27   The ability of a teacher to perform...
CHAPTER 1                                 INTRODUCTION       School effectiveness has been one of the major concerns of pr...
According to Scheerens (2000), effectiveness of the school is measured as to whatextent goals are achieved by a school, wi...
this training process, is dependant on required motivations, dedication and a will forcontinuous professional development ...
achievements. With these requirements, teacher education assumes an essential role ineducational process dealing with acqu...
Keeping in view the above established linkage between teacher it is required toexplore indicators and standards for an eff...
literature review, the instrument of data collection was developed for the focused group.Data were collected through quest...
CHAPTER 2                                 LITERATURE REVIEW        This chapter deals with the review of related literatur...
Workers Welfare Fund (WWF) is striving hard to achieve the national objectiveto increase the literacy level. It has initia...
students’ academic achievements and development of their personality together with thedevelopment of teachers.       The c...
Reynolds (1976) started work in England on ‘School Difference Research’. Theresults provided and established the concept o...
•   The impact of change in teaching is also dependent on puralled changes in the        conditions within school,    •   ...
3. The school will seek to create and maintain conditions in which all members of       the school community can learn suc...
Schools effectiveness is now considered as a means of change in the interest ofstudents. Reynolds provided a comparative t...
Changing Concept of School Improvement  Indicators                                 1960s                         1980s Ori...
Weindling (1998), therefore, suggested a series of school-based strategies andinitiatives that incorporates both ‘traditio...
Cheng (1996) – School effectiveness is ‘the capacity of the school to maximizeschool functions or the degree to which the ...
whereas scholastic achievement, teacher’s training, teacher taught relationship are basiccomponents of school development,...
According to Allana (1987), education is a vitally important aspect of life. It isthe way in which life attempts to realiz...
2.4.1 Importance of Teacher        Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimensions. They not onlyhave to im...
Muslim tradition bestows great respect upon the teacher. In fact, teaching was consideredto be an act of worship performed...
2.4.3     Professional Characteristics of a Teacher          Literature reviewed indicates number of professional characte...
To understand a competent teacher, we have to see to what extend they apply anintegrated knowledge that they have in plann...
2.5.1   Academic Competencies        Teacher must know academic matters (Kohll, 1992). Command on subject anddevelop overa...
and interaction with students vary according to the nature of the activity used duringinstruction’s (Airasian, 1994).     ...
According to Oser et al. (1992) the teacher kept tight control over the lesson whenstudents reactions did not reflect this...
might select a supervised seatwork activity to provide a chance to work more closely withthose pupil. When reinforcement a...
4   Avoid excessive use of choral responses or `call outs, interacting with one student         at a time instead.When ask...
2   Student are at practice stage     3   Students are at review stage.b.       Higher-order questionWhich requires more d...
2.5.4 Classroom Management        The personality of a teacher coupled with his character is a very important factorin tea...
Time wasters have an adverse effect on student learning in classroom. Thosestudents who spend more time on pursuing the co...
his/her best professional judgment to decide which method; strategy and technique willwork best for a particular situation...
Balon (1990) is of the view that an effective teacher can be valuable for thestudents, the society, and the country. This ...
According to Schiefelben (1921), it has been usually assumed that the quality ofteaching performance is directly influence...
between training in certified institutions and better results are obtained by students, whoare taught by such trained Teac...
2.6.2   Teacher Training and Professional Development        The teacher training and professional development includes th...
conducted in four developing countries has indicated that the quality of teacher was oneof the major element between good ...
on the behalf of the father of the nation, Quaid-i-Azam, convened the First EducationalConference, immediately after indep...
The public sector training organizations are located throughout the country forproviding pre-service, in-service training ...
education, M.Phil and PhD education (AIOU, 1997).2.8.3   Field Based Institutes for Teacher Training        This program i...
2-     S.V (senior vernacular)                       Matric3-     C.T (certificate in teaching)                 F.A/Fsc4- ...
Arts/Science; the credential awarded is a Bachelor of Education. Teachers for grades 14and 16 are required to complete thr...
school level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge of high schoolage and methodology of teaching ...
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
279 s
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

279 s

944

Published on

competencies

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
944
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "279 s"

  1. 1. A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS WELFARE MODEL SCHOOLS TAHIR KALEEM SIDDIQUI Reg. No.52/FUCE/PhD.Edu-2004  FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES RAWALPINDI-PAKISTAN 2010
  2. 2. A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS WELFARE MODEL SCHOOLS By TAHIR KALEEM SIDDIQUI Reg. No.52/FUCE/PhD.Edu-2004 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Foundation University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Rawalpindi FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES RAWALPINDI-PAKISTAN 2010  ii
  3. 3. Dedicated to The loving memories of my mother  iii
  4. 4. FORWARDING SHEET This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for School Effectiveness in Workers Welfare Model Schools” submittedby Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Education, under my guidance and supervision, is forwardedfor further necessary action. Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam Bukhari Advisor  iv
  5. 5. APPROVAL SHEET OF THE COMMITTEE This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for School Effectiveness in Workers Welfare Model Schools” submittedby Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Education, is hereby accepted. Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam Bukhari Supervisor_______________External ExaminerDr. Saeed Anwar______________External ExaminerDr. Ayesha AkbarDr. Muhammad Tayyab Alam Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam BukhariHead of Department (R&D) Principal/DeanFUCLAS FUCLASDated: _____________  v
  6. 6. AUTHOR’S DECLARATION Except where otherwise acknowledged in the text, this thesis represents theoriginal research of the author. The material contained herein has not been submittedeither whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university. Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui  vi
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep & sincere gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr.Maqsood Alam Bukhari, for his inspiring guidance, constant encouragement andconstructive criticism. His guidance at different stages of the research enabled me tocompile this study. I am highly indebted and grateful to Dr. Muhammad Tayyab Alam for hisprofessional support, when I was stuck-up with different issues. My gratitude is due toDr. Mushtaq-ur-Rehman, former Director, IER, in completing this research. Dr.Shahid Siddiqui was very kind to go through the draft copy and gave his valuablesuggestions in improving it. I also feel indebted to Raheela Tajwar for her sincere cooperation andencouragement during the progress of this study. I will be failing in my duty, to acknowledge the support of Mr. M. SaeedAhmed Khan, Secretary, Workers Welfare Fund, for his valuable guidance andproviding me the enabling working conditions, to continue the research, in addition tomy official duties. I admit that without his support, it would not have been possible tocomplete the study. I owe special thanks to my wife, who had the patience to bear with me duringthe long time that I spent on this study, disrupting normal routines. I also express deep gratitude to all the administrators, teachers and students ofFoundation University for their cooperation during my research work. My thanks are also due to my family members for their love, encouragementand sincere wishes in completing this research. Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui  vii
  8. 8. ABSTRACT This research was designed to study the instructional process competenciesthrough class room observations in Workers Welfare Model Schools (WWMS)established by Workers Welfare Fund (WWF), a subsidiary organization of Ministryof Labour and Manpower, Government of Pakistan. The organization runs 75 schoolsthroughout Pakistan. The major purpose of the study was to identify essential teachercompetencies for school effectiveness and find out class room practices used byWorkers Welfare Model Schools teachers. The study was also aimed at exploringindicators of school effectiveness. A mixed method approach was adopted to study thestate of school effectiveness. Forty sample schools were selected from a total of 75 onall Pakistan basis. Multistage sampling technique was used for sample selection.Twenty principals, 400 teachers and 80 classroom observations constituted thepopulation for this study. The data collected through the questionnaire, classroomobservations, focused group discussion and official documents. Data collected throughafore-mentioned instruments was tabulated, analyzed by both qualitative andquantitative techniques and interpreted category-wise. To analyze the data, chi-squaretest was applied to find out the significance of difference among the opinions of therespondents. On the basis of results obtained from the analysis of data through chisquare test, statements were accepted or rejected. Major findings of the study indicated that though most of the teachers areaware of standards of teaching for school effectiveness to some extent but they are notimplementing these standards in their classrooms. Also majority of the teachers arenot using evaluation techniques properly. The teachers, however, agreed with twomajor characteristics of the teacher education for school effectiveness i.e. contentknowledge and pedagogical competencies. The major implication of the study is toshift from lecture paradigm to collaborative, interactive and democratic teaching styleand develop mentoring as well as monitoring teacher education programme for overallschool effectiveness. Also a need emerges to find out as to why teachers, despitehaving knowledge of the required techniques, do not follow the standards of schooleffectiveness.  viii
  9. 9. CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 5 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5 4.4 METHODOLOGY 5 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 62 LITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.1 WORKERS WELFARE SCHOOLS 7 2.2 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS 8 2.3 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN PAKISTAN 16 2.4 TEACHER AND EDUCATION 17 2.4.1 Importance of a Teacher 19 2.4.2 Characteristics of a Teacher in Islamic Perspective 19 2.4.3 Professional Characteristic of Teacher 21 2.5 COMPETENCIES OF THE TEACHER 21 2.5.1 Academic Competencies 23 2.5.2 Methodological Competencies of Teachers 23 2.5.2.1 Lesson planning 23 2.5.2.2 Use of questions 26 2.5.3 Improvement of Student Attitudes 28 2.5.4 Classroom Management 28 2.5.5 Time Management Skill 29 2.5.6 Development of Self-confidence in Students 30 2.6 TEACHER EDUCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER EDUCATION 31 2.6.1 Concept of Training in Education 33  ix
  10. 10. 2.6.2 Teacher Training and Professional Development 34 2.6.3 Professional Development 35 2.7 PROVISION OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN PAKISTAN 36 2.8 TYPES OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES 38 2.8.1 Formal Institutes for Teacher Training. 38 2.8.2 Non Formal Institutes for Teacher Training 38 2.8.3 Field Based Institutes for Teacher Training. 38 2.9 TEACHER TRAINING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 39 (1947) 2.10 LEVELS OF TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN 41 2.10.1 Primary Teaching Certificate / Diploma in Education 41 2.10.2 Certificate in Teaching (CT) 41 2.10.3 Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) 41 2.10.4 Master of Education (M.Ed) 41 2.10.5 Master of Education (M.A) 42 2.11 TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 43 2.11.1 Normal Schools 43 2.11.2 Elementary Colleges 44 2.11.3 Colleges of Education 44 2.11.4 Institutes of Education and Research (IER) 44 2.12 TEACHER EDUCATION IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 45 2.13 CHALLENGES FOR TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 55 2.14 STUDENT TEACHING PRACTICE 563 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 59 3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 59 3.1.1 Sampling 59  x
  11. 11. 3.2 TOOLS FOR COLLECTION OF DATA 60 3.2.1 Document Analysis 60 3.2.2 Focused Group Discussion (FGDs)– Principal 60 3.2.3 Survey Questionnaire Teachers 61 3.2.4 Observation Checklist 61 3.3 VALIDATION OF THE RESEARCH TOOLS 61 3.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 62 3.4.1 Procedure for data collection 62 3.4.2 Data Collection and Data Analysis 624 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 655 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 121 5.1 SUMMARY 121 5.2 DISCUSSION 121 5.2.1 Methodological Competencies 123 5.2.2 Motivational Competencies 125 5.2.3 Material Utilization Competencies 129 5.2.4 Instructional Process Competencies 131 5.2.5 Teaching Evaluation Competencies 135 5.2.6 Focused Group Discussion – Principals 138 5.3 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 141 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 145 BIBLIGRAPHY 148 APPENDICES 160  xi
  12. 12. LIST OF TABLESTable No. Page3.1 Target Population 583.2 Sample for study 594.1 Gender wise ratio 654.2 Age-wise 664.3 Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents 674.4 Professional qualification wise distributions of respondents 684.5 Job experience wise distribution of respondents 694.6 The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. 704.7 The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences 714.8 The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively 724.9 The teacher appreciates students for correct answers 734.10 The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the 74 correct answers.4.11 The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. 754.12 The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials 764.13 The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools 774.14 The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed 78 tools4.15 The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in 79 teaching4.16 The teacher uses different questioning techniques 804.17 The teacher manages discipline in his/her class room. 814.18 The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching 824.19 The teacher manages classroom activities properly. 834.20 The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students 84 before starting teaching4.21 The teacher prepares course contents properly 854.22 The teacher uses various evaluation techniques 864.23 The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively 87  xii
  13. 13. 4.24 The teacher assesses students own work adequately 884.25 The teacher always keeps record of individual students 894.26 Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. 904.27 The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality 914.28 Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively 924.29 The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. 934.30 The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students 944.31 Use of problem solving methods in teaching 954.32 Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences 964.33 Utilization of teaching situation effectively 974.34 Students were appreciated after correct answers 984.35 Students were given hints for correct answers. 994.36 Students were given second chance for correct answer. 1004.37 Used reinforcement effectively. 1014.38 Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. 1024.39 Used personal teaching tools effectively 1034.40 Used own devised teaching tools 1044.41 Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching 1054.42 Used questioning techniques 1064.43 Presented course contents in the classroom properly 1074.44 Used time management techniques in teaching 1084.45 Managing classroom. 1094.46 Manage discipline in the classroom 1104.47 Used various evaluation techniques 1114.48 Assessed student’s behavior effectively 1124.49 Assessed students own work effectively 1134.50 Presentation and explanation etc ability 1144.51 Knowledge of subject matter. 1154.52 General knowledge 1164.53 Teacher student interaction. 1174.54 Ability to motivate students. 118  xiii
  14. 14. 5.1 Items analysis of methodological competencies 1225.2 Items analysis of motivational competencies 1265.3 Items analysis of material utilization competencies 1285.4 Items analysis of instructional process competencies 1315.5 Items analysis of teaching evaluation competencies 135  xiv
  15. 15. LIST OF FIGURESFigure No. Page4.1 Gender wise 654.2 Age-wise 664.3 Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents 674.4 Professional qualification wise distributions of respondents 684.5 Job experience wise distribution of respondents 694.6 The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. 704.7 The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences 714.8 The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively 724.9 The teacher appreciates students for correct answers 734.10 The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the 74 correct answers.4.11 The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. 754.12 The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials 764.13 The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools 774.14 The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed 78 tools4.15 The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in 79 teaching4.16 The teacher uses different questioning techniques 804.17 The teacher manages discipline in his/her class room. 814.18 The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching 824.19 The teacher manages classroom activities properly. 834.20 The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students 84 before starting teaching4.21 The teacher prepares course contents properly 854.22 The teacher uses various evaluation techniques 864.23 The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively 874.24 The teacher assesses students own work adequately 884.25 The teacher always keeps record of individual students 89  xv
  16. 16. 4.26 Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. 904.27 The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality 914.28 Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively 924.29 The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. 934.30 The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students 944.31 Use of problem solving methods in teaching 954.32 Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences 964.33 Utilization of teaching situation effectively 974.34 Students were appreciated after correct answers 984.35 Students were given hints for correct answers. 994.36 Students were given second chance for correct answer. 1004.37 Used reinforcement effectively. 1014.38 Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. 1024.39 Used personal teaching tools effectively 1034.40 Used own devised teaching tools 1044.41 Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching 1054.42 Used questioning techniques 1064.43 Presented course contents in the classroom properly 1074.44 Used time management techniques in teaching 1084.45 Managing classroom. 1094.46 Manage discipline in the classroom 1104.47 Used various evaluation techniques 1114.48 Assessed student’s behavior effectively 1124.49 Assessed students own work effectively 1134.50 Presentation and explanation etc ability 1144.51 Knowledge of subject matter. 1154.52 General knowledge 1164.53 Teacher student interaction. 1174.54 Ability to motivate students. 118  xvi
  17. 17. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION School effectiveness has been one of the major concerns of practitioners andpolicy makers, not only in Pakistan but also in other countries. School effectivenessencompasses students’ academic achievements and development of their personalitytogether with the teachers’ development and improvement in school milieu. In Pakistan, school effectiveness is generally, measured by scholastic resultsshown by students at various levels. The higher the number of grades and the passpercentages, the more effective the school is considered. While making the passpercentages as a standard for school effectiveness, many factors may be overlooked. It ispossible that the “Good” achievement may be because of the fact that the studentsobtained by supplemental coaching out side the school, by those who can afford this,which indirectly indicates that obtaining of good results is not because of teaching at theschool but is dependant on the “paying capacity” of those who can financially affordtaking coaching outside the school hours. The above considerations lead to the inference, that school effectiveness isgenerally judged only by grades obtained rather than more effective elements leading toholistic development of children. The mere holistic view of effectiveness, deals withoverall development of student personality, whereas scholastic achievement, teacher’straining and teacher student relationship are basic components of school development, asa result of professional development. 1
  18. 18. According to Scheerens (2000), effectiveness of the school is measured as to whatextent goals are achieved by a school, with comparison to other similar school. Cheng(1996) described, school effectiveness is the ability of the intuitions to optimize theworking or the stage to which schools can practice its routines, when the required input ismade. In effective schools, condition exist, to an extent that the overall achievements ofthe students indicate that they are able to attain the basics, which are essential to makethem learn the skills to be successful in next follow up level in the learning process(Kunwar, 2001, p.85). Long and Pinder (1995), identify a range of key issues in school effectiveness,wherein teacher development is primary element besides curriculum development andparental involvement. They both proposed a close relationship between teacherdevelopment and school effectiveness. Effective and target oriented education, is conceived as the most powerfulmedium and a source to effect required change in the social setup of a country. This,however, does not take place in isolation, but is accomplished by the teacher, who isrequired to be major player of change during the entire process. With this focal position,the teacher has to be equipped to undertake this most important role and has to beeffectively prepared and trained professionally. This training process must be accordedthe highest priority by every one concerned for improving the deliverance of education. Ateacher’s profession is very challenging for as he can play an effective role in nationbuilding. Teachers, who can shoulder this responsibility, have to be trained in theprofessional knowledge and should be encouraged to adopt the profession. The other realaspect, would be inducting teachers through Professional Development. The adequacy of 2
  19. 19. this training process, is dependant on required motivations, dedication and a will forcontinuous professional development achievement in this profession. It is a rathercontinuous and life-long effort. Poetter (1997) is of the opinion that such people, who are normally not vocal,have to be found to impart education. Certainly, there is more to teaching than feelingaffection for children and an eagerness to serve school / children well. Moreover, whenteachers forget that children come first their students and society are in serious danger.Therefore, teachers in schools are both among the “most powerful” and the “moststressed” individuals in the world. They are powerful because of their influence overyoung minds and they are stressed because of the responsibilities that are often out ofproportion to their authority (Dark, 1995). The reality is that schools could change and develop only, if the teachers withinthe institutions, are empowered to develop themselves (Bayne-Jardme, 1994; Doyle andHartle, 1985). Realizing the importance of education, Lawal (2003) points out that "thelearning process is a basic element of cultural progress without which no individual canattain professional development. From the aforementioned, it transpires that it is through effective teachereducation programs, that we can improve teaching, which is the gateway to knowing,learning and teaching. These help teachers to develop as “effective teachers”. Teachereducation programmes are directed to equip the teachers with professional skills, knowhow and motivation to encourage students to acquire knowledge and attitudes, aboutsociety, wherein they live. This process is expected to result in teachers who posses therequired qualities of an effective professional teacher for good education and social 3
  20. 20. achievements. With these requirements, teacher education assumes an essential role ineducational process dealing with acquisition of effective teaching skills and techniques. The development and improvement of education by a nation requires, that all theessential elements for improving training in education must be provided, including,selection of professional and scholastically qualified teachers. Such teachers considereducation as a sacred mission for improvement of education in the country so as enable itto complete with other nations. To make teaching profession more acceptable and professional, it is essential thatresearch in teacher education should assume a pivotal role. This must include atransmission and acquisition of knowledge, so that those who are trained are able torealize the impact that the training, would have for the entire economy as well as thesociety. In addition to professional training, teachers should be trained in learningpractical ethics related to education and various models made for school effectivenessand teacher education. These are open for further research in this direction. Arguing the need for an effective teacher education program, Lawal (2003)indicated that such persons will be able to deliver effective teaching. They are expectedto employ the use of teaching aids to improve their delivery process, and manage thestudents in the class, through applications of better methods and manage and control theirclasses for effective learning. The role of teachers in making professional knowledge available to theircolleagues and students, with on motivation impact on teachers job effectiveness, areessential for educational development. 4
  21. 21. Keeping in view the above established linkage between teacher it is required toexplore indicators and standards for an effective teacher which may lead to improveschool effectiveness.1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The present research was designed to explore essential teacher competencies forschool effectiveness and find out, if classroom teaching practices used in WorkersWelfare Model Schools (WWMS) are consistent with these competencies?1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study were: 1. Evaluate teacher competencies skills for school effectiveness 2. To explore elements of school effectiveness 3. To observe classroom environment and to assess teachers competence 4. To suggest measures to enhance the school effectiveness in WWMS.1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) What are the basics of school effectiveness? 2) Which teacher’s competencies are essential for school effectiveness? 3) To what extent are these competencies applied in the classroom?1.4 METHODOLOGY Worker Welfare Fund is running 75 schools all over Pakistan. A sample of 40schools was selected randomly. Multistage sampling technique was adopted to select thesample. Twenty (20) principals (for focused group discussion), 400 teachers and 80classrooms (for observations) constituted the population for this study. Based on related 5
  22. 22. literature review, the instrument of data collection was developed for the focused group.Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews andofficial documents.1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The research is significant, as it will give policy direction on achieving schooleffectiveness, which is a rising issue for academia and the outcomes from this study willfacilitate the process of professional development for school effectiveness. It will alsohelp in developing model of school effectiveness. It will further establish a foundation ofteacher education program. Teachers in the context of Workers Welfare Fund schoolsmay revise their curricula on the basis of this study. Private sector may also use findingsof this study for improving their working environment. Federal and Provincial Governments, Private Sector and Civil SocietyOrganizations engaged directly or in providing imperative education may find the studyuseful in future research, and to provide guidelines for developing and managing teachereducation program in Pakistan.    6
  23. 23. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter deals with the review of related literature. It explores the factorsrelevant to the effective teacher education. The chapter draws seminal researcherfocusing on the constituents, some on the identification of factors, of an effective teachertraining for Workers Welfare Model Schools in the country. In the final section, a criticalreview of the related studies is presented.2.1 WORKERS WELFARE SCHOOLS The WWF is supplementing the existing educational facilities in the country,sponsored by the public & private sectors, by taking the initiative to establish its ownschool system, for the workers’ children, so as to provide them with an opportunity ofstandard and quality education. This is a humble effort by the WWF to provide mostconvenient access to the children, for developing their personality and elevating thesocial standing of those involved & the entire workers community. The WWF schoolsystem is focused on developing the personality of worker’s children to make themeffective citizens of the nation by contributing to economic prosperity. The Government of Pakistan is working hard to elevate the literacy level, byrealizing the significance of the UNO slogan ‘Education for All’. To achieve thisobjective, our government, in collaboration with private sector, NGOs international andother donor agencies has taken revolutionary initiatives to kick off sustained campaignsto up lift the literacy level. 7
  24. 24. Workers Welfare Fund (WWF) is striving hard to achieve the national objectiveto increase the literacy level. It has initiated a number of educational schemes, to educatethe children of industrial workers and to bring them at par with other segments of thesociety. In this regard, a number of schemes have been initiated which include; (i)establishing educational institutions, (ii) scholarships, (iii) quality education programmeand (iv) technical education. The WWF is conscious of the fact that the poor industrial workers do not have themeans and finances to provide quality education to their children. The WWF had tointervene and fill in the “financial gap” by providing free education. The WWF has notrestricted its role to filling the financial gap alone, but has also made genuine efforts toprovide quality education, which would make these children useful addition to thenational economy. WWF has reflected its perpetual commitment by establishing a well coordinatedand harmonious network of seventy five schools, all over the country, during the past, toeducate the children of the industrial workers, a hardworking but poor segment of thesociety. Through these institutions, WWF is imparting quality education to approximately20,000 children in coordination with its provincial counterparts, in the remote areas of thecountry. These schools are providing free of cost quality education to the children ofworkers in a conducive and receptive manner.2.2 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS School effectiveness has been one of the major concerns of practitioners andpolicy makers, throughout the world. The notion of school effectiveness encompasses 8
  25. 25. students’ academic achievements and development of their personality together with thedevelopment of teachers. The concept of effective school was introduced in America in 1960s. A numberof American universities and research institutes worked on this issue. Coleman (1966) isof the view that difference of school does not make a significance difference in student’sachievement. The stress was on family and the environment in which the children(student) live, as it will have substantial influence on achievement and subsequentperformance. This leads to the opinion that schools and teachers make no difference. This research accepted that school plays an insignificant portion in the educationof the student, curriculum was considered to be considerably important to meet thechild’s requirement. This was the thinking in 60s and curriculum provision wasconsidered as the main tier and function of schools continuing with this thinking was thatthe teachers are not involved in the classrooms; and no linkage was developed betweenthe teaching style and curriculum development (Hopkins, 1987). Contrary to 1960s, during 1970s, 1980s and gradually, the consideration of aneffective contribution to a students achievement assumed education became an importantrole and started drawing greater attention of the research scholar. Bookover et al. (1979)supported the concept that schools could make a difference, to a child’s attainment. Thisnegated the views argued by Coleman, that the effects of the home and familybackground outweigh the effect of school. Teachers thus assumed a pivotal role andbecome the focus or tools of effectiveness (Biddle, Good and Brophy, 1975). 9
  26. 26. Reynolds (1976) started work in England on ‘School Difference Research’. Theresults provided and established the concept of school effectiveness. He published hisfindings, in an article in the New Society Journal. His work was continued by Edmonds(1978), who identified factors of effective schools, that, he found made a difference toperformance and achievement. Reynolds (1985) produced, a study on school effectiveness, which made itindicated that there was variation among schools and clear factors which indicate thateffectiveness of various school was different. In addition to the factors noted by Rutter etal. (1979), Purkey and Smith (1985) identified criterion of school effectiveness. Thesefactors were organizational in content and are listed in Hopkins et al. (1994:45) as: 1. School heads are focused on given curriculum. 2. Congenial atmosphere in the institutions. 3. Stress on curriculum and teaching. 4. High expectations for childrens. 5. A clear evaluation and monitoring system. 6. In-service and on-going training. 7. Help of the parents. School effectiveness is focused at the development of system, instead ofindividual, who would in anyway benefit from the process as a whole Fullan (1985) andMortimore et al. (1988) added some ‘process factors’ to this list, i.e. • Continuous staff envelopment, • Spare some time during school hours for discussion with colleagues, • Priorities for development must be sharply focused, 10
  27. 27. • The impact of change in teaching is also dependent on puralled changes in the conditions within school, • Staff participating in effective school must be supported an project should be “data Driven” in sense of complete information for evaluation should guide participant for improvement, • Avoid bureaucratic implementation of the project, • Quick reminds applied in participating school and classrooms. • Autonomy of school is necessary for successful implementation of effective school project. Crandall et al. (1982 and 1986), Huberman and Miles (1984), Hargreaves (1984),Rosenholtz (1989), Louis and Miles (1990) and Wilson and Corcoran (1988) wereinvolved in substantial research, during the eighties, when focus of school effectivenessresearch was shifted to school improvement. This move started as an acceptable way of looking at the educational process inteaching institutions. Clift and Nuttall (1987) are of the opinion that the happening oroccurrences among teachers and students and assessment of those who made the centre ofattention of research in the field. Hopkins (1987 b) played a significant role in school improvement. Hopkins et al.(1994: 102) gave five principles for improvement of the school. 1. The vision is that (school in the future) these must be equal opportunity for school community to participate. 2. In school, because it has its vision, will see in external pressures for change and important opportunities to secure its internal priorities. 11
  28. 28. 3. The school will seek to create and maintain conditions in which all members of the school community can learn successfully. 4. The school will seek to adopt and develop structures that encourage collaboration and lead to the empowerment of individuals and groups. 5. The school will seek to promote the view that the monitoring and evaluation of quality is a responsibility in which all members of staff share. The schools have a clear line of involvement throughout the teaching hierarchy ofschool. Development is encouraged and initiated at all levels from whole school systemsthrough departments down to including the teachers and the pupils in the classroom. Thiswhole school approach must come from the imaginative leadership of the Head teacherwho has the confidence to manage in Caldwell and Spinks’s (1988) terms a collaborative‘self-managing school’. Leadership in a school plays an effective role through the institutions of theHeadmaster / Principal. In the context of school transformational leadership that placesemphasis on process, shared vision, school culture and energizing participation is nowcrucial. In the ‘learning school’ Holly and South worth (1989) quote Stenhouse(1975:53) who says ‘there can be no curriculum development without teacherdevelopment’. So in their terms: “…..a learning school is a developing school’. A learning school being characterized by five levels of learning. Children’s learning, teacher learning, staff learning, organizational learning and leadership learning. We regard school improvement as a different direction make a difference in education, that increases the achievement of learners besides strengthening the capacity of the school’s capacity for institution for controlling the change”. 12
  29. 29. Schools effectiveness is now considered as a means of change in the interest ofstudents. Reynolds provided a comparative table of characteristics of the two fields thatcontrasts their approaches.Comparative table of school effectiveness and school improvement No. School Effectiveness School Improvement a Focus on schools. Focus on individual teachers or groups of teachers b Focus on school organization Focus on school process. c Data driven with emphasis on Rare empirical evaluation of the outcomes. effects of change. d Quantitative in orientation Qualitative in orientation e Lack of knowledge about how to Concerned with change in schools implement change strategies exclusively f More concerned with schools at a More concerned with schools point in time as changing. g Based on research knowledge. Focus on practitioner knowledge. h More concerned with change in pupil More concerned with journey of outcomes school improvement than its destination The emphasis of school effectiveness, being on systems and outcomes, which areboth academically and socially, orientated. School improvement comes from a differentstance. This field is about “developing strategies for change that strengthens the school’sorganization, as well as implements curriculum reforms in the pursuit of studentsachievement” (Reynolds et al. 1993: p.42). To add to this, Reynolds et al. also show howthe school improvement field itself changed over time. 13
  30. 30. Changing Concept of School Improvement  Indicators 1960s 1980s Orientation Top down Bottom up Knowledge based Elite knowledge Practitioner knowledge Target Organization or process Curriculum based based Outcomes Pupil outcome orientated School process orientated Goals Outcomes as given Outcomes as problematic Focus School Teacher Methodology of evaluation Quantitative Qualitative Site Outside school Within school Focus Part of school Whole school Reynolds et al. (1993) observed in their paper, that there has been a paradigmaticshift from the stance in the 60’s and 70’s to the higher level in the 80’s. The emphasisthen was on a top down approach by induction of technology in the school improvement.The focus was on the improvement of curriculum and the internal school organization.This thinking, however, does/did lead to any improvement and has to disagree anddefinite shift was made in the 80’s which was turned as bottom up approach and wasacceptable to the people involved. This approach, either consider active involvement of people, in the process orinvolving the teacher with the school process. 14
  31. 31. Weindling (1998), therefore, suggested a series of school-based strategies andinitiatives that incorporates both ‘traditions’. They would include the following areas ofwork: 1 Use the research findings on effective schools and effective teaching. 2 Gather school specific information e.g. conducting needs assessment and analysis of student performance data. 3 Foster staff development and collegiality e.g. through team teaching, peer coaching and Investors in people. 4 Explore a variety of teaching methods e.g. the study of teaching skills, thinking skills and strategies such as co-operative and flexible learning. 5 Make effective use of a range of curricular initiatives – whole curricular (e.g. the National Curriculum), T.V.E.I and subject specific. 6 Improve relations with parents and employers e.g. by introducing parental involvement programmes and educational Business Partnerships and Compacts. Scheerens (2000) defines “School Effectiveness” as the achievement of the schooland compare with other some standard schools "school effectiveness is seen as the degreeto which schools achieve their goals, in comparison with other schools that are equalizedin terms of student intake, through manipulation of certain conditions by the school itselfin the immediate school context. The emphasis of the teacher in the classroom with thestudents is matter under discussion on review. The research is now focusing on thereason of making a link with the learning objectives in the changing world. 15
  32. 32. Cheng (1996) – School effectiveness is ‘the capacity of the school to maximizeschool functions or the degree to which the school can perform school functions, whengiven a fixed amount of school input. Herman and Herman (1994) argued that “an effective school is one in which theconditions are such that student achievement data shows that all students evidenceacceptable minimum mastery of those essential basic skills that are pre-requisite tosuccess at the next level of schooling” (Kanwar 2001, p.85). Long and Pinder (1995), identify a range of key issues in school effectiveness.Teacher education is one of the important factors, besides curriculum development andparental involvement (Kevin Holloway et al., 1998). They both proposed a closerelationship between teacher development and school effectiveness. Barth (1990) offers aparticularly interesting parallel between teacher and pupil development.2.3 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN PAKISTAN School effectiveness, in Pakistan, has been viewed in different contexts.Educational plans have no clear-cut provision on school effectiveness. Althoughimproving curriculum and teacher’s training has been the main thrust of all majorpolicies, yet, school effectiveness is a major concern from two standpoints: quality ofteaching and outcomes of students. In Pakistan, school effectiveness is generally, measured by results obtained bystudents at various levels. The higher the number of grades and the pass percentage,more effective the school is considered. This is, however, not the correct approach, asschool effectiveness should deal with overall development of student personality, 16
  33. 33. whereas scholastic achievement, teacher’s training, teacher taught relationship are basiccomponents of school development, as a result of Professional Development. While making the pass percentages as a standard for school effectiveness, manyfactors may be overlooked. There are possibilities that “Good” outcome may be done tosupplemental coaching out side the school, by those who can afford this, which indirectlyindicates that obtaining good results is not because of teaching at the school but isdependant on the “paying capacity” of those who can afford for coaching outside theschool hours. The above considerations lead us to the inference, that school effectiveness isjudged only by grades obtained rather than more effective elements leading to holisticdevelopment of children. Factors such as developing the learning skills, buildingconfidence to face life, attitude and perception towards life, etc, or in other words theintellectual growth stands to be neglected (Siddiqui, 2007, p. 115).2.4 TEACHER AND EDUCATION Education is a process of learning, which is aimed at improving moral, cultural,social and intellectual attributes of the student individually as well as member of socialgroup. The process of learning is looked at as training in the filled of morals forindividuals through which their potentialities are developed, the traits of the creator areinculcated in them and the culture of the people is transmitted to the cominggenerations (Khalid, 1998). It is an instrument to change the social, cultural, economicand political set up of the society. It is considered a key to development. 17
  34. 34. According to Allana (1987), education is a vitally important aspect of life. It isthe way in which life attempts to realize the noblest form of existence and a flourishinghumanity. It is the process through which individuals, groups and nations endeavor toachieve their ideals and aspirations. In education, the ultimate purpose of teacher is to help student to learn, often in aschool. The aim is a course of study, planning of lesson, including learning and thinkingskills. All these skills referred to pedagogical skills of a teacher. The teaching professiondemands full devotion towards continues learning.. Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimension. They not onlyhave to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge fordeveloping the abilities and talents with which he is born. If we wish to bring aproductive change, to raise the standard of education, it is imperative to recruit teacherswho not only have proficiency in their subject, but also have required a positive attitudetowards education and children. The success of any educational system depends on good teachers. We cannotreplace the teachers with any other type of instructional material. It has been well saidthat teachers are the best educational system. So, in an educational system, teacher is thebasic factor for its success. A teacher is more than what is commonly talked about. Hisduties of profession have many other dimensions (Deen, 2000, pp 24-25) The effective learning depends upon quality of teaching which requiresindividuals who are academically able and who care about the well being of children andyouth. (Highland Council Education, Culture and Sport Service, 2007) 18
  35. 35. 2.4.1 Importance of Teacher Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimensions. They not onlyhave to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge fordeveloping the abilities and talents with which he is born. If we are committed to bringabout really a productive change, to raise the standards of education, it is imperative torecruit teachers who not only have the subject matter proficiency, but also have requireda positive attitude towards education and children. Teachers are the builders of our new generation. Unless we have the mostdedicated, hard working and trained teachers in our educational institution, we cannoteducate good citizens for tomorrow. This in turn depends on the effectiveness with whichthey have been taught by their own teachers in the classrooms (Govt. of Pakistan 1977). The success of any educational system depends upon good teachers. We cannotreplace the teachers with any other type of instructional material. It has been well saidthat the teacher of a school are always batter than the system of education, teacher is thebasic factor for its success. A teacher is more than what is commonly talked about him.His duties of profession have many dimensions. He helps students to learn things (Deen,2000, pp 24-25). The teaching importance is vital element in enhancing acquisition of knowledgein the school.2.4.2 Characteristics of a Teacher in Islamic Perspective Teaching according to the Islamic concept is a calling of the prophets. It iscertainly an honorable activity, as opposed to an activity, which is merely useful. The 19
  36. 36. Muslim tradition bestows great respect upon the teacher. In fact, teaching was consideredto be an act of worship performed to please Allah. Thus, even during the period ofMuslim decadence, men of wealth and position considered it a duty to spare some theirtime for teaching a few students (Qureshi, 1975). Ghazali lists the followingcharacteristics of a teacher: 1 The teacher should follow the example of the prophet and seek no remuneration for teaching the students. The only reward he should hope for is the pleasure of Allah. 2 He should be perfectly honest with the students and should not give them the yazahs (license for teaching before they are worthy of them). 3 A teacher should never abuse a fellow teacher before a student. On the contrary, he should teach his subject in a way that it creates love for other subjects also. 4 The teacher must consider the students intellectual level before presenting a subject to them. The teacher must guard against the teaching of a matter, which is beyond his comprehension. 5 The teacher should practice what he preaches, lest his deeds should contradict his words. People are influenced only when a man presents himself as a model of his preaching. Words devoid of action fall flat and bring ridicule to the teacher (Khan, 1996). A teacher is the ideal and model to be followed by students. He is the focus ofentire teaching process. A teacher must earn respect of his students by the qualities thathe possesses. He should grasp the meaning of education and its relation to society. 20
  37. 37. 2.4.3 Professional Characteristics of a Teacher Literature reviewed indicates number of professional characteristic which arebasic requirement for a good teacher. Following professional characteristics are basiccomponent of his personality: 1 Honour of child 2 Introduction with students by giving attention 3 Participation of students in school activities 4 Addressing the individual differences; of the students 5 Importance to theory as well as practice 6 Source of assessment in the classroom 7 Ask questions with consideration in lecture style2.5 COMPETENCIES OF THE TEACHER Application of well coordinated and intermingled approach to knowledge tocontently re-visits the instructions as they plan implementation. The instructors/teachersconsider a broad and integrated set of knowledge and techniques, which planning torevise these aspect of the competence of a teachers so, to competence what expected of ateacher understanding about using technical advancement should be answered in thecontext of the different sets of knowledge and skills that effective teachers possess. Theresearch in teacher’s knowledge, skills and standards suggests that teacher change withthe passage of time and develop skills like planning, designing, assessment techniques,helping student reflective teaching, professional commitment, assessment techniques,effective feedback and application of knowledge, what they have gained to improveinstructions; 21
  38. 38. To understand a competent teacher, we have to see to what extend they apply anintegrated knowledge that they have in planning and implementing their teaching andrevise the contents of their lesson. The other aspect of teaching competency is ability intechnological aids, which suggests that the teacher must possess knowledge and skillabout proficiency in teaching aids. This suggests that effective teachers are able to learnplanning and designing of lesson as well as the strategies to be adopted in teaching; 1. They should be thus traced in facilitating teaching and professional were committee to acquiring knowledge throughout their life. 2. They should further be able to guide their students by properly designaty course of studies 3. They should be able to currently use student’s output and provide him with a correct feedback and how to make use of this in improving their teaching. 4. An instructor must be able to adequately manage the classroom. 5. Know the ways and means to motivate the students 6. The instructor must be able to understand as to how the students learn and improve besides knowing the contents of the education method that they are teaching. One of the attribute of effective teaching relates to the social context of thecommunity, the variance in the students and the positive attributes and the deficiencies inthe children. The proficiency in technology is perceived as a means to an end (resultingin better teaching) rather than as an end in itself (Siddiqui, 2007). 22
  39. 39. 2.5.1 Academic Competencies Teacher must know academic matters (Kohll, 1992). Command on subject anddevelop overall personality of the student. Accept the learning needs of the scientificworld. Understand the psychological basis of education and the factors, which influenceeducation.2.5.2 Methodological Competencies of Teachers Teaching Methodology is the process of teaching and the resultant learning bydeveloping a link between the students and the knowledge and skill contents embodied inthe curriculum Schools, through effective teaching methods, provide the requiredenvironment to the students in learning a particular skill or an area of knowledge. Methodology as defined by many definitions is a way of doing something in asystematic, orderly and regular manner. Competence on the other hand refers topossessing sufficient skill and knowledge in a particular area. Methodologicalcompetencies are thus procedures to undertake a particular work with adequateknowledge and skill.2.5.2.1 Lesson planning According to Bhatia, following five steps are necessary for teaching a lesson.Presentation, motivation, association, generalization and application are necessary stepsfor teaching a lesion. In the classroom, the teacher has greater discretion as to the time devoted to agiven lesson. In most high school subjects, the bulk of instruction centers on lecture anddiscussion. In planning instruction, the teacher must be aware of the fact that his behavior 23
  40. 40. and interaction with students vary according to the nature of the activity used duringinstruction’s (Airasian, 1994). The classroom task may be divided in two phases: The subject matter and lessonsplanning. The lesson must start with some thing to keep the students occupied at where he /she is. The activities for this movement must be in harmony with the students’ mental andphysical level and lesson. Reading, writing, drawing or coloring may all be suitable inparticular circumstances. Most important is the need to give the children something,which is, clear, concise and well within their capability. The aim at this stage is simply tobuy a little time of peace and quiet to deal with latecomers, lost property or any otherinterruptions. Aims of teaching a lesson may be achieved by maintaining interest,motivation and clarity in it. This certainly calls for a versatile teaching. Lesson shouldbe broken into smaller units for keeping every child busy due to their individualdifferences in learning. The aims may not be fully achieved but may producereinforcement for learning (Laslett and Smith, 1984). Starting with a general idea of what will be done during an instructional unit,teachers move through a series of successive elaborations and specifications. Important tothis process and indicative of the way assessments are made, is the fact that teacherstypically try to visualize their teaching activities unfolding in their own classroom. In avery real sense, teachers mentally rehearse the learning activities they contemplate usingin the classroom. There are many different instructional models that teachers can and dofollow when teaching. These models describe steps or activities that should take placewhen a lesson is taught (Eby, 1992). 24
  41. 41. According to Oser et al. (1992) the teacher kept tight control over the lesson whenstudents reactions did not reflect this emphasis drew on personal experiences to modelthe appropriate interpretation. The manner in which this lesson was conducted andcommunicated to the students as a set of values, perhaps unintended by the teacher. Educational objectives, or achievement targets, specify what pupils are to learnfrom the lesson; what they should be able to follow the instructions. Objectives describethe expected outcome of lesson. The materials going to be in teaching must also bespecified. Nothing in advance that the lesson will require a video player, copies of thedaily newspaper, construction paper and crayons, or marbles and an inclined plane helpsthe teacher prepare the needed materials. Planning also requires a description of theteaching and learning strategies being planned to use in the classroom. The heart ofteaching process is based on the strategies or activities teachers use with their pupils.Finally, a lesson plan should include some way to assess the success of the lesson. Plans string together a series of instructional activities each of which encompassesa relatively short period of time, usually ten to twenty minutes, during which pupils arearranged in a particular way or focused on a particular process. Common classroomactivities have been catalogued and include seatwork, reading circle, recitation,discussion, lecture, demonstration, checking work, independent study, audio-visualpresentation, tests, giving instructions, student report, games and silent reading. Clearly,some of these activities are more common in certain subject areas and grade levels. In planning day-to-day lesson and activities, one important consideration is thenature of the pupil needs vis-à-vis the content of the lesson. If few pupil have haddifficulty in understanding concepts or processes presented in a prior lesson, the teacher 25
  42. 42. might select a supervised seatwork activity to provide a chance to work more closely withthose pupil. When reinforcement and pupil engagement are needed, recitation might be auseful lesson activity (Airasian, 1994).2.5.2.2 Use of questions Classroom interaction involves the use of questions. The teachers attitude isreflected in the point and purpose of his use of questions. If these are seen as tricks andtraps designed to catch out the unwary and inattentive, then they become a source ofnegative interaction. If the teacher sees questions as a way checking whether his materialis being understood, than a wrong answer can be seen as the teachers fault and theoccasion for further explanation, rather than reprimand. Of course, this may not alwaysbe true, but a far more positive perspective than the traditional assumptions that wronganswers result from childrens stupidity. A quiz can have its place, particularly as a wayof recapping a lesson, but in the main body of the lesson teachers questions should be asource of feedback rather than friction. If the lesson is to go smoothly, they should alsobe short, specific questions requiring brief answers and responded to with praise ifpossible, with tact if not (Laslett and Smith, 1984). Following consideration are importantwhen asking lower order questions. Teachers should: 1 Ask clear, not ambiguous questions, 2 Ensure that the questions focus students attention on the key elements of the lesson, 3 Ask questions that permit teachers not only to check for student understanding, but also to identify possible reasons for any misunderstandings that are evident 26
  43. 43. 4 Avoid excessive use of choral responses or `call outs, interacting with one student at a time instead.When asking `higher-order questions, teachers should: 5 Allow generous amounts of "wait time" after they ask the questions (that is, the time students have to answer the questions before the teacher speaks) 6 Remind the students, as necessary, that all answers are expected. 7 Whenever possible, the teacher should strive for a balance between lower-order and higher order questions in their lessons (Anderson, 1991). The teacher used a questioning technique known as group alerting to keep thereading group involved. It kept all the students awake and on their toes. The teacherasked questions first and then called on a student to respond (Sadker and Sadker, 1997). Asking good questions is an important aspect of good teaching. All studentsshould have equal access to classroom questions and academic interaction. Classroomquestioning is of two types.a. Lower-order questionWhich can be answered through the processes of memory and recall. For example, "whowas president of the confederacy during the Civil War?" is a lower-order question.Without consulting outside references, an individual can respond with the correct answeronly by recalling the information he / she has already learnt. Research indicates thatapproximately 90 percent of the questions teachers ask are lower-order questions. Ask lower-order questions when: 1 Students are at orientation stage 27
  44. 44. 2 Student are at practice stage 3 Students are at review stage.b. Higher-order questionWhich requires more demanding thought for response. These may be used forevaluations, comparisons, causal relationships, problem divergent or solving, open-endedthinking and despite the fact that higher-order questions have been shown to produceincreased student achievement, most teachers ask very few of them. Ask higher-orderquestions when: 1 A content base has been established and you want students to manipulate information in more sophisticated ways 2 Students are learning how to solve problems 3 Students are discussing some creative or affective topic 4 Students are making judgments about different objects2.5.3 Improvement of Student Attitudes Sadker and Sadker (1997) explain that changes in student’s behavior take place inthe following ways: 1 Dramatic increase in student response. 2 Statements supported by evidences. 3 Enhanced thinking process. 4 Taking inattentive in discussion. 5 Problems regarding discipline minimized to measure complexity. 6 Enhanced achievement on written tests to measures complexity in thinking. 28
  45. 45. 2.5.4 Classroom Management The personality of a teacher coupled with his character is a very important factorin teaching in the class rooms. However, this alone is not sufficient for effective teachingand has to be coupled with competence which is very important with relation to theclassroom atmosphere. The class room teaching is affected to a great extent by a numberof factors which include the communication style (whether the student understand it), thegeneral atmosphere in the class (tense or relaxed), the rules regulations (strict or relaxed),but in addition to these factors, the teacher plays a role by influencing the students’ viewof himself. The teacher has to efficiently manage the class which requires achieving theset objectives /plans for the class with minimum deviations. Good teachers carefully manage their classrooms in order to reduce disturbances.They manage to keep all students during the class time, make teaching aids in readyposition, and make it convenient for students to watch the instructional presentations(Sadker and Sadker, 1997).2.5.5 Time Management Skill The learning in a class is an important teaching variable and is a consequence ofteaching methodology. It varies significantly from teacher to teacher for the same subjectand within similar internal and external environments. The academic learning is aconsequence of effective time management in the class room. The various tasksperformed in the class room are of important consequence such as, time taken to put theclass to order and get started, the lesson plan, and the discussion on issues or questionsraised by students. All these have an impact on student learning and, therefore, requireproper attention. 29
  46. 46. Time wasters have an adverse effect on student learning in classroom. Thosestudents who spend more time on pursuing the course contents are able to learn more andresultantly achieve better results. Teachers do make class room time schedules but it isnot enough, what matters are as to how effectively the allocated time used. An effectiveuse of class room time and schedule will have a positive effect on scholastic achievementof students. The positive results of effective time use have prompted researchers to studyit in more detail and various terminologies have emerged as under; • Allocated time • Engaged time • Academic learning time A teacher who believes in effective class room time management will alwaysmake a proper plan for the time to be spent in the class. He will avoid late coming as thisgives the student time to build noise level which takes time to subside and is thus a timewaster. A good time management teacher would always tell the rules and regulations tothe students to be followed in the class room along with the expected behavior (Sadkerand Sadker, 1997).2.5.6 Development of Self-confidence in Students Teaching is one of the most challenging professions. Working with young peopleas they develop their personality is a rewarding experience. Teachers help to develop theminds of young people to the end that they can cope with problems affecting ourcountrys future (Gilchrist el al., 1985). To teach successfully, one must plan successfully. Successful planning meansknowing how to facilitate a positive learning experience for all students. The teacher uses 30
  47. 47. his/her best professional judgment to decide which method; strategy and technique willwork best for a particular situation (Dhand, 1990). Teacher training is focused on methods, courses and areas of content specialty. Itis as if we assume that once a person knows many facts about a particular subject, he orshe can teach it to others; or in the case of elementary and secondary education, if teacherstudies a subject in depth and learns methods of instruction, he or she will then be a goodteacher (Zehm and Kohler, 1993).2.6 TEACHER EDUCATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE In order to make a teacher perfect or better, it is essential that course for teachersbe re-oriented, re-shaped, and re-drafted to improve the overall status of a teacher. Anadequately trained teacher will be able to deliver quality education, which will bereflected in providing better education to the future generation of the country. Thefinding of a study conducted by Fuller & Alexander (2004) indicated that students whowere taught by educationally qualified teachers showed better results. (Laczko-Kerr andBerliner, 2002) also showed in another study that those students who were taught by un-trained teachers performed substantially poorly, than those who were given education bynew teachers, but who were qualified. Darling-Hammond (1999) in their study showed a substantial linkage betweengood results and qualified teachers. The study also showed a substantially negativelinkage between results obtained by untrained teachers, who were comparatively new onthe jobs. (Fetler 1999) was of the view that teachers with short training did not performwill, when compared with those who were fully trained and had longer experience. 31
  48. 48. Balon (1990) is of the view that an effective teacher can be valuable for thestudents, the society, and the country. This is because of the fact, that such a teachereducates the future generation, on whom the future of the society and the nation depends.Such an education involves primarily an over all development of a person, to make him acomplete individual of the society. The difference between a trained and an untrained teacher lies in methods adoptedfor teaching and development of children. There is great diversity in the type of trainingavailable to teachers and thus comparisons become difficult. Analyst have, therefore,tried to find effects of training for teachers and are of the opinion that pedagogicaltraining is better than those who do not have this type of training (Hedges and Laine,1996). A joint study by Harvard University and the Academy of Education, indicatedthat level of training obtained by a teacher contributed to rise in obtaining marks inMath’s for grades four and five. The efforts to develop the abilities of teaching staff areaimed at helping the faculty to acquire learning skills and knowledge about subjectmatters, teaching techniques, related to learning (Main, 1985). The performance of ateacher before the class is dependent on training provided to him. To assess howeffective is the teaching, one, has to look at the performance of teacher in the class andthe attitude of the instructor in teacher training establishments. The output of teacher isdependent on his knowledge and ability. The effective teaching process is thusdependent on professional training and learning (Glaser, 1989). According to Aggarwal(1993), the training of teacher is required for formulating a positive attitude, and apurpose for the profession. 32
  49. 49. According to Schiefelben (1921), it has been usually assumed that the quality ofteaching performance is directly influenced by the academic qualification andprofessional training of teachers. Effective teaching is determined by content, masteryand Pedagogical Skills.2.6.1 Concept of Training in Education What is training in education? While answering this question, we may refer to theacquisition of academic and Professional Skills and Competencies. The phenomenon iscommonly known as Professional Development these days. Teacher training is the planned influence of individuals’ psychological processes,for the purpose to gain an attitudinal commitment to the philosophy, value and goals ofan organization. Staff/faculty development process focus on helping faculty member toacquire the essential teaching/learning competences (Main, 1985). Studies undertaken recently have tried to assess the effects of training for teachersby making comparison among teachers who are trained in the traditional training processand those using other means of training. These trainings can be in various forms to enablethe trainees to earn undergraduate qualification in other areas and than to enter teachingprofession and obtain certification. In the process they bypass some of the study requiredby those undertaking training in proper educational training institutions. The non-traditional teaching institutions or others like these, are given certificates, which does notconsider the requirements of teaching, that a teacher should have. These certificationsprocedures should have more knowledge and practical displays (Wals and Syder 2004)(Rivkin and Taylor, 1996), are of the view that research has established a positive linkage 33
  50. 50. between training in certified institutions and better results are obtained by students, whoare taught by such trained Teachers. The training for teacher includes, matters related to polices and procedures, whichare aimed to provide the teachers, with all the teaching techniques that include skills,knowledge and attitudes towards teaching, which are required for effective performanceboth in the classroom as well as at the school. The training for teacher comprise some ofthe under mentioned; 1. The basis or (initial) training. This is theoretical as the teacher is yet to take classes in a school. 2. Induction, which includes helping the teachers in their activities, during the initial years of teaching 3. Continuing Professional Development (CDP) which continues throughout the profession of a teacher. Norton (1985) is of the view the teacher education is a complete set of learning,which trains him to work effectively at various levels of schools. It comprises of bothformal and informal training, considered necessary for entering into the profession ofteaching. In many countries, the teacher education is conducted at higher education level.What is to be taught, what and learnt, is under debate in many countries. This is veryimportant as, it includes the type and content of knowledge to be passed on students, whowill later on make a contribution to the society and the country. Thus the curriculumcould be divided into knowledge & skills to be taught, to the teachers. 34
  51. 51. 2.6.2 Teacher Training and Professional Development The teacher training and professional development includes the following; 1 Maintaining of educational competency. 2 To further improve pedagogical skills and professional knowledge. 3 To develop flexibility in teaching and judgment. 4 To includes personal and inter-personal qualities. 5 To encourages self-awareness and responsibilities. Teachers training organizations should be able to provide knowledge, skills andvalues of society. These elements of training, if correctly provided, can help inmodifying the behavior and attitudes of teachers after completion of training.2.6.3 Professional Development and Teacher Education Professional development of teachers has to be linked to all aspects of education.In order to improve teacher education, a global effort has to be made, by involvingtraining agencies and organizations in the world, the countries and other institutions toensure that proper education is provided to the teachers at the level of university, so as toenable them to work as good teachers. The education for teachers must include the following; 1 Methodology 2 Pedagogy 3 Practice 4 Curriculum It has been observed, that teacher education and variables in the schoolenvironment are of real consequence, than in more developed countries. A study 35
  52. 52. conducted in four developing countries has indicated that the quality of teacher was oneof the major element between good and poor school (Carron and Châu, 1996). In addition to education of teachers, it is also of significance that they receivetraining during their service, so as to keep them abreast with new knowledge in theirsubjects and to get their support for improving teaching methods. Teaching is aprofession spared over the entire life of a teacher, as learning never ends and additionsare made to it regularly as knowledge expands. In case the teacher stops learning, hisknowledge will become stale and outdated, as they will be repeating what they learn yearafter year. Those teaching must be provided with the help to explore and find newmethods to experiment, as well as find new approaches in this direction. To do these, theelements of the in-service training and subsequent continuous development is aimed athelping teachers, in finding new teaching methods is very important. The trainingprovided during service is required to be of high quality. It should not be a routineactivity, as in that way it will loose its significances. Quality training during service hasto be arranged with the help of universities and other relevant organizations, dealing withextended education. A teacher who continues to maintain high professional standardswill be able to provide quality education, with better learning. Achieving higheducational standards is a continuous process, which is initiated with education beforeservice, initial learning, and continuing to learn. (Department of Education website athttp://www.doe.mass.edu/2.7 PROVISION OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN PAKISTAN Education has a checkered history in Pakistan. Soon after the independence, theimportance of education was recognized. Fazal-Ur-Rehman, the first Education Minister 36
  53. 53. on the behalf of the father of the nation, Quaid-i-Azam, convened the First EducationalConference, immediately after independence. He read the message from the Quaid, whichprovided guidelines for the educational system of the new country (Government ofPakistan, 1947). Teacher Education is imparted through pre-service and in-service teacher traininginstitutions, but it is predominantly pre-service in the form of Certificate, Diploma OrDegree program. In-service training programs are conducted by specified units of theprovincial governments, where the content remains limited to the teaching of prescribedschool curricula or development of administrative skills or orientation to the governmentinitiatives, such as formation of school management councils etc. These institutions areknown as Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education (PITE) and in Punjab, there is theDirectorate of Staff Development. At the federal level in-service teacher education isconducted by the National Institute of Science and Technology Education (NISTE). Both the students and teachers are faced with major problems in quality oflearning and competency, which is at its lowest in Pakistan. One of the many reasons forthis one factor is low level of qualifications, expected from a teacher at primary level, theother being the quality of teacher training program, which is dependent on the instructors.Teaching practices and absence of adequate monitoring is another problem. Theavailable Data indicates that out of 100 students, who join school at the initial level inpublic sector schools, only 8 complete their higher secondary school. It is worthmentioning that present 200 teachers training organizations are functioning in thecountry. 37
  54. 54. The public sector training organizations are located throughout the country forproviding pre-service, in-service training for teachers at the lowest level. In addition tothese there are around 300 teachers resources centres, established under education sectorreform programme, through out the country. This shows an extensive coverage, butsuffers from poor standards and quality. It is essentially required that specialized personsboth from Government Sector and NGOs’ be selected and located in the various centers.The Pakistan teacher education and professional development programme of theGovernment of Pakistan is at present performing this function.2.8 TYPES OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES In Pakistan, there are three types of Teacher Training Institutions.2.8.1 Formal Institutes for Teacher Training In these training institutes, the teachers were trained before joining the service. Atthe time of independence these types of teacher training institutes were 22 in numbers.For the admission, the prescribed qualification was certificate in Elementary andMatriculation. After the completion of training, the trainees were awarded certificates J.V(junior vernacular) and S.V (senior vernacular). Those having J.V certificates wereappointed in the primary schools as S.V. were selected for the elementary schools aselementary teachers. For high school students were taught by the teachers from normaland elementary colleges (Hameedi, 1962).2.8.2 Non-Formal Institutes for Teacher Training Allama Iqbal Open University was established at federal level in 1974, whichstarted, its programs for teacher training which included PTC, CT, B,Ed, M.Ed, M.A. 38
  55. 55. education, M.Phil and PhD education (AIOU, 1997).2.8.3 Field Based Institutes for Teacher Training This program is for the northern areas. In northern areas, there are differentgroups of people based on their sectarian orientation. The Imaeli school of thoughtspends lot of money to provide educational facilities, to people of their sect and open oneroom school in the area. This may be the room of a masjid or jammat khana. Theseschools are also known as Diamond jubilee schools. Curriculum of these schools was asin the other public schools but the administration was in the hands of the Ismaeli schoolof thought. (Farooq’1993) In 1983, 80% teachers in these schools were untrained. At that time there was agovernment teacher training institute in Gilgit and now there is a Government College ofEducation for primary teachers. It was not enough to meet the requirement of the peopleliving in difficult mountain areas. In these circumstances, the Central Board of Educationwith cooperation of the Government of Pakistan started a mobile field training program.There was separate schedule of practical teaching because pre-service and in-serviceteachers were trained during the course (Shaheen, Suhail and Farooq).2.9 TEACHER TRAINING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (1947) From the 1947 to 1978, there were normal schools for the training of the primaryteachers in Pakistan. After 1978, all teacher training schools were changed into collegesfor elementary teachers. Following were the teacher training programmes in Pakistan. Names of the program Qualification for admission1- J.V (junior vernacular) Middle (8th) 39
  56. 56. 2- S.V (senior vernacular) Matric3- C.T (certificate in teaching) F.A/Fsc4- O.T (oriental teaching). F. A5- B.T (Bachelor in teaching) B.A In 1956, the name of the J.V was changed into Primary Teaching Certificate(PTC) and the pre-requisite qualification was modified from middle to Matric (Govt. ofPakistan, 1956). Since independence of Pakistan, at secondary level teacher training (14+1) modelwas applied for the teacher training in the elementary colleges of Pakistan In 1957, thename of (B.T) was changed as Bachelor of education (B.Ed). In 1972-1980’s education policy, it was realized that for teaching of science, thereshould be a program for the training of science teacher. In the light of this policy, a newprogram for science teacher was introduced in universities and elementary collegesthroughout Pakistan. Provincial Education Departments and Education Extension Centers are providingtraining in education in their institutes. Teacher education programmes are offered inGovernment Colleges of Elementary Teachers, Government Colleges of Education,Institutes of Education and Research and Departments of Education in universities.Teachers for grades 1 to 8 are required to complete minimum of one-year teacher-trainingprogram; Admission to these programmes is based on completion of grade 10, at theminimum. Teachers for grades 9 and 10 are required to complete one-year teacher-training programme for which the admission requirement is 2-year Bachelor of 40
  57. 57. Arts/Science; the credential awarded is a Bachelor of Education. Teachers for grades 14and 16 are required to complete three-year teacher-training programme leading to aBachelor of Education Degree.2.10 LEVELS OF TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN Teacher education is conducted in institutions under the control of the ProvincialEducation Departments and Education Extension Centers. Teacher educationprogrammes are offered in Government Colleges of Elementary Teachers, GovernmentColleges of Education, Institutes of Education and Research and Departments ofEducation in universities. Various types of pre-service teacher education programs areoffered to prepare teachers for different levels of education.2.10.1 Primary Teaching Certificate / (Diploma in Education, 10+3) It is an approved scheme of the Ministry of Education. Diploma in Education wasstarted with an objective to prepare more skillful teachers for elementary schools. Theduration of the programme is three years.2.10.2 Certificate in Teaching (CT) CT programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at middle school level. Itincludes the courses related to philosophy and knowledge of middle school age andmethodology of teaching different subjects.2.10.3 Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Bachelor of education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching atsecondary school level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge ofhigh school age and methodology of teaching different subjects at this level.2.10.4 Master of Education (M.Ed) M.Ed education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at secondary 41
  58. 58. school level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge of high schoolage and methodology of teaching different subjects at this level. It also aims to prepareleaders and administrators for schools.2.10.5 Master of Education (M.A) Master in education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at collegeand university level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge ofhigher level and methodology of teaching education subject at this level. Master ofeducation is an academic and professional degree.Levels duration and qualification for admission year and duration (entry Level/grades for Title of program ACAD + Programme) which prepared Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC) 10+1 1-5 Certificate of Teaching (CT) 12+1 6-8 B.Ed 14+1 Secondary B.S.Ed 12+3 Secondary B.Sc (Hons) in Edu. Studies 12+4 Secondary M.A Education 14+2 Secondary and HS M.Ed B.Ed+1 Secondary and HS M. Phil Master in Edu+ 2 Year Higher TT The first two programs have been discontinued from 2002 onwards in Punjab, thebiggest province of Pakistan with a little more than 60% population of the country andthe minimum requisite qualification for a primary school teacher has been raised to abachelor degree. 42

×