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  • 1. A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS WELFARE MODEL SCHOOLS TAHIR KALEEM SIDDIQUI Reg. No.52/FUCE/PhD.Edu-2004  FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES RAWALPINDI-PAKISTAN 2010
  • 2. A STUDY OF TEACHER COMPETENCIES AND TEACHING PRACTICES FOR SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN WORKERS WELFARE MODEL SCHOOLS By TAHIR KALEEM SIDDIQUI Reg. No.52/FUCE/PhD.Edu-2004 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Foundation University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Rawalpindi FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES RAWALPINDI-PAKISTAN 2010  ii
  • 3. Dedicated to The loving memories of my mother  iii
  • 4. FORWARDING SHEET This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for School Effectiveness in Workers Welfare Model Schools” submittedby Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Education, under my guidance and supervision, is forwardedfor further necessary action. Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam Bukhari Advisor  iv
  • 5. APPROVAL SHEET OF THE COMMITTEE This thesis entitled “A Study of teacher competencies and teachingpractices for School Effectiveness in Workers Welfare Model Schools” submittedby Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy in Education, is hereby accepted. Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam Bukhari Supervisor_______________External ExaminerDr. Saeed Anwar______________External ExaminerDr. Ayesha AkbarDr. Muhammad Tayyab Alam Prof. Dr. M. Maqsud Alam BukhariHead of Department (R&D) Principal/DeanFUCLAS FUCLASDated: _____________  v
  • 6. AUTHOR’S DECLARATION Except where otherwise acknowledged in the text, this thesis represents theoriginal research of the author. The material contained herein has not been submittedeither whole or in part, for a degree at this or any other university. Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui  vi
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep & sincere gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr.Maqsood Alam Bukhari, for his inspiring guidance, constant encouragement andconstructive criticism. His guidance at different stages of the research enabled me tocompile this study. I am highly indebted and grateful to Dr. Muhammad Tayyab Alam for hisprofessional support, when I was stuck-up with different issues. My gratitude is due toDr. Mushtaq-ur-Rehman, former Director, IER, in completing this research. Dr.Shahid Siddiqui was very kind to go through the draft copy and gave his valuablesuggestions in improving it. I also feel indebted to Raheela Tajwar for her sincere cooperation andencouragement during the progress of this study. I will be failing in my duty, to acknowledge the support of Mr. M. SaeedAhmed Khan, Secretary, Workers Welfare Fund, for his valuable guidance andproviding me the enabling working conditions, to continue the research, in addition tomy official duties. I admit that without his support, it would not have been possible tocomplete the study. I owe special thanks to my wife, who had the patience to bear with me duringthe long time that I spent on this study, disrupting normal routines. I also express deep gratitude to all the administrators, teachers and students ofFoundation University for their cooperation during my research work. My thanks are also due to my family members for their love, encouragementand sincere wishes in completing this research. Tahir Kaleem Siddiqui  vii
  • 8. ABSTRACT This research was designed to study the instructional process competenciesthrough class room observations in Workers Welfare Model Schools (WWMS)established by Workers Welfare Fund (WWF), a subsidiary organization of Ministryof Labour and Manpower, Government of Pakistan. The organization runs 75 schoolsthroughout Pakistan. The major purpose of the study was to identify essential teachercompetencies for school effectiveness and find out class room practices used byWorkers Welfare Model Schools teachers. The study was also aimed at exploringindicators of school effectiveness. A mixed method approach was adopted to study thestate of school effectiveness. Forty sample schools were selected from a total of 75 onall Pakistan basis. Multistage sampling technique was used for sample selection.Twenty principals, 400 teachers and 80 classroom observations constituted thepopulation for this study. The data collected through the questionnaire, classroomobservations, focused group discussion and official documents. Data collected throughafore-mentioned instruments was tabulated, analyzed by both qualitative andquantitative techniques and interpreted category-wise. To analyze the data, chi-squaretest was applied to find out the significance of difference among the opinions of therespondents. On the basis of results obtained from the analysis of data through chisquare test, statements were accepted or rejected. Major findings of the study indicated that though most of the teachers areaware of standards of teaching for school effectiveness to some extent but they are notimplementing these standards in their classrooms. Also majority of the teachers arenot using evaluation techniques properly. The teachers, however, agreed with twomajor characteristics of the teacher education for school effectiveness i.e. contentknowledge and pedagogical competencies. The major implication of the study is toshift from lecture paradigm to collaborative, interactive and democratic teaching styleand develop mentoring as well as monitoring teacher education programme for overallschool effectiveness. Also a need emerges to find out as to why teachers, despitehaving knowledge of the required techniques, do not follow the standards of schooleffectiveness.  viii
  • 9. CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 5 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5 4.4 METHODOLOGY 5 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 62 LITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.1 WORKERS WELFARE SCHOOLS 7 2.2 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS 8 2.3 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN PAKISTAN 16 2.4 TEACHER AND EDUCATION 17 2.4.1 Importance of a Teacher 19 2.4.2 Characteristics of a Teacher in Islamic Perspective 19 2.4.3 Professional Characteristic of Teacher 21 2.5 COMPETENCIES OF THE TEACHER 21 2.5.1 Academic Competencies 23 2.5.2 Methodological Competencies of Teachers 23 2.5.2.1 Lesson planning 23 2.5.2.2 Use of questions 26 2.5.3 Improvement of Student Attitudes 28 2.5.4 Classroom Management 28 2.5.5 Time Management Skill 29 2.5.6 Development of Self-confidence in Students 30 2.6 TEACHER EDUCATION AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER EDUCATION 31 2.6.1 Concept of Training in Education 33  ix
  • 10. 2.6.2 Teacher Training and Professional Development 34 2.6.3 Professional Development 35 2.7 PROVISION OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN PAKISTAN 36 2.8 TYPES OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES 38 2.8.1 Formal Institutes for Teacher Training. 38 2.8.2 Non Formal Institutes for Teacher Training 38 2.8.3 Field Based Institutes for Teacher Training. 38 2.9 TEACHER TRAINING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 39 (1947) 2.10 LEVELS OF TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN 41 2.10.1 Primary Teaching Certificate / Diploma in Education 41 2.10.2 Certificate in Teaching (CT) 41 2.10.3 Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) 41 2.10.4 Master of Education (M.Ed) 41 2.10.5 Master of Education (M.A) 42 2.11 TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 43 2.11.1 Normal Schools 43 2.11.2 Elementary Colleges 44 2.11.3 Colleges of Education 44 2.11.4 Institutes of Education and Research (IER) 44 2.12 TEACHER EDUCATION IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 45 2.13 CHALLENGES FOR TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY 55 2.14 STUDENT TEACHING PRACTICE 563 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 59 3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 59 3.1.1 Sampling 59  x
  • 11. 3.2 TOOLS FOR COLLECTION OF DATA 60 3.2.1 Document Analysis 60 3.2.2 Focused Group Discussion (FGDs)– Principal 60 3.2.3 Survey Questionnaire Teachers 61 3.2.4 Observation Checklist 61 3.3 VALIDATION OF THE RESEARCH TOOLS 61 3.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 62 3.4.1 Procedure for data collection 62 3.4.2 Data Collection and Data Analysis 624 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 655 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 121 5.1 SUMMARY 121 5.2 DISCUSSION 121 5.2.1 Methodological Competencies 123 5.2.2 Motivational Competencies 125 5.2.3 Material Utilization Competencies 129 5.2.4 Instructional Process Competencies 131 5.2.5 Teaching Evaluation Competencies 135 5.2.6 Focused Group Discussion – Principals 138 5.3 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 141 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 145 BIBLIGRAPHY 148 APPENDICES 160  xi
  • 12. LIST OF TABLESTable No. Page3.1 Target Population 583.2 Sample for study 594.1 Gender wise ratio 654.2 Age-wise 664.3 Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents 674.4 Professional qualification wise distributions of respondents 684.5 Job experience wise distribution of respondents 694.6 The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. 704.7 The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences 714.8 The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively 724.9 The teacher appreciates students for correct answers 734.10 The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the 74 correct answers.4.11 The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. 754.12 The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials 764.13 The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools 774.14 The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed 78 tools4.15 The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in 79 teaching4.16 The teacher uses different questioning techniques 804.17 The teacher manages discipline in his/her class room. 814.18 The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching 824.19 The teacher manages classroom activities properly. 834.20 The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students 84 before starting teaching4.21 The teacher prepares course contents properly 854.22 The teacher uses various evaluation techniques 864.23 The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively 87  xii
  • 13. 4.24 The teacher assesses students own work adequately 884.25 The teacher always keeps record of individual students 894.26 Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. 904.27 The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality 914.28 Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively 924.29 The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. 934.30 The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students 944.31 Use of problem solving methods in teaching 954.32 Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences 964.33 Utilization of teaching situation effectively 974.34 Students were appreciated after correct answers 984.35 Students were given hints for correct answers. 994.36 Students were given second chance for correct answer. 1004.37 Used reinforcement effectively. 1014.38 Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. 1024.39 Used personal teaching tools effectively 1034.40 Used own devised teaching tools 1044.41 Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching 1054.42 Used questioning techniques 1064.43 Presented course contents in the classroom properly 1074.44 Used time management techniques in teaching 1084.45 Managing classroom. 1094.46 Manage discipline in the classroom 1104.47 Used various evaluation techniques 1114.48 Assessed student’s behavior effectively 1124.49 Assessed students own work effectively 1134.50 Presentation and explanation etc ability 1144.51 Knowledge of subject matter. 1154.52 General knowledge 1164.53 Teacher student interaction. 1174.54 Ability to motivate students. 118  xiii
  • 14. 5.1 Items analysis of methodological competencies 1225.2 Items analysis of motivational competencies 1265.3 Items analysis of material utilization competencies 1285.4 Items analysis of instructional process competencies 1315.5 Items analysis of teaching evaluation competencies 135  xiv
  • 15. LIST OF FIGURESFigure No. Page4.1 Gender wise 654.2 Age-wise 664.3 Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents 674.4 Professional qualification wise distributions of respondents 684.5 Job experience wise distribution of respondents 694.6 The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. 704.7 The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences 714.8 The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively 724.9 The teacher appreciates students for correct answers 734.10 The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the 74 correct answers.4.11 The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. 754.12 The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials 764.13 The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools 774.14 The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed 78 tools4.15 The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in 79 teaching4.16 The teacher uses different questioning techniques 804.17 The teacher manages discipline in his/her class room. 814.18 The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching 824.19 The teacher manages classroom activities properly. 834.20 The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students 84 before starting teaching4.21 The teacher prepares course contents properly 854.22 The teacher uses various evaluation techniques 864.23 The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively 874.24 The teacher assesses students own work adequately 884.25 The teacher always keeps record of individual students 89  xv
  • 16. 4.26 Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. 904.27 The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality 914.28 Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively 924.29 The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. 934.30 The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students 944.31 Use of problem solving methods in teaching 954.32 Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences 964.33 Utilization of teaching situation effectively 974.34 Students were appreciated after correct answers 984.35 Students were given hints for correct answers. 994.36 Students were given second chance for correct answer. 1004.37 Used reinforcement effectively. 1014.38 Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. 1024.39 Used personal teaching tools effectively 1034.40 Used own devised teaching tools 1044.41 Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching 1054.42 Used questioning techniques 1064.43 Presented course contents in the classroom properly 1074.44 Used time management techniques in teaching 1084.45 Managing classroom. 1094.46 Manage discipline in the classroom 1104.47 Used various evaluation techniques 1114.48 Assessed student’s behavior effectively 1124.49 Assessed students own work effectively 1134.50 Presentation and explanation etc ability 1144.51 Knowledge of subject matter. 1154.52 General knowledge 1164.53 Teacher student interaction. 1174.54 Ability to motivate students. 118  xvi
  • 17. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION School effectiveness has been one of the major concerns of practitioners andpolicy makers, not only in Pakistan but also in other countries. School effectivenessencompasses students’ academic achievements and development of their personalitytogether with the teachers’ development and improvement in school milieu. In Pakistan, school effectiveness is generally, measured by scholastic resultsshown by students at various levels. The higher the number of grades and the passpercentages, the more effective the school is considered. While making the passpercentages as a standard for school effectiveness, many factors may be overlooked. It ispossible that the “Good” achievement may be because of the fact that the studentsobtained by supplemental coaching out side the school, by those who can afford this,which indirectly indicates that obtaining of good results is not because of teaching at theschool but is dependant on the “paying capacity” of those who can financially affordtaking coaching outside the school hours. The above considerations lead to the inference, that school effectiveness isgenerally judged only by grades obtained rather than more effective elements leading toholistic development of children. The mere holistic view of effectiveness, deals withoverall development of student personality, whereas scholastic achievement, teacher’straining and teacher student relationship are basic components of school development, asa result of professional development. 1
  • 18. According to Scheerens (2000), effectiveness of the school is measured as to whatextent goals are achieved by a school, with comparison to other similar school. Cheng(1996) described, school effectiveness is the ability of the intuitions to optimize theworking or the stage to which schools can practice its routines, when the required input ismade. In effective schools, condition exist, to an extent that the overall achievements ofthe students indicate that they are able to attain the basics, which are essential to makethem learn the skills to be successful in next follow up level in the learning process(Kunwar, 2001, p.85). Long and Pinder (1995), identify a range of key issues in school effectiveness,wherein teacher development is primary element besides curriculum development andparental involvement. They both proposed a close relationship between teacherdevelopment and school effectiveness. Effective and target oriented education, is conceived as the most powerfulmedium and a source to effect required change in the social setup of a country. This,however, does not take place in isolation, but is accomplished by the teacher, who isrequired to be major player of change during the entire process. With this focal position,the teacher has to be equipped to undertake this most important role and has to beeffectively prepared and trained professionally. This training process must be accordedthe highest priority by every one concerned for improving the deliverance of education. Ateacher’s profession is very challenging for as he can play an effective role in nationbuilding. Teachers, who can shoulder this responsibility, have to be trained in theprofessional knowledge and should be encouraged to adopt the profession. The other realaspect, would be inducting teachers through Professional Development. The adequacy of 2
  • 19. this training process, is dependant on required motivations, dedication and a will forcontinuous professional development achievement in this profession. It is a rathercontinuous and life-long effort. Poetter (1997) is of the opinion that such people, who are normally not vocal,have to be found to impart education. Certainly, there is more to teaching than feelingaffection for children and an eagerness to serve school / children well. Moreover, whenteachers forget that children come first their students and society are in serious danger.Therefore, teachers in schools are both among the “most powerful” and the “moststressed” individuals in the world. They are powerful because of their influence overyoung minds and they are stressed because of the responsibilities that are often out ofproportion to their authority (Dark, 1995). The reality is that schools could change and develop only, if the teachers withinthe institutions, are empowered to develop themselves (Bayne-Jardme, 1994; Doyle andHartle, 1985). Realizing the importance of education, Lawal (2003) points out that "thelearning process is a basic element of cultural progress without which no individual canattain professional development. From the aforementioned, it transpires that it is through effective teachereducation programs, that we can improve teaching, which is the gateway to knowing,learning and teaching. These help teachers to develop as “effective teachers”. Teachereducation programmes are directed to equip the teachers with professional skills, knowhow and motivation to encourage students to acquire knowledge and attitudes, aboutsociety, wherein they live. This process is expected to result in teachers who posses therequired qualities of an effective professional teacher for good education and social 3
  • 20. achievements. With these requirements, teacher education assumes an essential role ineducational process dealing with acquisition of effective teaching skills and techniques. The development and improvement of education by a nation requires, that all theessential elements for improving training in education must be provided, including,selection of professional and scholastically qualified teachers. Such teachers considereducation as a sacred mission for improvement of education in the country so as enable itto complete with other nations. To make teaching profession more acceptable and professional, it is essential thatresearch in teacher education should assume a pivotal role. This must include atransmission and acquisition of knowledge, so that those who are trained are able torealize the impact that the training, would have for the entire economy as well as thesociety. In addition to professional training, teachers should be trained in learningpractical ethics related to education and various models made for school effectivenessand teacher education. These are open for further research in this direction. Arguing the need for an effective teacher education program, Lawal (2003)indicated that such persons will be able to deliver effective teaching. They are expectedto employ the use of teaching aids to improve their delivery process, and manage thestudents in the class, through applications of better methods and manage and control theirclasses for effective learning. The role of teachers in making professional knowledge available to theircolleagues and students, with on motivation impact on teachers job effectiveness, areessential for educational development. 4
  • 21. Keeping in view the above established linkage between teacher it is required toexplore indicators and standards for an effective teacher which may lead to improveschool effectiveness.1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The present research was designed to explore essential teacher competencies forschool effectiveness and find out, if classroom teaching practices used in WorkersWelfare Model Schools (WWMS) are consistent with these competencies?1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study were: 1. Evaluate teacher competencies skills for school effectiveness 2. To explore elements of school effectiveness 3. To observe classroom environment and to assess teachers competence 4. To suggest measures to enhance the school effectiveness in WWMS.1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) What are the basics of school effectiveness? 2) Which teacher’s competencies are essential for school effectiveness? 3) To what extent are these competencies applied in the classroom?1.4 METHODOLOGY Worker Welfare Fund is running 75 schools all over Pakistan. A sample of 40schools was selected randomly. Multistage sampling technique was adopted to select thesample. Twenty (20) principals (for focused group discussion), 400 teachers and 80classrooms (for observations) constituted the population for this study. Based on related 5
  • 22. literature review, the instrument of data collection was developed for the focused group.Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews andofficial documents.1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The research is significant, as it will give policy direction on achieving schooleffectiveness, which is a rising issue for academia and the outcomes from this study willfacilitate the process of professional development for school effectiveness. It will alsohelp in developing model of school effectiveness. It will further establish a foundation ofteacher education program. Teachers in the context of Workers Welfare Fund schoolsmay revise their curricula on the basis of this study. Private sector may also use findingsof this study for improving their working environment. Federal and Provincial Governments, Private Sector and Civil SocietyOrganizations engaged directly or in providing imperative education may find the studyuseful in future research, and to provide guidelines for developing and managing teachereducation program in Pakistan.    6
  • 23. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter deals with the review of related literature. It explores the factorsrelevant to the effective teacher education. The chapter draws seminal researcherfocusing on the constituents, some on the identification of factors, of an effective teachertraining for Workers Welfare Model Schools in the country. In the final section, a criticalreview of the related studies is presented.2.1 WORKERS WELFARE SCHOOLS The WWF is supplementing the existing educational facilities in the country,sponsored by the public & private sectors, by taking the initiative to establish its ownschool system, for the workers’ children, so as to provide them with an opportunity ofstandard and quality education. This is a humble effort by the WWF to provide mostconvenient access to the children, for developing their personality and elevating thesocial standing of those involved & the entire workers community. The WWF schoolsystem is focused on developing the personality of worker’s children to make themeffective citizens of the nation by contributing to economic prosperity. The Government of Pakistan is working hard to elevate the literacy level, byrealizing the significance of the UNO slogan ‘Education for All’. To achieve thisobjective, our government, in collaboration with private sector, NGOs international andother donor agencies has taken revolutionary initiatives to kick off sustained campaignsto up lift the literacy level. 7
  • 24. Workers Welfare Fund (WWF) is striving hard to achieve the national objectiveto increase the literacy level. It has initiated a number of educational schemes, to educatethe children of industrial workers and to bring them at par with other segments of thesociety. In this regard, a number of schemes have been initiated which include; (i)establishing educational institutions, (ii) scholarships, (iii) quality education programmeand (iv) technical education. The WWF is conscious of the fact that the poor industrial workers do not have themeans and finances to provide quality education to their children. The WWF had tointervene and fill in the “financial gap” by providing free education. The WWF has notrestricted its role to filling the financial gap alone, but has also made genuine efforts toprovide quality education, which would make these children useful addition to thenational economy. WWF has reflected its perpetual commitment by establishing a well coordinatedand harmonious network of seventy five schools, all over the country, during the past, toeducate the children of the industrial workers, a hardworking but poor segment of thesociety. Through these institutions, WWF is imparting quality education to approximately20,000 children in coordination with its provincial counterparts, in the remote areas of thecountry. These schools are providing free of cost quality education to the children ofworkers in a conducive and receptive manner.2.2 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS School effectiveness has been one of the major concerns of practitioners andpolicy makers, throughout the world. The notion of school effectiveness encompasses 8
  • 25. students’ academic achievements and development of their personality together with thedevelopment of teachers. The concept of effective school was introduced in America in 1960s. A numberof American universities and research institutes worked on this issue. Coleman (1966) isof the view that difference of school does not make a significance difference in student’sachievement. The stress was on family and the environment in which the children(student) live, as it will have substantial influence on achievement and subsequentperformance. This leads to the opinion that schools and teachers make no difference. This research accepted that school plays an insignificant portion in the educationof the student, curriculum was considered to be considerably important to meet thechild’s requirement. This was the thinking in 60s and curriculum provision wasconsidered as the main tier and function of schools continuing with this thinking was thatthe teachers are not involved in the classrooms; and no linkage was developed betweenthe teaching style and curriculum development (Hopkins, 1987). Contrary to 1960s, during 1970s, 1980s and gradually, the consideration of aneffective contribution to a students achievement assumed education became an importantrole and started drawing greater attention of the research scholar. Bookover et al. (1979)supported the concept that schools could make a difference, to a child’s attainment. Thisnegated the views argued by Coleman, that the effects of the home and familybackground outweigh the effect of school. Teachers thus assumed a pivotal role andbecome the focus or tools of effectiveness (Biddle, Good and Brophy, 1975). 9
  • 26. Reynolds (1976) started work in England on ‘School Difference Research’. Theresults provided and established the concept of school effectiveness. He published hisfindings, in an article in the New Society Journal. His work was continued by Edmonds(1978), who identified factors of effective schools, that, he found made a difference toperformance and achievement. Reynolds (1985) produced, a study on school effectiveness, which made itindicated that there was variation among schools and clear factors which indicate thateffectiveness of various school was different. In addition to the factors noted by Rutter etal. (1979), Purkey and Smith (1985) identified criterion of school effectiveness. Thesefactors were organizational in content and are listed in Hopkins et al. (1994:45) as: 1. School heads are focused on given curriculum. 2. Congenial atmosphere in the institutions. 3. Stress on curriculum and teaching. 4. High expectations for childrens. 5. A clear evaluation and monitoring system. 6. In-service and on-going training. 7. Help of the parents. School effectiveness is focused at the development of system, instead ofindividual, who would in anyway benefit from the process as a whole Fullan (1985) andMortimore et al. (1988) added some ‘process factors’ to this list, i.e. • Continuous staff envelopment, • Spare some time during school hours for discussion with colleagues, • Priorities for development must be sharply focused, 10
  • 27. • The impact of change in teaching is also dependent on puralled changes in the conditions within school, • Staff participating in effective school must be supported an project should be “data Driven” in sense of complete information for evaluation should guide participant for improvement, • Avoid bureaucratic implementation of the project, • Quick reminds applied in participating school and classrooms. • Autonomy of school is necessary for successful implementation of effective school project. Crandall et al. (1982 and 1986), Huberman and Miles (1984), Hargreaves (1984),Rosenholtz (1989), Louis and Miles (1990) and Wilson and Corcoran (1988) wereinvolved in substantial research, during the eighties, when focus of school effectivenessresearch was shifted to school improvement. This move started as an acceptable way of looking at the educational process inteaching institutions. Clift and Nuttall (1987) are of the opinion that the happening oroccurrences among teachers and students and assessment of those who made the centre ofattention of research in the field. Hopkins (1987 b) played a significant role in school improvement. Hopkins et al.(1994: 102) gave five principles for improvement of the school. 1. The vision is that (school in the future) these must be equal opportunity for school community to participate. 2. In school, because it has its vision, will see in external pressures for change and important opportunities to secure its internal priorities. 11
  • 28. 3. The school will seek to create and maintain conditions in which all members of the school community can learn successfully. 4. The school will seek to adopt and develop structures that encourage collaboration and lead to the empowerment of individuals and groups. 5. The school will seek to promote the view that the monitoring and evaluation of quality is a responsibility in which all members of staff share. The schools have a clear line of involvement throughout the teaching hierarchy ofschool. Development is encouraged and initiated at all levels from whole school systemsthrough departments down to including the teachers and the pupils in the classroom. Thiswhole school approach must come from the imaginative leadership of the Head teacherwho has the confidence to manage in Caldwell and Spinks’s (1988) terms a collaborative‘self-managing school’. Leadership in a school plays an effective role through the institutions of theHeadmaster / Principal. In the context of school transformational leadership that placesemphasis on process, shared vision, school culture and energizing participation is nowcrucial. In the ‘learning school’ Holly and South worth (1989) quote Stenhouse(1975:53) who says ‘there can be no curriculum development without teacherdevelopment’. So in their terms: “…..a learning school is a developing school’. A learning school being characterized by five levels of learning. Children’s learning, teacher learning, staff learning, organizational learning and leadership learning. We regard school improvement as a different direction make a difference in education, that increases the achievement of learners besides strengthening the capacity of the school’s capacity for institution for controlling the change”. 12
  • 29. Schools effectiveness is now considered as a means of change in the interest ofstudents. Reynolds provided a comparative table of characteristics of the two fields thatcontrasts their approaches.Comparative table of school effectiveness and school improvement No. School Effectiveness School Improvement a Focus on schools. Focus on individual teachers or groups of teachers b Focus on school organization Focus on school process. c Data driven with emphasis on Rare empirical evaluation of the outcomes. effects of change. d Quantitative in orientation Qualitative in orientation e Lack of knowledge about how to Concerned with change in schools implement change strategies exclusively f More concerned with schools at a More concerned with schools point in time as changing. g Based on research knowledge. Focus on practitioner knowledge. h More concerned with change in pupil More concerned with journey of outcomes school improvement than its destination The emphasis of school effectiveness, being on systems and outcomes, which areboth academically and socially, orientated. School improvement comes from a differentstance. This field is about “developing strategies for change that strengthens the school’sorganization, as well as implements curriculum reforms in the pursuit of studentsachievement” (Reynolds et al. 1993: p.42). To add to this, Reynolds et al. also show howthe school improvement field itself changed over time. 13
  • 30. Changing Concept of School Improvement  Indicators 1960s 1980s Orientation Top down Bottom up Knowledge based Elite knowledge Practitioner knowledge Target Organization or process Curriculum based based Outcomes Pupil outcome orientated School process orientated Goals Outcomes as given Outcomes as problematic Focus School Teacher Methodology of evaluation Quantitative Qualitative Site Outside school Within school Focus Part of school Whole school Reynolds et al. (1993) observed in their paper, that there has been a paradigmaticshift from the stance in the 60’s and 70’s to the higher level in the 80’s. The emphasisthen was on a top down approach by induction of technology in the school improvement.The focus was on the improvement of curriculum and the internal school organization.This thinking, however, does/did lead to any improvement and has to disagree anddefinite shift was made in the 80’s which was turned as bottom up approach and wasacceptable to the people involved. This approach, either consider active involvement of people, in the process orinvolving the teacher with the school process. 14
  • 31. Weindling (1998), therefore, suggested a series of school-based strategies andinitiatives that incorporates both ‘traditions’. They would include the following areas ofwork: 1 Use the research findings on effective schools and effective teaching. 2 Gather school specific information e.g. conducting needs assessment and analysis of student performance data. 3 Foster staff development and collegiality e.g. through team teaching, peer coaching and Investors in people. 4 Explore a variety of teaching methods e.g. the study of teaching skills, thinking skills and strategies such as co-operative and flexible learning. 5 Make effective use of a range of curricular initiatives – whole curricular (e.g. the National Curriculum), T.V.E.I and subject specific. 6 Improve relations with parents and employers e.g. by introducing parental involvement programmes and educational Business Partnerships and Compacts. Scheerens (2000) defines “School Effectiveness” as the achievement of the schooland compare with other some standard schools "school effectiveness is seen as the degreeto which schools achieve their goals, in comparison with other schools that are equalizedin terms of student intake, through manipulation of certain conditions by the school itselfin the immediate school context. The emphasis of the teacher in the classroom with thestudents is matter under discussion on review. The research is now focusing on thereason of making a link with the learning objectives in the changing world. 15
  • 32. Cheng (1996) – School effectiveness is ‘the capacity of the school to maximizeschool functions or the degree to which the school can perform school functions, whengiven a fixed amount of school input. Herman and Herman (1994) argued that “an effective school is one in which theconditions are such that student achievement data shows that all students evidenceacceptable minimum mastery of those essential basic skills that are pre-requisite tosuccess at the next level of schooling” (Kanwar 2001, p.85). Long and Pinder (1995), identify a range of key issues in school effectiveness.Teacher education is one of the important factors, besides curriculum development andparental involvement (Kevin Holloway et al., 1998). They both proposed a closerelationship between teacher development and school effectiveness. Barth (1990) offers aparticularly interesting parallel between teacher and pupil development.2.3 SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN PAKISTAN School effectiveness, in Pakistan, has been viewed in different contexts.Educational plans have no clear-cut provision on school effectiveness. Althoughimproving curriculum and teacher’s training has been the main thrust of all majorpolicies, yet, school effectiveness is a major concern from two standpoints: quality ofteaching and outcomes of students. In Pakistan, school effectiveness is generally, measured by results obtained bystudents at various levels. The higher the number of grades and the pass percentage,more effective the school is considered. This is, however, not the correct approach, asschool effectiveness should deal with overall development of student personality, 16
  • 33. whereas scholastic achievement, teacher’s training, teacher taught relationship are basiccomponents of school development, as a result of Professional Development. While making the pass percentages as a standard for school effectiveness, manyfactors may be overlooked. There are possibilities that “Good” outcome may be done tosupplemental coaching out side the school, by those who can afford this, which indirectlyindicates that obtaining good results is not because of teaching at the school but isdependant on the “paying capacity” of those who can afford for coaching outside theschool hours. The above considerations lead us to the inference, that school effectiveness isjudged only by grades obtained rather than more effective elements leading to holisticdevelopment of children. Factors such as developing the learning skills, buildingconfidence to face life, attitude and perception towards life, etc, or in other words theintellectual growth stands to be neglected (Siddiqui, 2007, p. 115).2.4 TEACHER AND EDUCATION Education is a process of learning, which is aimed at improving moral, cultural,social and intellectual attributes of the student individually as well as member of socialgroup. The process of learning is looked at as training in the filled of morals forindividuals through which their potentialities are developed, the traits of the creator areinculcated in them and the culture of the people is transmitted to the cominggenerations (Khalid, 1998). It is an instrument to change the social, cultural, economicand political set up of the society. It is considered a key to development. 17
  • 34. According to Allana (1987), education is a vitally important aspect of life. It isthe way in which life attempts to realize the noblest form of existence and a flourishinghumanity. It is the process through which individuals, groups and nations endeavor toachieve their ideals and aspirations. In education, the ultimate purpose of teacher is to help student to learn, often in aschool. The aim is a course of study, planning of lesson, including learning and thinkingskills. All these skills referred to pedagogical skills of a teacher. The teaching professiondemands full devotion towards continues learning.. Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimension. They not onlyhave to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge fordeveloping the abilities and talents with which he is born. If we wish to bring aproductive change, to raise the standard of education, it is imperative to recruit teacherswho not only have proficiency in their subject, but also have required a positive attitudetowards education and children. The success of any educational system depends on good teachers. We cannotreplace the teachers with any other type of instructional material. It has been well saidthat teachers are the best educational system. So, in an educational system, teacher is thebasic factor for its success. A teacher is more than what is commonly talked about. Hisduties of profession have many other dimensions (Deen, 2000, pp 24-25) The effective learning depends upon quality of teaching which requiresindividuals who are academically able and who care about the well being of children andyouth. (Highland Council Education, Culture and Sport Service, 2007) 18
  • 35. 2.4.1 Importance of Teacher Teacher’s importance in modern era has acquired new dimensions. They not onlyhave to impart subject matter to the pupil but also help him in use of knowledge fordeveloping the abilities and talents with which he is born. If we are committed to bringabout really a productive change, to raise the standards of education, it is imperative torecruit teachers who not only have the subject matter proficiency, but also have requireda positive attitude towards education and children. Teachers are the builders of our new generation. Unless we have the mostdedicated, hard working and trained teachers in our educational institution, we cannoteducate good citizens for tomorrow. This in turn depends on the effectiveness with whichthey have been taught by their own teachers in the classrooms (Govt. of Pakistan 1977). The success of any educational system depends upon good teachers. We cannotreplace the teachers with any other type of instructional material. It has been well saidthat the teacher of a school are always batter than the system of education, teacher is thebasic factor for its success. A teacher is more than what is commonly talked about him.His duties of profession have many dimensions. He helps students to learn things (Deen,2000, pp 24-25). The teaching importance is vital element in enhancing acquisition of knowledgein the school.2.4.2 Characteristics of a Teacher in Islamic Perspective Teaching according to the Islamic concept is a calling of the prophets. It iscertainly an honorable activity, as opposed to an activity, which is merely useful. The 19
  • 36. Muslim tradition bestows great respect upon the teacher. In fact, teaching was consideredto be an act of worship performed to please Allah. Thus, even during the period ofMuslim decadence, men of wealth and position considered it a duty to spare some theirtime for teaching a few students (Qureshi, 1975). Ghazali lists the followingcharacteristics of a teacher: 1 The teacher should follow the example of the prophet and seek no remuneration for teaching the students. The only reward he should hope for is the pleasure of Allah. 2 He should be perfectly honest with the students and should not give them the yazahs (license for teaching before they are worthy of them). 3 A teacher should never abuse a fellow teacher before a student. On the contrary, he should teach his subject in a way that it creates love for other subjects also. 4 The teacher must consider the students intellectual level before presenting a subject to them. The teacher must guard against the teaching of a matter, which is beyond his comprehension. 5 The teacher should practice what he preaches, lest his deeds should contradict his words. People are influenced only when a man presents himself as a model of his preaching. Words devoid of action fall flat and bring ridicule to the teacher (Khan, 1996). A teacher is the ideal and model to be followed by students. He is the focus ofentire teaching process. A teacher must earn respect of his students by the qualities thathe possesses. He should grasp the meaning of education and its relation to society. 20
  • 37. 2.4.3 Professional Characteristics of a Teacher Literature reviewed indicates number of professional characteristic which arebasic requirement for a good teacher. Following professional characteristics are basiccomponent of his personality: 1 Honour of child 2 Introduction with students by giving attention 3 Participation of students in school activities 4 Addressing the individual differences; of the students 5 Importance to theory as well as practice 6 Source of assessment in the classroom 7 Ask questions with consideration in lecture style2.5 COMPETENCIES OF THE TEACHER Application of well coordinated and intermingled approach to knowledge tocontently re-visits the instructions as they plan implementation. The instructors/teachersconsider a broad and integrated set of knowledge and techniques, which planning torevise these aspect of the competence of a teachers so, to competence what expected of ateacher understanding about using technical advancement should be answered in thecontext of the different sets of knowledge and skills that effective teachers possess. Theresearch in teacher’s knowledge, skills and standards suggests that teacher change withthe passage of time and develop skills like planning, designing, assessment techniques,helping student reflective teaching, professional commitment, assessment techniques,effective feedback and application of knowledge, what they have gained to improveinstructions; 21
  • 38. To understand a competent teacher, we have to see to what extend they apply anintegrated knowledge that they have in planning and implementing their teaching andrevise the contents of their lesson. The other aspect of teaching competency is ability intechnological aids, which suggests that the teacher must possess knowledge and skillabout proficiency in teaching aids. This suggests that effective teachers are able to learnplanning and designing of lesson as well as the strategies to be adopted in teaching; 1. They should be thus traced in facilitating teaching and professional were committee to acquiring knowledge throughout their life. 2. They should further be able to guide their students by properly designaty course of studies 3. They should be able to currently use student’s output and provide him with a correct feedback and how to make use of this in improving their teaching. 4. An instructor must be able to adequately manage the classroom. 5. Know the ways and means to motivate the students 6. The instructor must be able to understand as to how the students learn and improve besides knowing the contents of the education method that they are teaching. One of the attribute of effective teaching relates to the social context of thecommunity, the variance in the students and the positive attributes and the deficiencies inthe children. The proficiency in technology is perceived as a means to an end (resultingin better teaching) rather than as an end in itself (Siddiqui, 2007). 22
  • 39. 2.5.1 Academic Competencies Teacher must know academic matters (Kohll, 1992). Command on subject anddevelop overall personality of the student. Accept the learning needs of the scientificworld. Understand the psychological basis of education and the factors, which influenceeducation.2.5.2 Methodological Competencies of Teachers Teaching Methodology is the process of teaching and the resultant learning bydeveloping a link between the students and the knowledge and skill contents embodied inthe curriculum Schools, through effective teaching methods, provide the requiredenvironment to the students in learning a particular skill or an area of knowledge. Methodology as defined by many definitions is a way of doing something in asystematic, orderly and regular manner. Competence on the other hand refers topossessing sufficient skill and knowledge in a particular area. Methodologicalcompetencies are thus procedures to undertake a particular work with adequateknowledge and skill.2.5.2.1 Lesson planning According to Bhatia, following five steps are necessary for teaching a lesson.Presentation, motivation, association, generalization and application are necessary stepsfor teaching a lesion. In the classroom, the teacher has greater discretion as to the time devoted to agiven lesson. In most high school subjects, the bulk of instruction centers on lecture anddiscussion. In planning instruction, the teacher must be aware of the fact that his behavior 23
  • 40. and interaction with students vary according to the nature of the activity used duringinstruction’s (Airasian, 1994). The classroom task may be divided in two phases: The subject matter and lessonsplanning. The lesson must start with some thing to keep the students occupied at where he /she is. The activities for this movement must be in harmony with the students’ mental andphysical level and lesson. Reading, writing, drawing or coloring may all be suitable inparticular circumstances. Most important is the need to give the children something,which is, clear, concise and well within their capability. The aim at this stage is simply tobuy a little time of peace and quiet to deal with latecomers, lost property or any otherinterruptions. Aims of teaching a lesson may be achieved by maintaining interest,motivation and clarity in it. This certainly calls for a versatile teaching. Lesson shouldbe broken into smaller units for keeping every child busy due to their individualdifferences in learning. The aims may not be fully achieved but may producereinforcement for learning (Laslett and Smith, 1984). Starting with a general idea of what will be done during an instructional unit,teachers move through a series of successive elaborations and specifications. Important tothis process and indicative of the way assessments are made, is the fact that teacherstypically try to visualize their teaching activities unfolding in their own classroom. In avery real sense, teachers mentally rehearse the learning activities they contemplate usingin the classroom. There are many different instructional models that teachers can and dofollow when teaching. These models describe steps or activities that should take placewhen a lesson is taught (Eby, 1992). 24
  • 41. According to Oser et al. (1992) the teacher kept tight control over the lesson whenstudents reactions did not reflect this emphasis drew on personal experiences to modelthe appropriate interpretation. The manner in which this lesson was conducted andcommunicated to the students as a set of values, perhaps unintended by the teacher. Educational objectives, or achievement targets, specify what pupils are to learnfrom the lesson; what they should be able to follow the instructions. Objectives describethe expected outcome of lesson. The materials going to be in teaching must also bespecified. Nothing in advance that the lesson will require a video player, copies of thedaily newspaper, construction paper and crayons, or marbles and an inclined plane helpsthe teacher prepare the needed materials. Planning also requires a description of theteaching and learning strategies being planned to use in the classroom. The heart ofteaching process is based on the strategies or activities teachers use with their pupils.Finally, a lesson plan should include some way to assess the success of the lesson. Plans string together a series of instructional activities each of which encompassesa relatively short period of time, usually ten to twenty minutes, during which pupils arearranged in a particular way or focused on a particular process. Common classroomactivities have been catalogued and include seatwork, reading circle, recitation,discussion, lecture, demonstration, checking work, independent study, audio-visualpresentation, tests, giving instructions, student report, games and silent reading. Clearly,some of these activities are more common in certain subject areas and grade levels. In planning day-to-day lesson and activities, one important consideration is thenature of the pupil needs vis-à-vis the content of the lesson. If few pupil have haddifficulty in understanding concepts or processes presented in a prior lesson, the teacher 25
  • 42. might select a supervised seatwork activity to provide a chance to work more closely withthose pupil. When reinforcement and pupil engagement are needed, recitation might be auseful lesson activity (Airasian, 1994).2.5.2.2 Use of questions Classroom interaction involves the use of questions. The teachers attitude isreflected in the point and purpose of his use of questions. If these are seen as tricks andtraps designed to catch out the unwary and inattentive, then they become a source ofnegative interaction. If the teacher sees questions as a way checking whether his materialis being understood, than a wrong answer can be seen as the teachers fault and theoccasion for further explanation, rather than reprimand. Of course, this may not alwaysbe true, but a far more positive perspective than the traditional assumptions that wronganswers result from childrens stupidity. A quiz can have its place, particularly as a wayof recapping a lesson, but in the main body of the lesson teachers questions should be asource of feedback rather than friction. If the lesson is to go smoothly, they should alsobe short, specific questions requiring brief answers and responded to with praise ifpossible, with tact if not (Laslett and Smith, 1984). Following consideration are importantwhen asking lower order questions. Teachers should: 1 Ask clear, not ambiguous questions, 2 Ensure that the questions focus students attention on the key elements of the lesson, 3 Ask questions that permit teachers not only to check for student understanding, but also to identify possible reasons for any misunderstandings that are evident 26
  • 43. 4 Avoid excessive use of choral responses or `call outs, interacting with one student at a time instead.When asking `higher-order questions, teachers should: 5 Allow generous amounts of "wait time" after they ask the questions (that is, the time students have to answer the questions before the teacher speaks) 6 Remind the students, as necessary, that all answers are expected. 7 Whenever possible, the teacher should strive for a balance between lower-order and higher order questions in their lessons (Anderson, 1991). The teacher used a questioning technique known as group alerting to keep thereading group involved. It kept all the students awake and on their toes. The teacherasked questions first and then called on a student to respond (Sadker and Sadker, 1997). Asking good questions is an important aspect of good teaching. All studentsshould have equal access to classroom questions and academic interaction. Classroomquestioning is of two types.a. Lower-order questionWhich can be answered through the processes of memory and recall. For example, "whowas president of the confederacy during the Civil War?" is a lower-order question.Without consulting outside references, an individual can respond with the correct answeronly by recalling the information he / she has already learnt. Research indicates thatapproximately 90 percent of the questions teachers ask are lower-order questions. Ask lower-order questions when: 1 Students are at orientation stage 27
  • 44. 2 Student are at practice stage 3 Students are at review stage.b. Higher-order questionWhich requires more demanding thought for response. These may be used forevaluations, comparisons, causal relationships, problem divergent or solving, open-endedthinking and despite the fact that higher-order questions have been shown to produceincreased student achievement, most teachers ask very few of them. Ask higher-orderquestions when: 1 A content base has been established and you want students to manipulate information in more sophisticated ways 2 Students are learning how to solve problems 3 Students are discussing some creative or affective topic 4 Students are making judgments about different objects2.5.3 Improvement of Student Attitudes Sadker and Sadker (1997) explain that changes in student’s behavior take place inthe following ways: 1 Dramatic increase in student response. 2 Statements supported by evidences. 3 Enhanced thinking process. 4 Taking inattentive in discussion. 5 Problems regarding discipline minimized to measure complexity. 6 Enhanced achievement on written tests to measures complexity in thinking. 28
  • 45. 2.5.4 Classroom Management The personality of a teacher coupled with his character is a very important factorin teaching in the class rooms. However, this alone is not sufficient for effective teachingand has to be coupled with competence which is very important with relation to theclassroom atmosphere. The class room teaching is affected to a great extent by a numberof factors which include the communication style (whether the student understand it), thegeneral atmosphere in the class (tense or relaxed), the rules regulations (strict or relaxed),but in addition to these factors, the teacher plays a role by influencing the students’ viewof himself. The teacher has to efficiently manage the class which requires achieving theset objectives /plans for the class with minimum deviations. Good teachers carefully manage their classrooms in order to reduce disturbances.They manage to keep all students during the class time, make teaching aids in readyposition, and make it convenient for students to watch the instructional presentations(Sadker and Sadker, 1997).2.5.5 Time Management Skill The learning in a class is an important teaching variable and is a consequence ofteaching methodology. It varies significantly from teacher to teacher for the same subjectand within similar internal and external environments. The academic learning is aconsequence of effective time management in the class room. The various tasksperformed in the class room are of important consequence such as, time taken to put theclass to order and get started, the lesson plan, and the discussion on issues or questionsraised by students. All these have an impact on student learning and, therefore, requireproper attention. 29
  • 46. Time wasters have an adverse effect on student learning in classroom. Thosestudents who spend more time on pursuing the course contents are able to learn more andresultantly achieve better results. Teachers do make class room time schedules but it isnot enough, what matters are as to how effectively the allocated time used. An effectiveuse of class room time and schedule will have a positive effect on scholastic achievementof students. The positive results of effective time use have prompted researchers to studyit in more detail and various terminologies have emerged as under; • Allocated time • Engaged time • Academic learning time A teacher who believes in effective class room time management will alwaysmake a proper plan for the time to be spent in the class. He will avoid late coming as thisgives the student time to build noise level which takes time to subside and is thus a timewaster. A good time management teacher would always tell the rules and regulations tothe students to be followed in the class room along with the expected behavior (Sadkerand Sadker, 1997).2.5.6 Development of Self-confidence in Students Teaching is one of the most challenging professions. Working with young peopleas they develop their personality is a rewarding experience. Teachers help to develop theminds of young people to the end that they can cope with problems affecting ourcountrys future (Gilchrist el al., 1985). To teach successfully, one must plan successfully. Successful planning meansknowing how to facilitate a positive learning experience for all students. The teacher uses 30
  • 47. his/her best professional judgment to decide which method; strategy and technique willwork best for a particular situation (Dhand, 1990). Teacher training is focused on methods, courses and areas of content specialty. Itis as if we assume that once a person knows many facts about a particular subject, he orshe can teach it to others; or in the case of elementary and secondary education, if teacherstudies a subject in depth and learns methods of instruction, he or she will then be a goodteacher (Zehm and Kohler, 1993).2.6 TEACHER EDUCATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE In order to make a teacher perfect or better, it is essential that course for teachersbe re-oriented, re-shaped, and re-drafted to improve the overall status of a teacher. Anadequately trained teacher will be able to deliver quality education, which will bereflected in providing better education to the future generation of the country. Thefinding of a study conducted by Fuller & Alexander (2004) indicated that students whowere taught by educationally qualified teachers showed better results. (Laczko-Kerr andBerliner, 2002) also showed in another study that those students who were taught by un-trained teachers performed substantially poorly, than those who were given education bynew teachers, but who were qualified. Darling-Hammond (1999) in their study showed a substantial linkage betweengood results and qualified teachers. The study also showed a substantially negativelinkage between results obtained by untrained teachers, who were comparatively new onthe jobs. (Fetler 1999) was of the view that teachers with short training did not performwill, when compared with those who were fully trained and had longer experience. 31
  • 48. Balon (1990) is of the view that an effective teacher can be valuable for thestudents, the society, and the country. This is because of the fact, that such a teachereducates the future generation, on whom the future of the society and the nation depends.Such an education involves primarily an over all development of a person, to make him acomplete individual of the society. The difference between a trained and an untrained teacher lies in methods adoptedfor teaching and development of children. There is great diversity in the type of trainingavailable to teachers and thus comparisons become difficult. Analyst have, therefore,tried to find effects of training for teachers and are of the opinion that pedagogicaltraining is better than those who do not have this type of training (Hedges and Laine,1996). A joint study by Harvard University and the Academy of Education, indicatedthat level of training obtained by a teacher contributed to rise in obtaining marks inMath’s for grades four and five. The efforts to develop the abilities of teaching staff areaimed at helping the faculty to acquire learning skills and knowledge about subjectmatters, teaching techniques, related to learning (Main, 1985). The performance of ateacher before the class is dependent on training provided to him. To assess howeffective is the teaching, one, has to look at the performance of teacher in the class andthe attitude of the instructor in teacher training establishments. The output of teacher isdependent on his knowledge and ability. The effective teaching process is thusdependent on professional training and learning (Glaser, 1989). According to Aggarwal(1993), the training of teacher is required for formulating a positive attitude, and apurpose for the profession. 32
  • 49. According to Schiefelben (1921), it has been usually assumed that the quality ofteaching performance is directly influenced by the academic qualification andprofessional training of teachers. Effective teaching is determined by content, masteryand Pedagogical Skills.2.6.1 Concept of Training in Education What is training in education? While answering this question, we may refer to theacquisition of academic and Professional Skills and Competencies. The phenomenon iscommonly known as Professional Development these days. Teacher training is the planned influence of individuals’ psychological processes,for the purpose to gain an attitudinal commitment to the philosophy, value and goals ofan organization. Staff/faculty development process focus on helping faculty member toacquire the essential teaching/learning competences (Main, 1985). Studies undertaken recently have tried to assess the effects of training for teachersby making comparison among teachers who are trained in the traditional training processand those using other means of training. These trainings can be in various forms to enablethe trainees to earn undergraduate qualification in other areas and than to enter teachingprofession and obtain certification. In the process they bypass some of the study requiredby those undertaking training in proper educational training institutions. The non-traditional teaching institutions or others like these, are given certificates, which does notconsider the requirements of teaching, that a teacher should have. These certificationsprocedures should have more knowledge and practical displays (Wals and Syder 2004)(Rivkin and Taylor, 1996), are of the view that research has established a positive linkage 33
  • 50. between training in certified institutions and better results are obtained by students, whoare taught by such trained Teachers. The training for teacher includes, matters related to polices and procedures, whichare aimed to provide the teachers, with all the teaching techniques that include skills,knowledge and attitudes towards teaching, which are required for effective performanceboth in the classroom as well as at the school. The training for teacher comprise some ofthe under mentioned; 1. The basis or (initial) training. This is theoretical as the teacher is yet to take classes in a school. 2. Induction, which includes helping the teachers in their activities, during the initial years of teaching 3. Continuing Professional Development (CDP) which continues throughout the profession of a teacher. Norton (1985) is of the view the teacher education is a complete set of learning,which trains him to work effectively at various levels of schools. It comprises of bothformal and informal training, considered necessary for entering into the profession ofteaching. In many countries, the teacher education is conducted at higher education level.What is to be taught, what and learnt, is under debate in many countries. This is veryimportant as, it includes the type and content of knowledge to be passed on students, whowill later on make a contribution to the society and the country. Thus the curriculumcould be divided into knowledge & skills to be taught, to the teachers. 34
  • 51. 2.6.2 Teacher Training and Professional Development The teacher training and professional development includes the following; 1 Maintaining of educational competency. 2 To further improve pedagogical skills and professional knowledge. 3 To develop flexibility in teaching and judgment. 4 To includes personal and inter-personal qualities. 5 To encourages self-awareness and responsibilities. Teachers training organizations should be able to provide knowledge, skills andvalues of society. These elements of training, if correctly provided, can help inmodifying the behavior and attitudes of teachers after completion of training.2.6.3 Professional Development and Teacher Education Professional development of teachers has to be linked to all aspects of education.In order to improve teacher education, a global effort has to be made, by involvingtraining agencies and organizations in the world, the countries and other institutions toensure that proper education is provided to the teachers at the level of university, so as toenable them to work as good teachers. The education for teachers must include the following; 1 Methodology 2 Pedagogy 3 Practice 4 Curriculum It has been observed, that teacher education and variables in the schoolenvironment are of real consequence, than in more developed countries. A study 35
  • 52. conducted in four developing countries has indicated that the quality of teacher was oneof the major element between good and poor school (Carron and Châu, 1996). In addition to education of teachers, it is also of significance that they receivetraining during their service, so as to keep them abreast with new knowledge in theirsubjects and to get their support for improving teaching methods. Teaching is aprofession spared over the entire life of a teacher, as learning never ends and additionsare made to it regularly as knowledge expands. In case the teacher stops learning, hisknowledge will become stale and outdated, as they will be repeating what they learn yearafter year. Those teaching must be provided with the help to explore and find newmethods to experiment, as well as find new approaches in this direction. To do these, theelements of the in-service training and subsequent continuous development is aimed athelping teachers, in finding new teaching methods is very important. The trainingprovided during service is required to be of high quality. It should not be a routineactivity, as in that way it will loose its significances. Quality training during service hasto be arranged with the help of universities and other relevant organizations, dealing withextended education. A teacher who continues to maintain high professional standardswill be able to provide quality education, with better learning. Achieving higheducational standards is a continuous process, which is initiated with education beforeservice, initial learning, and continuing to learn. (Department of Education website athttp://www.doe.mass.edu/2.7 PROVISION OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN PAKISTAN Education has a checkered history in Pakistan. Soon after the independence, theimportance of education was recognized. Fazal-Ur-Rehman, the first Education Minister 36
  • 53. on the behalf of the father of the nation, Quaid-i-Azam, convened the First EducationalConference, immediately after independence. He read the message from the Quaid, whichprovided guidelines for the educational system of the new country (Government ofPakistan, 1947). Teacher Education is imparted through pre-service and in-service teacher traininginstitutions, but it is predominantly pre-service in the form of Certificate, Diploma OrDegree program. In-service training programs are conducted by specified units of theprovincial governments, where the content remains limited to the teaching of prescribedschool curricula or development of administrative skills or orientation to the governmentinitiatives, such as formation of school management councils etc. These institutions areknown as Provincial Institutes of Teacher Education (PITE) and in Punjab, there is theDirectorate of Staff Development. At the federal level in-service teacher education isconducted by the National Institute of Science and Technology Education (NISTE). Both the students and teachers are faced with major problems in quality oflearning and competency, which is at its lowest in Pakistan. One of the many reasons forthis one factor is low level of qualifications, expected from a teacher at primary level, theother being the quality of teacher training program, which is dependent on the instructors.Teaching practices and absence of adequate monitoring is another problem. Theavailable Data indicates that out of 100 students, who join school at the initial level inpublic sector schools, only 8 complete their higher secondary school. It is worthmentioning that present 200 teachers training organizations are functioning in thecountry. 37
  • 54. The public sector training organizations are located throughout the country forproviding pre-service, in-service training for teachers at the lowest level. In addition tothese there are around 300 teachers resources centres, established under education sectorreform programme, through out the country. This shows an extensive coverage, butsuffers from poor standards and quality. It is essentially required that specialized personsboth from Government Sector and NGOs’ be selected and located in the various centers.The Pakistan teacher education and professional development programme of theGovernment of Pakistan is at present performing this function.2.8 TYPES OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMMES In Pakistan, there are three types of Teacher Training Institutions.2.8.1 Formal Institutes for Teacher Training In these training institutes, the teachers were trained before joining the service. Atthe time of independence these types of teacher training institutes were 22 in numbers.For the admission, the prescribed qualification was certificate in Elementary andMatriculation. After the completion of training, the trainees were awarded certificates J.V(junior vernacular) and S.V (senior vernacular). Those having J.V certificates wereappointed in the primary schools as S.V. were selected for the elementary schools aselementary teachers. For high school students were taught by the teachers from normaland elementary colleges (Hameedi, 1962).2.8.2 Non-Formal Institutes for Teacher Training Allama Iqbal Open University was established at federal level in 1974, whichstarted, its programs for teacher training which included PTC, CT, B,Ed, M.Ed, M.A. 38
  • 55. education, M.Phil and PhD education (AIOU, 1997).2.8.3 Field Based Institutes for Teacher Training This program is for the northern areas. In northern areas, there are differentgroups of people based on their sectarian orientation. The Imaeli school of thoughtspends lot of money to provide educational facilities, to people of their sect and open oneroom school in the area. This may be the room of a masjid or jammat khana. Theseschools are also known as Diamond jubilee schools. Curriculum of these schools was asin the other public schools but the administration was in the hands of the Ismaeli schoolof thought. (Farooq’1993) In 1983, 80% teachers in these schools were untrained. At that time there was agovernment teacher training institute in Gilgit and now there is a Government College ofEducation for primary teachers. It was not enough to meet the requirement of the peopleliving in difficult mountain areas. In these circumstances, the Central Board of Educationwith cooperation of the Government of Pakistan started a mobile field training program.There was separate schedule of practical teaching because pre-service and in-serviceteachers were trained during the course (Shaheen, Suhail and Farooq).2.9 TEACHER TRAINING IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (1947) From the 1947 to 1978, there were normal schools for the training of the primaryteachers in Pakistan. After 1978, all teacher training schools were changed into collegesfor elementary teachers. Following were the teacher training programmes in Pakistan. Names of the program Qualification for admission1- J.V (junior vernacular) Middle (8th) 39
  • 56. 2- S.V (senior vernacular) Matric3- C.T (certificate in teaching) F.A/Fsc4- O.T (oriental teaching). F. A5- B.T (Bachelor in teaching) B.A In 1956, the name of the J.V was changed into Primary Teaching Certificate(PTC) and the pre-requisite qualification was modified from middle to Matric (Govt. ofPakistan, 1956). Since independence of Pakistan, at secondary level teacher training (14+1) modelwas applied for the teacher training in the elementary colleges of Pakistan In 1957, thename of (B.T) was changed as Bachelor of education (B.Ed). In 1972-1980’s education policy, it was realized that for teaching of science, thereshould be a program for the training of science teacher. In the light of this policy, a newprogram for science teacher was introduced in universities and elementary collegesthroughout Pakistan. Provincial Education Departments and Education Extension Centers are providingtraining in education in their institutes. Teacher education programmes are offered inGovernment Colleges of Elementary Teachers, Government Colleges of Education,Institutes of Education and Research and Departments of Education in universities.Teachers for grades 1 to 8 are required to complete minimum of one-year teacher-trainingprogram; Admission to these programmes is based on completion of grade 10, at theminimum. Teachers for grades 9 and 10 are required to complete one-year teacher-training programme for which the admission requirement is 2-year Bachelor of 40
  • 57. Arts/Science; the credential awarded is a Bachelor of Education. Teachers for grades 14and 16 are required to complete three-year teacher-training programme leading to aBachelor of Education Degree.2.10 LEVELS OF TEACHER TRAINING IN PAKISTAN Teacher education is conducted in institutions under the control of the ProvincialEducation Departments and Education Extension Centers. Teacher educationprogrammes are offered in Government Colleges of Elementary Teachers, GovernmentColleges of Education, Institutes of Education and Research and Departments ofEducation in universities. Various types of pre-service teacher education programs areoffered to prepare teachers for different levels of education.2.10.1 Primary Teaching Certificate / (Diploma in Education, 10+3) It is an approved scheme of the Ministry of Education. Diploma in Education wasstarted with an objective to prepare more skillful teachers for elementary schools. Theduration of the programme is three years.2.10.2 Certificate in Teaching (CT) CT programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at middle school level. Itincludes the courses related to philosophy and knowledge of middle school age andmethodology of teaching different subjects.2.10.3 Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Bachelor of education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching atsecondary school level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge ofhigh school age and methodology of teaching different subjects at this level.2.10.4 Master of Education (M.Ed) M.Ed education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at secondary 41
  • 58. school level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge of high schoolage and methodology of teaching different subjects at this level. It also aims to prepareleaders and administrators for schools.2.10.5 Master of Education (M.A) Master in education programme aims to prepare teachers for teaching at collegeand university level. It includes the courses related to philosophies and knowledge ofhigher level and methodology of teaching education subject at this level. Master ofeducation is an academic and professional degree.Levels duration and qualification for admission year and duration (entry Level/grades for Title of program ACAD + Programme) which prepared Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC) 10+1 1-5 Certificate of Teaching (CT) 12+1 6-8 B.Ed 14+1 Secondary B.S.Ed 12+3 Secondary B.Sc (Hons) in Edu. Studies 12+4 Secondary M.A Education 14+2 Secondary and HS M.Ed B.Ed+1 Secondary and HS M. Phil Master in Edu+ 2 Year Higher TT The first two programs have been discontinued from 2002 onwards in Punjab, thebiggest province of Pakistan with a little more than 60% population of the country andthe minimum requisite qualification for a primary school teacher has been raised to abachelor degree. 42
  • 59. Training program and qualification for admission at present Name of Programme Qualification Acad. Year B.Ed(Bachelor of Education) B.A/BSc One Year B.Sc(Bachelor of Science) FSc Three Year M.A(Secondary) B.A/BSc Two Year M.A(Islamic Education) B.A/BSc Two Year M.Ed(Secondary) B.Ed. One Year M.S.Ed(Science) BS.Ed. One Year M.A(Master of Technology) B.A/BSc Two Year M.A(Master of Business Education) B.A/BSc/B.Com Two Year (Institute of Education & Research, 2002, 2004, College of Education, 2001-2002)2.11 TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE2.11.1 Normal Schools Normal schools now also called teachers college or teacher-trainingcollege institution for the training of teachers. One of the first schools so named, theÉcole Normale Supérieure (Normal Superior School), was established in Paris in 1794.Based on various German examples, the school was intended to serve as a model forother teacher-training schools. Later, it was affiliated with the University of Paris. Normal schools were established chiefly on normal pattern of education in non-western or developing nations in South Asia. During post independence period in India,this type of schools were established by the British Government. At the time ofindependence of Pakistan, there were 22 teacher training schools. Since then, there hasbeen a remarkable improvement in teacher education and in scientific and technological 43
  • 60. education and researches, the system of normal schools for teachers remain since 1978.The new Constitution adopted by Pakistan in 1973 did not change the overalladministrative policy of the country.2.11.2 Elementary Colleges At present, there are elementary colleges and high schools which offer teachertraining programmes for PTC (Primary Teaching Certificate) and CT (Certificate inTeaching) to teachers. Since 1947 to 1978, there were normal schools for the training ofteachers at primary level in Pakistan. However, after 1978 all the teacher training schools(normal schools) were changed to colleges for elementary teachers.2.11.3 Colleges of Education Institutions which prepare secondary school teachers are known as Colleges ofEducation. These are established solely for the purpose of training teachers. These areusually for elementary teachers and emphasize pedagogical preparation more than subjectarea preparation. In most cases these offer 2- to 4-years programs. Bachelors Degreeprograms tend to entail greater subject matter preparation and relatively less pedagogicalpreparation. These are generally 3- or 4-year programs, with the teacher preparationportion lasting one to two years. At present, there are twelve Colleges of Education.2.11.4 Institutes of Education and Research (I.E.R) The following objectives were set forth for the Institutes: 1 To provide and promote facilities for training, study and research in education 44
  • 61. keeping in view needs and resources available. 2 To provide teaching, training and guidance in order to prepare candidates for B.Ed & M.Ed Degrees and such other Diplomas and Degrees that may be instituted as and when necessary 3 To help develop in the trainees basic understandings, attitudes, abilities and skills essential to successful teaching and creative educational leadership 4 To provide opportunities for professional educators for improving their knowledge and ability through special in-service educational programs 5 To conduct research in the field of Education and publish the results of such researches for the Information of those who are concerned with education 6 To provide guidance and advisory services to educational institutions as and when necessary2.12 TEACHER EDUCATION IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE As the world has become a global society, education is seen by many as animportant avenue for national development. Economic growth, development andimproved living standards are considered to be directly linked to the state of education.The preparation of new teachers and the on-going professional development of those inthe current teaching force are key to educational improvement (Cobb, Darling-Hammondand Murangi, 1995). 45
  • 62. Teacher education throughout the world has five main features i.e. recruitment,curriculum, structure, governance, accreditation and standards, all representing decisionsregarding key issues. Among the most important features of teacher education are the criteria andprocedures by which candidates are selected or recruited for entry to programs andinstitutions. Unlike some other professions, teaching often suffers from a shortage ofqualified candidates for admission. Therefore, teaching often does not enjoy the privilegeof being able to select the best qualified from among a large pool of applicants. Theproblem for a system is, first, ensuring that there is a large enough pool of qualifiedgraduates to meet the needs of the professions and, second, attracting enough qualifiedapplicants to enter teaching in competition with the other professions. These are some of the issues confronted in the recruit of candidates for entry in tothe teaching profession. Factors influencing recruitment include the status of the teachingprofession; the supply and demand for teachers; and the economic resources of thesystem. An example of the status of the profession affecting recruitment can be seen inThailand. In 1996, it was reported that the low status of the teaching profession inThailand was discouraging competent people from entering teaching and that someentrants were not seriously committed to becoming teachers. Therefore, the need toimprove the status of teaching and to provide other incentives for joining the professionwas important. 46
  • 63. Another important aspect of recruitment concerns the number of years ofschooling candidates have completed before entry to training institutions. While in mostdeveloped countries completion of a full eleven or twelve years of schooling is a normalrequirement, which is an unrealistic expectation in a country that is unable to produce asufficient number of such graduates to meet its needs for teachers. Toward the end of thetwentieth century, in the central and south Asian countries of Afghanistan, Pakistan,India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal, the mean number of years of schooling requiredbefore entry to teacher training was 10.7 years. In the Southeast Asian countries ofThailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines, it was 10.5 years, while inthe Latin American countries of Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru, Venezuela and Colombia, itwas 9.3 years. In the African countries of Algeria, Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Moroccoand Kenya, the mean was 9.6 years. This is not to say that the only qualifications accepted for entry to teachereducation are the number of years of schooling or level of academic achievement. Insome countries, candidates are recruited without completing the full secondary educationavailable because of their valuable experience in other types of activities beyond formalschooling, such as employment and community development work and their strongmotivation to become teachers. In Australia, for example, universities, like the Universityof Sydney, offer such candidates programs, specially designed to take advantage of theirstrengths. Most systems provide teacher education in face-to face situations to studentsattending institutions of higher education. However, many teachers around the worldreceive substantial components of their training through distance education. Beginning 47
  • 64. near the end of the 1950s, this approach involved the use of postal services for thedelivery of learning materials to students remote from an institution and the sending backof completed assignments by the students. The correspondence elements of this modelwere supplemented with tutorials conducted at centers located within reach of enoughstudents to form a group. On a number of occasions tutors would meet with the groups torender the process in more motivating social contexts and to deal with students at a morepersonal level. Sometimes students travelled to the campuses for residential schools.Telephone hook-ups were also arranged by land line or even satellite. Two Australianuniversities, the University of New England and the University of Queensland, pioneeredthis approach to distance teacher education. As technical electronic advances occurredwith the introduction of personal computers and electronic mail, the process becamemuch faster and more efficient. Distance education is a relatively in-expensive approachthat is especially useful in locations where populations are sparse and distances are great. The duration of teacher education programs varies across systems from a year orless to four or even five years. That range exists in quite a variety of countries and seemsnot always to depend on the economic development level of the countries concerned.Among the African developing countries of Algeria, Ghana, Nigeria, Ivory Coast,Morocco and Kenya, the range in 1990 was from one to five years. In Australia, recruitswho have completed three-or four-year university bachelors degrees can complete aprofessional teaching qualification in one year, while most choose to enter teachingimmediately after completing secondary schooling and then take up to four years tocomplete a bachelor of education degree.. 48
  • 65. The crucial factor is the foundation on which the professional training is based.Sometimes systems try to compensate for lack of a full secondary education in its recruitsby adding time to the training program in which to supply missing knowledge and skills.However, this can increase the costs of teacher education to prohibitive levels. One of the chief controversies in initial teacher education in more developedcountries in the second half of the twentieth century was whether professionalcomponents of programs should be offered concurrently with academic components orconsecutively. It became commonly accepted that concurrent programs were preferable.However, fluctuations in teacher supply and demand and the demands of other programsin universities often resulted in decisions being adopted on the basis of practicalitiesrather than ideals, so that consecutive programs began to take precedence. Continuous, orconcurrent, programs tend to introduce professional components early and in closeassociation with general education and specialist academic studies. Consecutiveprograms, sometimes called "end-on" programs, delay the introduction of professionalcomponents until general and specialist studies have been completed. Especiallycontroversial during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s were the relationships between theuniversity or college offering the programs and the schools for which the student teacherswere being prepared. Traditionally, schools provided professional experiences during thepracticum component of the program, perhaps for up to three periods of three or fourweeks a year. However, the role of the schools in initial teacher education generallybecame greater during those decades. In some cases, the school became the focus of theprogram, with student teachers being based in schools rather than in universities orcolleges. Crucial to this controversy was the role of experienced teachers employed in the 49
  • 66. schools. Whereas, it had been more usual for them to act as advisers and supervisors ofinitial school experience, they now sometimes undertook much more odiousresponsibilities, such as designing and coordinating the whole program, with universitiesproviding a supporting role and awarding the final qualification. The types of institutions offering initial teacher education programs also varyfrom system to system. In some places, teacher education, especially at the elementarylevel, is offered in single purpose, state-run or private colleges known often as teacherscolleges or colleges of education. In other countries, teacher education is offered bymultipurpose institutions, sometime called polytechnics, which are tertiary educationinstitutions emphasizing training for a variety of occupations, for example paramedicalservices, occupational therapy and journalism. During the 1990s, both England andAustralia restructured their higher education systems so that all such institutions becamenew universities or additional components of the existing universities. All of these institutions work in conjunction with early childhood, elementary andsecondary schools, which provide practical teaching experiences for teacher educationstudents. What is needed by the student teachers to learn in order to become effectiveteachers in the contexts of curriculum which they will be employed? That is the mostfundamental of all the questions that can be asked about teacher education. Initial teachereducation programs usually have five strands: general education, specialist subjects,education foundation studies, professional studies and the practicum, including practiceteaching. 50
  • 67. General education programs attempt to ensure that intending teachers have asound grounding in the predominant knowledge, attitudes and values of the cultures inwhich they are preparing to teach. General studies in history, arts, science, mathematics,philosophy, ethics, government, psychology and sociology are common components ofthis strand. Specialist subjects involve studies in depth, which qualify students to teachspecific areas of knowledge. Literature and literacy, languages, history, geography,mathematics, science, computing, domestic science, physical education and industrial artsare examples. Student teachers preparing to teach in elementary schools are usuallyexpected to teach a broader range of content, whereas post elementary teachers areusually more specialized. Education foundation studies include studies of the history of educational thought,principles of learning and teaching, human growth and development, comparativeeducation and sociology of education. Curriculum and instruction subjects provide unitson principles and practice of planning, delivering and assessing learning experiences forstudents and include such matters as programming, classroom management skills, testconstruction, individualizing instruction and small group teaching methods, laboratoryinstruction and cooperative learning techniques. In some systems, the distinctionbetween these theoretical and applied learning’s is eschewed on the grounds thattheoretical studies have little relevance to newcomers unless they are seen to arise frompractice and attempts are made to integrate the two. This was well exemplified inEngland in 1992, when, partly on the grounds that the content of teacher education wastoo theoretical, Kenneth Clarke, then the Secretary of State for Education, announced that 51
  • 68. 80 percent of programs in secondary teacher education should be "school-based." InNorth America, Bruce Joyce and Beverly Showers, among others, called for a morecentral role of the school in teacher education. A somewhat similar complaint about theexcess of theory in the curriculum of teacher education programs was reported in 1991 byAndrea B. Rugh and colleagues with reference to Pakistan and in 1986 by Linda A. Doveregarding Papua New Guinea. In some parts of the world, the role of the teacher is wider than in others and thecurriculum of teacher education is adjusted accordingly. In 1991, Beatrice Avalosdescribed situations in Tanzania and Papua New Guinea that are useful examples of therisks encountered in such widening of the curriculum. In Tanzania, adherence was givento the belief that education should produce citizens who were self-reliant, especially asmost children would not receive more than basic education. Schools were to becommunity schools that inculcated "socialist" work habits; were self-supportingfinancially; emphasized knowledge and skills useful to the village or rural community;and encouraged the participation of the community in school activities. Pursuit of thesegoals necessitated a broadening of the teacher education curriculum at the same time asthe length of the program was shortened in order to produce graduates more quickly. As aconsequence of these changes, the curriculum became overcrowded and content-centeredwith little time for practical components. Avalos claimed that the teachers did not evenachieve sufficient competence to teach basic literacy and numeracy and concluded thatgreat caution needs to be exerted in training teachers for more than one purpose. Providing actual teaching experience in real school situations (the practicum) isone of the most challenging tasks for planners of teacher education. Traditionally, in the 52
  • 69. elementary school context, the student teacher was placed with a volunteer school teacherand would be assigned lessons to design, prepare and present under that teachersguidance. Usually these lessons would number about three per day, after an initial periodof orientation and observation, for about three weeks each year of the program. Theteacher would provide feedback on a selection of those lessons but, in order to developconfidence and independence would not be present for all of the lessons, especiallytoward the end of the period of practice teaching. The college or university in which thestudent teacher was enrolled would usually appoint one of its own faculty to supervisethis process and that person would visit and observe the student teacher on severaloccasions and would have the responsibility of reporting on progress and awarding agrade, after discussing the experience with both the student and the cooperating teacher.Student teachers would often have other assignments to complete as well as thoseinvolving face-to-face teaching. For example, they might be required to establish a file onschool organization and curriculum resources in the school. In the context of thesecondary school, in which the student teacher might be obtaining experience in anumber of specialist subject areas involving more than one school department, acorresponding number of cooperating teachers and college or university supervisorsmight be appointed. This traditional approach to the practicum has been criticized on the grounds thatit militates against bridging the gap between theory and practice, when the two might belearned more effectively if integrated. In some cases the problem was approached bytrying to make the university or college the site of more practically orientated schoolexperiences. Thus, such innovations as laboratory schools were established at the 53
  • 70. university. Over the last three decades of the twentieth century, the bridge was sought inthe form of simulations, such as microteaching. Microteaching usually occurred on thecampus of the college or university. It consisted of scaled-down teaching situations inwhich shorter than normal lessons would be taught to smaller groups of students withlimited numbers of teaching skills to be practiced in pursuit of a small number of learningobjectives. Usually, teaching spaces were developed and built specifically for theenvironment of microteaching. The lessons would be videotaped, so that the studentteacher could view the lesson, often in consultation with peers and a supervisor or mentorand obtain feedback which could be used in re-planning the lessons. While the controlled context in which microteaching occurs has facilitated muchresearch on its effectiveness, there has been concern about the extent to which skillsdeveloped under microteaching conditions are transferred to normal classroom situations.It has been argued that there is no adequate substitute for real experience in normalclassrooms and seldom, if ever, was reliance placed on microteaching as a completesubstitute for actual classroom experience. Indeed, some systems have sought to makeschool experience the central component of teacher education in what has become knownas "school-based teacher education" or, at least, by providing much more enduringperiods of school experience at some stage of the teacher education program. A medicalmodel has sometimes been applied, with student teachers approaching the end of theirprograms becoming "interns" attached to schools for a semester, or even a year. Criticsoften claimed that professional experiences gained through such innovations asmicroteaching and such models as "performance-based" or "competency-based" teachereducation gave too much emphasis to the "performance" or "behavioral" aspects of 54
  • 71. teaching at the expense of insight and reflection. Accordingly, calls for more reflectiveapproaches were made and were accepted. The concept of reflective teacher educationgenerated much literature in the 1980s and 1990s. Marvin Wideen (1998) andcolleagues, after an extensive review of research on the effectiveness of innovations inteacher education, including reflective practice, found little encouragement for theiradoption and concluded that such innovations have little ability to affect beginningteachers within teacher education structures common at the end of the twentieth century.2.13 CHALLENGES FOR TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY Research on educational issues has brought forward many matters in variousdomains of education. Major challenges for teacher education in the twenty-first centuryare summarized below: 1. The raising of the status of the teaching profession to a level at which it attracts the best qualified applicants. 2. Harnessing rapidly developing technology to provide maximum learning opportunities for student teachers, especially those in remote areas and those in developing countries, where conventional resources such as libraries are impossible to resource adequately. 3. Discovering the optimum balance between theory and practice in the curriculum of teacher education in the many and varying contexts in which it is provided. 4. Developing teacher education structures and curricula that provide optimal balances among the academic, humanitarian, aesthetic and moral domains of human experience. 55
  • 72. 5. Designing research that takes account of the many complex factors that impinge upon the process of teacher education, so that a greater understanding may be gained of the ways in which students learn to teach in the myriad of contexts in which they live.2.14 STUDENT TEACHING PRACTICE Student teaching practice component is seen as an essential element to teacherpreparation. The duration of such an experience varies widely and appears to beinfluenced by teaching level and sometime the nature of the teacher education program.Practice teaching experiences for primary teachers is several four week sessions in NewZealand to a full-year internship in Germany, France, Luxembourg, Belgium and ChineseTaipei (NCTAF, 1996). Practice teaching occurs following coursework near the end of the teachereducation program; however, increasingly it is being spread throughout the entire teachereducation program. Candidates are asked to observe classrooms, tutor young people andto serve as teacher aides prior to actual practice teaching. In the U.S., student teaching ranges from eight weeks to two full semesters withmost programs averaging 12-15 weeks. Newer graduate-level programs have begunrequiring year-long intensive practice teaching or internship experiences that are school-based, often in professional development schools. Teachers preparing in Germany face two full years of internship that includeseminar and classroom experiences. College- and school-based faculties observe andevaluate at least 25 lessons. At the end of this period candidates go through a variety ofportfolio and paper assessments prior to teaching (Waldrop, 1991). 56
  • 73. In New Zealand and Australia, the cooperating teacher, associate teacher, ortutoring teacher is responsible for mentoring and evaluating student teachers. InGermany, the U.S., Canada and Singapore both school- and college/university-basedfaculty assess students. The trend towards establishing specific school andcollege/university partnerships that create linkages between teacher educationcoursework and clinical practice is gaining. (Eric Digest) Indicators of overall quality are effectiveness, fitness for purpose, efficiency,accountability and ethical practice and fair dealing. (Schofield 2000). An indicator, asdefined in Oxford Dictionary is that, ‘which points out or directs attention to some thing’(Hornby, 2003). Webster’s dictionary defines indicator as ‘the exactness. These definitions are similar and both reflect the essential nature of what, in thesocial sciences, should be properly termed an indicator (Albert, 1998). Indicators aresigns that are evidence of the presence or absence of particular qualities. Murnane (1998) described similarities between economic indicators andeducation indicators, particularly with respect to common problems. Van den Berghedefines quality indicators as performance indicators that refer to a quality characteristic orobjective, which would allude to the broad context of performance evaluation in whichthey operate. Being more specific, he goes on” A quality indicator is a figure, which ishelpful for the assessment of a quality characteristic or the achievement of qualityobjectives” (Van den Berghe 1997). In 2002, Aisha carried out analysis of zone of proximal development between theskills emphasized during teaching training and their application in the classroom. 57
  • 74. Analysis showed significant gap between the two types of skills. Tehsin conducted a research in 2008 for her Ph.D degree at International IslamicUniversity on disparity between teaching skill acquired during training and skills appliedin the classroom. Information about the competence in acquired skill was obtainedthrough a questionnaire from the teachers and application of the skills was observed inthe classroom. Application of test revealed significant disparity between the acquiredskills and application of required skills. 58
  • 75. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methods and procedures of the research.3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY The present research “A study of teacher competencies and teaching practices forschool effectiveness in the Workers Welfare Model Schools” was a exploratory as well asdescriptive research. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied for dataanalysis. The primary focuses of the study was to find the causes of the problemsprevailing in the existing system of basic formal education and to recommendsuggestions for its improvement. Material and documents available on teacher education and school effectivenesswere studied thoroughly. The researcher used focused group discussion, questionnaire,and classroom observations as its data collection tools.Table 3.1 Target population Category Punjab Sind N.W.F.P Baluchistan Total Schools 44 15 11 05 75 Heads/Principal 44 15 11 05 75 Teachers 1156 400 351 119 20263.1.1 Sampling Multistage sampling technique was used for the study. At first stage, 50% schoolswere taken from each province by random sampling. At the second stage 50% principalswere selected randomly from the sampled school. Ten teachers, were selected from each 59
  • 76. school by judgmental sampling. Class room observations were conducted from 20% ofthe selected teachers. For class room observations convenient sampling technique wasused. The study sample is indicated in Table 3.2:Table 3.2: Sample for study Category Punjab Sindh N.W.F.P Balochistan Total Schools 23 08 06 03 40 Principal 12 04 03 01 20 Teachers 230 80 60 30 400 Classrooms 46 16 12 06 803.2 TOOLS FOR COLLECTION OF DATA3.2.1 Document Analysis For this study, the researcher surveyed the official reports, documents andeducation policies of Government of Pakistan for information.3.2.2 Focused Group Discussion (FGDs) Principals Twenty senior Principals’ of worker welfare model schools were contacted forfocus group discussion with the permission of the concerned authorities, when they werein Islamabad for official annual meeting. All participants were requested to assemble inWorker Welfare Fund (HQs) Islamabad when they came for the annual meeting. Thistiming was appropriate otherwise, it was not possible to get all participants assembled atone place. The discussion was completed in two sessions. During the first session, the 60
  • 77. participants were apprised of research purpose; general discussion to this context washeld. In the second session, lead questions (Annex-A) were introduced and their point ofview was recorded. It took about five hours to arrive at the conclusion. This was theexploratory phase of the study to identify and define the concept of school effectiveness.3.2.3 Survey Questionnaire for Teachers The standardized questionnaire (developed by P.O. Nwaehutwu, 2006) was takenby the researcher and after discussion with participants of FGD and supervisor certainchanges were incorporated in the standardized questionnaire keeping in view controlenvironmental differences (Annex-B). 1. Demographic and Professional Information 2. Educational Competencies in Practice 3. Professional Achievements Opinions This questionnaire was adjusted / adapted to as the basic purpose of using thequestionnaire to elicit information regarding standards of education taught andpracticed.3.2.4 Checklist for Classroom Observations Observations checklist was developed keeping in view the standards of effectiveclassrooms. This research tool was to observe the actual delivery of lessons in classroom(Annex-C). Observations checklist is an effective tool of data collection.3.3 VALIDATION OF THE RESEARCH TOOLS For the research tool, initially 25 interview questions were formulated for theprincipals. After the development of first draft, these tools were improved under the 61
  • 78. supervision of the advisor and two experts from the relevant field. The items werereduced to 12 interview questions for principals. The pre-testing was conducted on 03 principals. The tools were pre-tested to ensurethe validity and reliability of research instruments. In the light of the feedback, somestatements were deleted and some were modified. The final version of the tools wasprepared in close consultation with the advisor.3.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS3.4.1 Procedure for Data Collection As a first step, the questionnaire was dispatched to sample teachers throughprincipals. It took almost three months to retrieve the questionnaire. Telephonic requestswere also made to almost 50 % of respondents to return the questionnaire. FocusedGroup Discussion (FGD) was held in WWF, (HQs). Classrooms were observed by the researcher and trained observers. Theresearcher worked in the province of Punjab and NWFP while trained observers tookobservations from Province of Sindh and Balochistan. It took six months to observe allselected classrooms.3.4.2 Data Collection and Data Analysis It took more than one year, to collect the data through above mentioned tools.Data collected was analyzed quantitatively as well as qualitatively. As data was collectedthrough multiple sources, the technique of triangulation was adopted to analyze the datafrom various standpoints, to place the findings in right perspective. Descriptive statisticaltools were also applied in data analysis. 62
  • 79. Data collected through questionnaire, was analyzed at three levels. GeneralInformation regarding principals and teachers was presented in the form of tables. Part Bof questionnaires was analyzed by taking frequency occurrence and percentages at threepoint scale. The points of FGDs were analyzed qualitatively. Data collected from the teacherwas analyzed on three points rating scale the data collected from techniques and rankingmethod to get results. Similarly data collected through questionnaire on three point scalewas also analyzed qualitatively. Data collected through questionnaire was tabulated and analyzed throughstatistical treatment Chi- square test (χ2). It is a non-parametric test of significance,appropriate when the data is in the form of frequency counts. It compares proportionsactually observed in a study with proportions expected to see if they are significantlydifferent. This test was applied to the responses of teachers of Workers Welfare ModelSchools. For statistical treatment chi-square was applied using the following formula: fo = Frequency observed fe = Frequency expected df = Degree of freedom = fo - fe = (fo - fe)2 (fo - fe)2 = fe 63
  • 80. (fo − fe)2 ∑ χ2 = fe (Garrett, 1997) From the score of rating scale, percentages and mean score was also calculated. Qualitative analysis of FGDs were also presented at the end of the analysis. On the basis of the research methodology presented above, the questionnaireswere administered and the required data was collected. Findings were drawn,conclusions were made and finally recommendations were proposed.    64
  • 81. CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents data analysis. In the first part of the chapter basicinformation is presented in profiles while data collected through various tools ispresented in the form of tables. In the second part of this chapter, data is discussed indetail.4.1 PROFILES Based on the information received from the samples of teachers and principal,profiles, in various categories, were generated. These profiles are classified into thefollowing categories. a) Gender (Male and Female) b) Qualification (Basic and Professional) c) Age d) Service length (10 years, 15 years, 20 years) 65
  • 82. Table 4.1: Gender wise ratio Gender N %age Female 256 77.57% Male 74 22.43% Total 330 100% Table 4.1 shows that the sample of the study comprised (77.57%) of female and(22.43%) of male. This is also presented in the following figure. Male 22.43% Female 77.57% Fig.1. Male and female teacher’s ratio 66
  • 83. Table 4.2 Age-wise distribution of respondents. Years (in years) N %age 20-29 74 22.42 30-39 208 63.03 40-49 33 10.00 50 & above 14 4.242 Age not mentioned 1 0.303 Total 330 100% Table 4.2 shows that majority (63.03%) of the respondents age lay between 30-39 years age group. This is also presented in the following figure. 0.3, 0% 4.2, 4% 22.4, 22% 10.0, 10% 20-29 30-39 40-49 50 & above Age not mentioned 63.0, 64% Fig.2. Age group of the respondents. 67
  • 84. Table 4.3: Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents Academic qualification N %age Bachelors 87 26.36 Masters 238 72.12 M.Phil 4 1.21 Ph.D 1 0.30 Total 330 100% Table 4.3 shows that majority (72.12%) of the respondents held Master’s degree.This is also presented in the following figure. 0% 26% 1% Bachelors Masters M.Phill Ph.D 73% Fig. 4.3: Academic qualification wise distribution of respondents 68
  • 85. Table 4.4: Professional qualification wise distributions of respondents Professional qualification N %age B.Ed/BS.Ed 237 71.81 M.Ed 92 27.87 Doctor of education 1 0.30 Total 330 100% Table 4.4 shows that majority (71.81%) of the respondents held B.Ed/B.S(Ed)degree. This is also presented in the following figure. 0% 28% B.Ed/BS.Ed M.Ed Doctor of education 72% Fig. 4.4: Professional qualification of the respondents 69
  • 86. Table 4.5: Job experience wise distribution of respondents Job experience N %age Less then 3 years 55 16.66 3 to 6 116 35.15 7 to 10 85 25.75 Above 10 years 74 22.42 Total 330 100% Table 4.5 shows that majority (35.15%) of the respondents had more than 3 to 6year experience. This is also presented in the following figure. 22% 17% Less then 3 years 3 to 6 7 to 10 Above 10 years 35% 26% Table 4.5: Job experience of the respondents 70
  • 87. 4.2 INDICATORS OF TEACHERS EDUCATION PROGRAMQuestionnaire – Teachers Data collected through questionnaire, from the teacher was tabulated andanalyzed through descriptive statistics and by applying χ2 test on each statement. Firstlyresponse on each scale was calculated % wise and then χ2 test was applied. It is used toshow the acceptability of some indicator as per pre-decided value. Values obtained oneach indicator and subsequent χ2 test are given as under:Table 4.6: The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 94 16 220 330 Percentage 28.48% 4.85% 66.67% 100% 192.65* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.6 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 192.65 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (66.67%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher usesproblem solving methods in teaching” is rejected. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided Disagree Fig. 4.6: The teacher uses problem solving methods in teaching. 71
  • 88. Table 4.7: The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences A UD D Total χ2 Response 89 14 227 330 212.24 Percentage 26.97% 4.24% 68.79% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.7 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 212.24 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (68.79%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher usesindividual teaching methods for individual differences” is rejected. This is also presentedin the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig. 4.7: The teacher uses individual teaching methods for individual differences 72
  • 89. Table 4.8: The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively A UD DA Total χ2 Response 136 25 169 330 103.47 Percentage 41.21% 7.58% 51.21% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.8 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 103.47 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (51.21%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher utilizesteaching situation effectively” is rejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided Disagree Fig. 4.8. The teacher utilizes teaching situation effectively 73
  • 90. Table 4.9: The teacher appreciates students for correct answers A UD DA Total χ2 Response 196 19 115 330 142.75 Percentage 59.39% 5.76% 34.85% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.9 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 142.75 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (59.39%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher appreciatesstudents for correct answers” is accepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided Disagree Fig.4.9: The teacher appreciates students for correct answers 74
  • 91. Table 4.10: The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the correct answers. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 212 16 102 330 175.49 Percentage 64.24% 4.85% 30.91% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.10 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 175.49, which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (64.24%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher gives hints tostudents in order to lead them to the correct answers” is accepted. This is also presentedin the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig. 4.10: The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them to the Correct answers. 75
  • 92. Table 4.11: The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 102 11 207 330 174.68 Percentage 33.94% 3.33% 62.73% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.11 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 174.68 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. This means statistically that there is a significantdifference of opinion among the respondents. The inclination of respondents (62.73%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher usesreinforcement effectively” is rejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig. 4.11: The teacher uses reinforcement effectively. 76
  • 93. Table 4.12: The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials A UD DA Total χ2 Response 246 21 63 330 260.24 Percentage 74.55% 6.36% 19.09% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.12 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 260.24 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically course is significant difference inthe opinion of the respondent. The inclination of respondents (74.55%) is towardsagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher selects appropriate andrelevant teaching materials” is accepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.12: The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials 77
  • 94. Table 4.13: The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools A UD DA Total χ2Response 174 34 122 330 91.05Percentage 52.73% 10.30% 36.97% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.13 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 91.05 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference in theopinion of the respondent. The inclination of respondents (52.73%) is towards agreementwith the statement. Hence the statement "The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools” isaccepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.13: The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools 78
  • 95. Table 4.14: The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed tools. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 108 17 205 330 160.71 Percentage 32.73% 5.15% 62.11% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.14 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 160.71 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (62.11%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement "The teacher uses personalteaching tools in addition to the prescribed tools” is rejected. This is also presented in thefollowing figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig. 4.14: The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed tools. 79
  • 96. Table 4.15: The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in teaching A UD DA Total χ2 Response 119 20 191 330 134.02 Percentage 36.06% 6.06% 57.88% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.15 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 134.02 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (57.88%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher appliescontemporary knowledge and new ideas in teaching” is rejected. This is also presentedin the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.15: The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in teaching 80
  • 97. Table 4.16: The teacher uses different questioning techniques A UD DA Total χ2 Response 195 13 122 330 152.53 Percentage 59.09% 3.94% 36.97% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.16 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 152.53 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (59.09%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses differentquestioning techniques” is accepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.16: The teacher uses different questioning techniques 81
  • 98. Table 4.17: The teacher manages discipline in his/her classroom. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 235 9 86 330 240.02 Percentage 71.21% 2.73% 26.06% 100%*Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.17 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 240.02 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (71.21%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher managesdiscipline in his/her classroom " is accepted. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.17: The teacher manages discipline in his/her classroom. 82
  • 99. Table 4.18: The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching A UD DA Total χ2 Response 234 10 86 330 Percentage 70.91% 3.03% 26.06% 100% 235.93* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.18 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 235.93 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (70.91%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses timemanagement techniques in teaching” is accepted. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.18: The teacher uses time management techniques in teaching 83
  • 100. Table 4.19: The teacher manages classroom activities properly. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 174 22 134 330 112.87 Percentage 52.73% 6.67% 40.61% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.19 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 112.87 which aregreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (52.73%) is towards agreement with thestatement. Hence the statement "The teacher manages classroom activities properly.” isaccepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.19: The teacher manages classroom activities properly. 84
  • 101. Table 4.20: The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students before starting teaching A UD DA Total χ2 Response 145 12 173 330 134.53 Percentage 43.94% 3.64% 52.42% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.20 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 134.53 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (52.42%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement” The teacher makes clear statement of objectives oflesson to students before starting teaching” is rejected. This is also presented in thefollowing figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.20: The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students before starting teaching 85
  • 102. Table 4.21: The teacher prepares course contents properly A UD DA Total χ2 Response 185 13 132 330 141.07 Percentage 56.06% 3.94% 40.00% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.21 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 141.07 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (56.06%) is towards agreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher prepares course contents properly “isaccepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided Dis agreeFig.4.21: The teacher prepares course contents properly 86
  • 103. Table 4.22: The teacher uses various evaluation techniques A UD DA Total χ2 Response 88 4 238 330 255.49 Percentage 26.67% 1.21% 72.12% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.22 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 255.49 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (72.12%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses various evaluation techniques” isrejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig. 4.22: The teacher uses various evaluation techniques 87
  • 104. Table 4.23: The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively A UD DA Total χ2 Response 94 19 217 330 181.69 Percentage 28.48% 5.76% 65.76% 100%*Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.23 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 181.69 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (65.76%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence statement “The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively” isrejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.23: The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively 88
  • 105. Table 4.24: The teacher assesses students own work adequately A UD DA Total χ2 Response 171 27 132 330 100.85 Percentage 51.82% 8.18% 40.00% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.24 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 100.85 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (51.82%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement "The teacher assessesstudents own work adequately” is accepted. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.24: The teacher assesses students own work adequately 89
  • 106. Table 4.25: The teacher always keeps record of individual students A UD DA Total χ2Response 94 24 212 330 164.15Percentage 28.48% 7.27% 64.24% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.25 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 164.15 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (64.24%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher always keepsrecord of individual students” is rejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.25: The teacher always keeps record of individual students 90
  • 107. Table 4.26: Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 219 17 94 330 188.96 Percentage 66.36% 5.15% 28.48% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.26 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 188.96 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (66.36%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement "Higher academicqualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness” is accepted. This is also presented inthe following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.26: Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. 91
  • 108. Table 4.27: The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality A UD DA Total χ2 Response 216 16 89 330 191.46 Percentage 67.29% 4.98% 27.73% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.27 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 191.46 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (67.29%) is towards agreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is aninborn quality” is accepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.27: The ability of a teacher to perform effectively is an inborn quality 92
  • 109. Table 4.28: Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively A UD DA Total χ2 Response 209 14 107 330 172.96 Percentage 63.33% 4.24% 32.42% 100%*Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.28 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 172.96 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (63.33%) is towards agreement with thestatement. Hence the statement " Professional qualification improves teacher’s jobeffectively” is accepted. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.28: Professional qualification improves teacher’s job effectively 93
  • 110. Table 4.29: The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. A UD DA Total χ2 Response 73 10 247 330 273.98 Percentage 22.12% 3.03% 74.85% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.29 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 273.98 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (74.85%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses evaluation data to improve jobsituation” is rejected. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.29: The teacher uses evaluation data to improve job situation. 94
  • 111. Table 4.30: The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students A UD DA Total χ2 Response 137 10 183 330 145.98 Percentage 41.52% 3.03% 55.45% 100%* Significant df = 4 χ2 at 0.05 level = 9.488 Table 4.30 shows that calculated value of χ2 was found to be 145.98 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (55.45%) istowards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher has directinteraction with his/her students” is rejected. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Agree Undecided DisagreeFig.4.30: The teacher has direct interaction with his/her students 95
  • 112. 4.3 CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONTable 4.31: Use of problem solving methods in teaching Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 10 23 47 80 Percentage 12.50 28.75 58.75 100 Table 4.31 shows that in most of the classes teachers were not using thistechnique during their teaching their teaching was conventional and they did not implyproblem solving methods. Most of the teachers (58.75%) in the classroom never usedproblem solving methods. This statement was also rejected by majority of teachers onquestionnaire as they were not aware of this technique; however, this method wasobserved in the classroom. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.31: Use of problem solving methods in teaching 96
  • 113. Table 4.32: Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 05 23 52 80 Percentage 6.25 28.75 65 100 Table 4.32 indicates that 65 % of teachers were never using individual teachingtechniques in classrooms to cope with individual differences. The answers of teachers onquestionnaire showed same result because majority of teachers disagreed with thestatement that they use individual teaching methods for individual differences. This isalso presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.32: Use of individual teaching methods for individual differences 97
  • 114. Table 4.33: Utilization of teaching situation effectively Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 10 30 40 80 Percentage 12.5 37.5 50 100 Table 4.33 reflects that 50 % teachers were unable to manage various classroomsituations as it was claimed by teachers on questionnaire as well. As this statement wasrejected by teachers that teachers never use various classroom situations as per thedemands and need of the class. This is also presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.33: Utilization of teaching situation effectively 98
  • 115. Table 4.34: Students were appreciated after correct answers Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 08 53 19 80 Percentage 10 66.25 23.75 100 In contrary to teachers’ claims on questionnaire, table 4.34 indicates that most ofthe teachers (66.25%) ‘Sometimes appreciate their students. Although teachers’ claimedthat they appreciate their students but this was not observed at a satisfactorily level.However, it was observed about 24 % that is one-forth of the teachers who wereappreciative of student’s activities in the classroom. Students were appreciated on correctresponse and sometimes they were appreciated on their initiatives. This is also presentedin the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.34: Students were appreciated after correct answers 99
  • 116. Table 4.35: students were given hints for correct answers. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 06 27 47 80 Percentage 7.5 33.75 58.75 100 This statement was again not proved during classroom observation, as up to 60%times, it was not observed that teachers provided clues or hints for correct answers. Thistable reflects state of reinforcement situations. Most of the teachers claimed but it was notproved in their classrooms teaching, however, only about in 34% classrooms, it wasobserved that teachers were using this approach. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig. 4.35: Students were given hints for correct answers. 100
  • 117. Table 4.36: Students were given second chance for correct answer. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 04 25 51 80 Percentage 5 31.25 63.75 100 Table 4.36 indicate that only 5 % teachers gave second chance to students to givecorrect answer, while about 63.75 % teachers never give second chance to students. Itwas because of the shortage of time and pressure to complete the syllabus. Teachers werein a hurry while asking questions and getting answers from students were declared eithercorrect or incorrect without explanation or efforts to identify or lead to correct answers bystudents themselves. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.36: Students were given second chance for correct answer. 101
  • 118. Table 4.37: Used reinforcement effectively. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 07 32 41 80 Percentage 8.75 40 51.25 100 As this statement was rejected by teachers, while they were asked to reply inquestionnaire and it was also proved that most of the teachers (51.25 %) did not usetechniques to reinforce the lesson contents. However, 40 % teachers were using thistechnique and it was quite satisfactory. It means that half the population of teachers, triedto recapitulate or use other methodologies, to reinforce the subject matter. This is alsopresented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.37: Used reinforcement effectively. 102
  • 119. Table 4.38: Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 51 19 10 80 Percentage 63.75 23.75 12.50 100 Table 4.38 indicates that most (63.75%) of the teachers ‘frequently’ selectedappropriate learning materials for students, while majority of teachers, were of the viewthat they select contents, as per the requirement of students. This statement was thusproved by both tools. Obvious reason for this agreement was syllabus prescribed fordifferent levels. Teachers select contents from the textbooks recommended for students.This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.38: Selected appropriate and relevant teaching material. 103
  • 120. Table 4.39: Used personal teaching tools effectively Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 08 32 40 80 Percentage 10 40 50 100 Table 4.39 indicates that majority of teachers (50%) were not successful in usingeven their own teaching methodologies, however, they claimed that they used theirpersonal methods. It was shown that teachers have difference of styles but they were notsuccessful in delivering the contents effectively. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.39: Used personal teaching tools effectively 104
  • 121. Table 4.40: Used own devised teaching tools Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 08 20 52 80 Percentage 10 25 65 100 Table 4.40 indicate that majority of teachers (65%) ‘never’ used their ownteaching methodologies, as they claimed while responding to this statement in thequestionnaire. This was proved by their teaching methodology which was over and abovethe prescribed methodology. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.40: Used own devised teaching tools 105
  • 122. Table 4.41: Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 08 20 52 80 Percentage 10 25 65 100 Table 4.41 indicates that most of the teachers (65%) ‘never’ apply or relatecurrent issues in their teaching. However, one fourth of the population of teachers wasobserved using new ideas. They tried to motivate students by giving examples, relateddaily life. Some of the teachers while teaching discussed current issues in the classes.This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.41: Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in teaching 106
  • 123. Table 4.42: Used questioning techniques Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 05 15 60 80 Percentage 6.25 18.75 75 100 Table 4.42 indicate that most of the teachers (75%) ‘never’ used questioning skill,as a method of teaching. Although there were questions, asked by the teachers butstudents were not encouraged to raise questions. Similarly teaching through questioningtechniques was not observed significantly in most of the classes. Purposeful use ofquestions as a teaching tool was not observed, however, significant number of teachersresponded to questionnaire that they use this, as a tool for teaching. This is alsopresented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.42: Used questioning techniques 107
  • 124. Table 4.43: Presented course contents in the classroom properly Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 40 20 20 80 Percentage 50 25 25 100 Table 4.43 indicates that most of the teachers (50%) ‘frequently’ presented coursecontents in the classroom properly. However, twenty five percent population of teachers‘sometime’ presented the course contents in the classroom. Twenty five percentpopulation of teachers, did not present the course contents in the classroom. This is alsopresented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime Never   Fig.4.43: Presented course contents in the classroom properly 108
  • 125. Table 4.44: Used time management techniques in teaching Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 15 5 60 80 Percentage 18.75 6.25 75 100 Table 4.44 indicates that most of the teachers (75%) ‘never’ presented coursecontents properly and ‘never’ utilized time properly. However, 25% of teachers taught, ina proper manner, which is quite significant. Proper use of students’ time was notobserved significantly. Teacher excluded many of important contents from syllabus andmost of the teachers arrived late in the class. Similarly they were unable to divide timefor various steps involved in teaching. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.44: Used time management techniques in teaching 109
  • 126. Table 4.45: Managing classroom. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 9 53 18 80 Percentage 11.25 66.25 22.50 100 Table 4.45 indicates another important area of school effectiveness was notobserved significantly in 66.25% of the classrooms. In most of the classrooms, teachers‘sometime’ followed the principles of classroom management effectively. From physicalmanagement to management of knowledge, it was not observed significantly. It was onlyobserved to the extent 31.25% in classes. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.45: Managing classroom. 110
  • 127. Table 4.46: Manage discipline in the classroom Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 49 23 08 80 Percentage 61.25 28.75 10 100 Table 4.46 shows that most of the teachers (61.25%) ‘frequently’ manageddiscipline in the classroom. Students were not focused while teaching as it was observedthat most of the students were involved in doing their own work while teachers werewriting on blackboard. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.46: Manage discipline in the classroom 111
  • 128. Table 4.47: Used various evaluation techniques Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 03 17 60 80 Percentage 3.75 21.25 75 100 Table 4.47 indicates that most of the teachers (75%) ‘never’ used variousevaluation techniques in the classroom. Students were not focused while teaching as itwas observed that most of the students were involved in doing their own works whileteachers were writing on blackboard. Similarly teacher was unable to assess the behaviorsof students particularly their attention towards teacher. This is also presented in thefollowing figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig. 4.47: Used various evaluation techniques 112
  • 129. Table 4.48: Assessed student’s behavior effectively Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 15 30 35 80 Percentage 18.75 37.5 43.75 100 Table 4.48 indicates that 37.50% teachers ‘sometime’ assessed students behavior,while working in classroom and 43.75% respondents did not care for the same theysimply finished their work. This is also presented in the following figure. 50 45 40 35 Percentage 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Frequently Sometime Never   Fig.4.48: Assessed student’s behavior effectively 113
  • 130. Table 4.49: Assessed students own work effectively Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 13 27 40 80 Percentage 16.25 33.75 50 100 Table 4.49 shows that 50% teachers ‘never’ assessed students own workeffectively, whereas only 16.25% teachers checked all assignments properly and evenhelped in case of any difficulty 33.75% teachers checked their work randomly. This isalso presented in the following figure. 60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.49: Assessed students own work effectively 114
  • 131. Table 4.50: Presentation and explanation etc ability Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 12 9 59 80 Percentage 15 11.25 73.75 100 Table 4.48, 4.49 and 4.50 are indicative of state of assessment and evaluation insample classrooms. It was observed in most of the classrooms, that teachers’ evaluationtechniques did not have variety and students work was not assessed effectively. Similarlypresentation of ideas and its explanation was not found satisfactory. This is alsopresented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.50: Presentation and explanation etc ability 115
  • 132. Table 4.51: Knowledge of subject matter. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 47 23 10 80 Percentage 58.75 28.75 12.50 100 Table 4.51 indicates that 58.75% teachers ‘frequently’ had knowledge of subjectmatter, while working in classroom and 28.75% respondents had ‘sometime’ knowledgeof subject matter. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime Never    Fig.4.51: Knowledge of subject matter. 116
  • 133. Table 4.52: General knowledge Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 13 17 50 80 Percentage 16.25 21.25 62.50 100 Table 4.52 indicates the subject proficiency of teachers. Teachers profiles indicatethat most of the teachers (62.50%) ‘never’ qualified and they did have professionaldegrees, but while during classroom observation it was not reflected significantly. Apartfrom teacher’s subject proficiency, their general knowledge was not exhibited in theirteaching. This is also presented in the following figure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.52: General knowledge 117
  • 134. Table 4.53: Teacher student interaction. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 03 18 59 80 Percentage 3.75 22.50 73.75 100 Table 4.53 shows that 73.75% teachers have no interaction with students, theysimply deliver their lectures. Only a few teachers (3.75%) have close interaction withstudents whereas 22.50% interact casually. This is also presented in the following figure. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.53: Teacher student interaction. 118
  • 135. Table 4.54: Ability to motivate students. Scale Frequently Sometime Never Total Frequency 09 25 46 80 Percentage 11.25 31.25 57.5 100 Table 4.54 indicates the state of teacher’s interaction and their motivatingtechniques observed in classrooms. It was observed that teacher-student interaction wasnot encouraging, although it was observed in certain cases, where students were askingquestions and inquiring. Similarly, teachers did know motivating techniques; but theywere unable to implement the same in class. This is also presented in the followingfigure. 70 60 50 Percentage 40 30 20 10 0 Frequently Sometime NeverFig.4.54: Ability to motivate students. 119
  • 136. Focused Group Discussion – Principals The researcher has made efforts to obtain maximum information about schooleffectiveness. These efforts required that the study draws thinking some reliablestandards of school effectiveness. To achieve this, substantial literature was reviewed,which helped in highlighting these standards, which if practiced would effectivelyimprove school effectiveness. During the process of literature review, it was feltnecessary to obtain, views of principals also, as they were practically implementingstandards for school effectiveness. Participation of principals in the study was thus considered as an essential aid andhelp in arriving at realistic opinions. A focused group discussion was thus held with a group of twenty principals,regarding standards and practices in schools. Detailed results on focused group arediscussed in next chapter under discussion. Leading questions for the focused groupdiscussion and are given at Annex. A 120
  • 137. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 SUMMARY This research was aimed at studying the teacher competencies and teachingpractices for school effectiveness in Workers Welfare Model Schools (WWMS). Themain objectives of the study were: (a) to evaluate teacher competencies and skills forschool effectiveness (b) to explore indicators of school effectiveness (c) to observeclassroom environment and to assess teacher competence, and (d) to suggest measures toenhance the school effectiveness in WWMS. Worker Welfare Fund has been running 75 schools, since 1986, all over Pakistan.A sample of 40 schools was selected randomly. Judgmental sampling technique was usedfor selection of teachers from selected schools. Twenty (20) principals (for focused groupinterview), 400 teachers and 80 classrooms (for observation) constituted the populationfor this study. Tools were developed in consultation with thesis supervisor to collect data.Data was collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, focus groupdiscussions and documents. Technique of triangulation was adopted to analyze the dataqualitatively as well as quantitatively.5.2 DISCUSSION In the previous chapter, the researcher has presented the detailed results of theinstruments experimented during this study. Here critical analysis of the results alongwith findings, and recommendations are presented. There are a number of research 121
  • 138. studies undertaken in the past in the context of school effectiveness; however, this studyis trying to build a new thesis in Pakistan’s context. In the school system, whether private or public, traditionally school teacherspossessing a Bachelor’s or Master’s Degree, in a teacher education program, are hired.The traditional education programs for elementary school teachers, include coursesdesigned specifically for those opting to teach, and include course for teaching ofmathematics, social sciences, Islamic and Pakistan Studies, Urdu, as well as of educationphilosophy, psychology of education and management methods. Based on these courses,the researcher developed a questionnaire to determine the extent to which thesemethodologies were adopted and practiced in the classroom management, foreffectiveness of school as well. In this chapter detailed analysis on the results of thequestionnaire is undertaken. ‘Traditional teachers normally stand in front of theclassroom and pass on what they know to the students. This concept has changedsubstantially today and teachers now assist those whom they teach by making satisfyingand worthile adjustments to school work and social groups. Since the basic duty ofteachers, is to get the individual student to acquire, knowledge, it is their responsibility toremove obstacles in the path to learning. Without making adequate adjustments, removingfriction and frustration will hinder successful learning, which will not be achieved(Stones, 1966, p. 389). This questionnaire is based on six basic competencies of the teacher’s teachingskills and classroom management such as, methodological, motivational, instructionalprocess, material utilization, teaching evaluation and interaction process. Each of these 122
  • 139. competencies among teachers is analyzed while sub-dividing it into small questions.According to McDaniel the essence of harmony, lack of friction, a smooth give-and-take,and interaction that is satisfying to cooperating parts of a social relationship, or in otherwords, the reduction of frustration, is to make teaching and learning meaningful for thechild, to be interested in schooling. Ultimately effective school depends on the smooth,sociable effective teaching-learning relationship of student and teacher. (McDaniel inAmahala, 1979, p. 231). Researcher is trying to discuss through this discussion that howfar teachers are not only imparting knowledge but also understand other problems relatedwith personality of the students.5.2.1 Methodological Competencies Methodology, in effective teaching, is core to any good teacher. Good andeffective teachers often try to adopt good methods. Teachers use problem solving andindividual teaching methods, keeping in view the individual differences to utilizeteaching situation effectively. A number of strategies and methods are employed so thatall students get equal opportunities to learn, irrespective of their social status. Thefollowing table is showing how far these methodologies are adopted by our teachers inthe school.Table 5.1 Items analysis of methodological competencies Percentages A UD DA Total χ2StatementsThe teacher uses problem 28.48% 4.85% 66.67% 100% 192.65solving methodsThe teacher uses individualteaching methods for 26.97% 4.24% 68.79% 100% 212.24individual differencesThe teacher utilizes teaching 41.21% 7.58% 51.21% 100% 103.47situation effectively 123
  • 140. Data collected through questionnaire, from the teachers was tabulated andanalyzed through descriptive statistics and by applying χ2 tests on each statement. Firstlyresponse on each scale was calculated % age-wise and then χ2 test is taken. It is used toshow the acceptability of some indicators as per as pre-decided value. Values obtainedon each indicator and subsequent χ2 test have been given in the above table. In the statement, that “teachers were using problem solving techniques or not”,the calculated value of χ2 was found to be 192.65, which is greater than the table value at0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (66.67%) is towards disagreement with thestatement, therefore, this statement is rejected. In the second statement calculated valueof χ2 is found to be 212.24, which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. Theinclination of respondents (68.79%) is towards disagreement with the statement. Thisalso shows that our teachers do not use individual methods to overcome individualdifferences and problems faced by the students. In the third statement calculated value ofχ2 is found to be 103.47, which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. Theinclination of respondents (51.21%) is towards disagreement with the statement.Methodology refers to the processes of teaching and learning which brings the learnerinto relationship with the skills and knowledge, that are specified and contained withinthe curriculum (Harris & Muijs, 2005). The above results show that teachers failed to employ teaching methods, whichconsider background of students’ knowledge, social considerations, and learningobjectives. All respondents are professionally trained but are not using propermethodologies. Those involved in teaching, know through their experience, that the 124
  • 141. students acquire knowledge through varying ways. The means or procedures that ateacher adopts or uses to help in learning a skill or going through an experience, are allpart of teaching methods. (Gutek, 1988: 7) Methodological competencies could further bedefined based on their functional elements: to adapt to effective work methods; toanalyze the task to be performed; to begin the process; to perform the task and to analyzeones procedures (Ololube, 2005b). The finding from this table shows that trained teachers partially considerindividual differences among various students and use problem solving techniques intheir teaching. It also leads to the inference that mostly they use “teacher centered” modelwhile teaching in the classroom. This is a persistent problem and a particular student canfall behind others in the class an or may not acquire knowledge. This becomes adeficiency in a student. This fundamental problem leads to many other deficiencies onpart of some of students in persistent failure to acquire, what others in the class achieve,or in not achieving the academic standards. It is essential part of the professional teacherto overcome these deficiencies and resolve problems through effective methodology.5.2.2 Motivational Competencies It is often observed in schools that teachers, while carrying out their jobassignment, find negative outcomes among students. It is often observed in schools, thatteachers while carrying out their jobs assignment, laid negative outcomes amongstudents. The inability of the teacher to motivate the student to research for the problemand encourage to search information from the origination of derivations. According to the OECD (1989), the slow recruitment of qualified teachers,inability to recruit the right caliber of teachers and the lack of motivation for in-service 125
  • 142. training activities, in most developing countries are some of the reasons for this unhealthydevelopment. Generally in the public school system in Pakistan and particularly in theschools operated by WWF, the teachers who are academically and professionallyqualified are employed to carry the teaching process. The academically qualified teachersmean, to include teachers, who have academic training, as a result of enrolment into aneducational institution and obtain qualifications such as B.A., B.Sc, M.A, M.Sc., and soon. While professionally qualified teachers, are teachers who get professional trainingthat gives them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitude, which is differentfrom general education. Teachers are grouped into two qualifications; Academic andprofessional, the first one includes BA, B.Sc, MA/MSc etc., while professionalqualification include BS (Edu), B.Ed, MS (Ed), which provides educational skills /techniques, which is substantially, different from normal education. (Marshall 1987)defines these as meaningfulness, value and benefits of academic tasks to the learnerregarding, whether or not they are intrinsically interesting. The present study wascarried out among professionally trained teacher. The students’ motivation intrinsicallyand extrinsically, is directly proportional to class environment. Lumsden 1994, definesstudent motivation, as the desire to take part in learning process. Students may be equallymotivated to perform the task, but the sources of motivation may differ (Lumsden 1994). It has been observed that students often do not utilize their capacity due to lowermotivation. The encouragement for students to learn these are normally dependent on thecompetence of teachers and all these can have a positive or negative effect on students intheir urge for academic learning (Reevel 2003 D. Austin, Dwyar & Freedoly). Thelearning environment and classroom instructions are dealt separately in this study. Here 126
  • 143. motivation is primarily taken as interpersonal interaction of the teacher with students. Toassess the interpersonal motivation, three statements are developed and experimented,that how far teacher appreciates students in the classroom for correct answers, and ishelpful in finding out correct answers to the problem by giving them hints. Once theyfind out correct solutions to the problems, how for teacher is promoting them to do moreresearch and reinforce the concepts. The following table shows results, that how far thesemotivational skills are used by teachers in WWM schools.Table 5.2 Items analysis of motivational competencies Percentages A UD DA Total χ2 Statements The teacher appreciates 59.39% 5.76% 34.85% 100% 142.75 students for correct answers The teacher gives hints to students in order to lead them 64.24% 4.85% 30.91% 100% 175.49 to the correct answers The teacher uses reinforcement 33.94% 3.33% 62.73% 100% 174.68 effectively The calculated value of χ2 is found to be 142.75, which is greater than the tablevalue at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (59.39%) is towards agreement withthe statement. Hence the statement “The teacher appreciates students for correct answers”is accepted. It shows that our teachers generally appreciate students for correct answers.In the second statement calculated value of χ2 is found to be 175.49, which is greaterthan the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (64.24%) is towardsagreement with the statement, hence the statement “The teacher gives hints to students inorder to lead them to the correct answers” is accepted. In the third statement thecalculated value of χ2 is found to be 174.68, which is greater than the table value at 0.05level. This means statistically that there is a significant difference of opinion among the 127
  • 144. respondents. The inclination of respondents (62.73%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses reinforcement effectively” is rejected. If these three statements are linked with interpersonal skills of the teacher tomotivate, it is found out that our teachers generally appreciate those students whoseanswers to problems are correct but if we try to link motivational skills withpedagogy/methodological skills, whereby teacher uses individual methods of teaching,use problem solving techniques etc. there is negative relationship in both. Ololube PrinceNwachukwu in his paper“ Benchmarking the Motivational Competencies of AcademicallyQualified Teachers and Professionally Qualified teachers in Nigerian SecondarySchools” points out three ways for teachers to motivate students, firstly, the teachers canmotivate their students by making use of the surroundings, which is an indirect means tomotivate students by arranging the classroom-learning environment to promote or reducethe motivation of student. By using the second, methods or means, students can bemotivated by making use of instructional strategies, such as material, scope, interactionsequence etc. These means are utilized to facilitate; motivational characteristics,including interest, effective studies, attention to subject mater and perception of thecompetence of teachers. Making use of third way, the instructors are able to encouragestudents by making use of encouragement strategies, including direct efforts to encourageindividuals or group of students. These strategies are individually focused and are aresult of the instructors personal belief and assessment of each students’ motivationalstate and traits. Instructors make use of languages to help students initiate and managetheir class-room activities. By making use of informational, language, teachers developstudents’ inner urge to move forward. Instructors help students to search for reasons, 128
  • 145. requiring them to act as the instructors want, (to think) why to act, rather than take it asan order of the instructor.5.2.3 Material Utilization Competencies Little-john and Wind-eatt (1989) argue that materials have a hidden curriculumthat includes attitudes toward knowledge, teaching and learning, attitudes toward the roleand relationship of the teacher and student, and values and attitudes related to gender andsociety, etc. The essential teaching skills involve arrangement of the course material and othermaterial aids. The material skills involve in selecting and presenting materials intendedfor lesson and how best to use it. Good instructors make comprehensive plans for theirlessons to communicate their instructional activities related to a special subject-matter.These plans contain the basic objective of learning by the students, the procedures totransmit knowledge, the materials to be used during instructions and in some casesdescriptive procedures to evaluate the students.Data was collected to find how far teachers are using relevant teaching material andwhether they are using prescribed teaching tools, such as text books. The results to thesequeries are shown below in the table.Table 5.3 Items analysis of material utilization competencies Percentages A UD DA Total χ2 Statements The teacher selects appropriate and relevant 74.55% 6.36% 19.09% 100% 260.24 teaching materials The teacher uses prescribed 52.73% 10.30% 36.97% 100% 91.05 teaching tools The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition to 32.73% 5.15% 62.11% 100% 160.71 the prescribed tools. 129
  • 146. Calculated value of χ2 is found to be 260.24, which is greater than the table valueat 0.05 level. Statistically course is significant difference in the opinion of the respondent.The inclination of respondents (74.55%) is towards agreement with the statement. Hencethe statement “The teacher selects appropriate and relevant teaching materials” isaccepted. The second statement that teachers are using prescribed teaching tools andmaterial, calculated value of χ2 is found to be 91.05, which is greater than the table valueat 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference in the opinion of the respondent.The inclination of respondents (52.73%) is towards agreement with the statement. Hencethe statement "The teacher uses prescribed teaching tools” is accepted. Calculated valueof χ2 in the third statement found to be 160.71 which is greater than the table value at0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (62.11%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement "The teacher uses personal teaching tools in addition tothe prescribed tools” is rejected. The results show mixed trends, generally traditionalteachers avoid using teaching materials other than that prescribed in the curriculum.Allwright (1990) argues that materials should enable students to learn, that they should bethe resource books for ideas and activities for instruction/learning, and that they shouldgive teachers the rationales for what they do. From Allwrights point of view, textbooksare too inflexible to be used directly as instructional material. ONeill (1990), in contrast, argues that materials may be suitable for studentsneeds, even if they are not designed specifically for them & that textbooks make itpossible for students to review and prepare their lessons. Textbooks are efficient interms of time and money, and can and should allow for adaptation and improvisation. 130
  • 147. The above discussion indicates that teachers should be flexible in selecting teachingmaterial, other than the text books and prescribed curriculum.5.2.4 Instructional Process Competencies The capacity of teachers to organize classrooms and manage behavior of studentstherein is crucial to achieve positive results. It is true that sound behavior managementdoes not guarantee effective instructions, but it does establish the environmental contextthat makes good teaching possible. Looking it differently, we may say that highlyeffective teaching reduces, but does not eliminate, classroom behavior problems (Emmerand Stough, 2001). Instructional process involves overall classroom management skills. It is theability of teachers to effectively manage classroom behavior; and necessitate a systematicapproach to the preparation undertaken by the instructor. Professionally trained teacherscan narrow down to effective instructional strategies so as to avoid academic andbehavioral problems of the students. Instruction that is effective in encouraging highrates of academic engagement and on-task behavior is characterized by several keyfeatures (Carnine, 1976): 1 Instructional material that students find educationally relevant; 2 A planned, sequential order that is logically linked to development of sills at students’ instructional level 3 Frequent opportunities for students to respond to academic workload. For example, the use of response cards, choral responding and peer tutoring are ways to increase such opportunities (Christle & Schuster, 2003; Greenwood, Delquadri, & Hall., 1989; Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006); 131
  • 148. 4 Guided practice; 5 Immediate feedback and error correction; On the basis of the key features of instructional process, a questionnaire wasprepared and experimented to find, how far teacher applies contemporary knowledge andnew ideas, in teaching and management of classroom discipline etc. the results of areshown in the following tableTable 5.4 Items analysis of instructional process competencies Percentages A UD DA Total χ2 Statements The teacher applies contemporary knowledge and new ideas in 36.06% 6.06% 57.88% 100% 134.02 teaching The teacher uses different 59.09% 3.94% 36.97% 100% 152.53 questioning techniques The teacher manages discipline in 71.21% 2.73% 26.06% 100% 240.02 his/her classroom. The teacher uses time management techniques in 70.91% 3.03% 26.06% 100% 235.93 teaching The teacher manages classroom 52.73% 6.67% 40.61% 100% 112.87 activities properly. The teacher makes clear statement of objectives of lesson to students 43.94% 3.64% 52.42% 100% 134.53 before starting teaching The teacher prepares course 56.06% 3.94% 40.00% 100% 141.07 contents properly The calculated value of χ2 in application of the contemporary knowledge and newideas during instructional process is found to be 134.02, which is greater than the table 132
  • 149. value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (57.88%) is towards disagreement withthe statement. Hence the statement “The teacher applies contemporary knowledge andnew ideas in teaching” is rejected. Providing instructions to student with appropriatematerial and knowledge is extremely important. Moreover instructional process becomesmore interesting when teacher is using questioning techniques to arouse students’ interestin the lesson. This question was also asked with teachers who possess pre-serviceprofessional training. Calculated value of χ2 was found to be 152.53 which is greaterthan the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (59.09%) is towardsagreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses differentquestioning techniques” is accepted. The use of rules is a powerful, component of classroom organization andmanagement plans. Rules establish the behavioral context of the classroom by specifyingexpected behaviors from the student, what behavior will be reinforced, and theconsequences for inappropriate behavior (e.g. reteaching the behavioral expectation). Ifrules are sated or worded positively to describe the expected behavior, rather than whatnot to do, problem behavior is more easily prevented (Colvin, Kame’enui, & Sugai, 1993;Kerr and Nelson, 2002). To enquire about the skill of the teacher for maintainingdiscipline in the classroom calculated value of χ2 was found to be 240.02 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (71.21%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The teacher managesdiscipline in his/her classroom “is accepted. During instructional process, time management or time division in anotherimportant feature and to know how far teachers are keeping proper time management in 133
  • 150. the class calculated value of χ2 is found to be 235.93, which is greater than the tablevalue at 0.05 level. The inclination of respondents (70.91%) is towards agreement withthe statement. Hence the statement “The teacher uses time management techniques inteaching” is accepted. There is another linked question to classroom management, that,how far teachers are able to manage overall classroom activity or not and calculatedvalue of χ2 was found to be 112.87 which are greater than the table value at 0.05 level..The inclination of respondents (52.73%) is towards agreement with the statement. Hencethe statement "The teacher manages classroom activities properly” is accepted. One of the significant elements of the instructional process is how a teachermakes opening statement of the lecture. Clear opening of lesson to student at theappropriate levels is also necessary. If teacher is able to make clear statement ofobjectives before starting teaching and prepares the contents of the lesson accordingly,effectiveness of the teaching is enhanced. The calculated value of χ2 is found to be134.53. This is greater than the table value at 0.05 levels. Statistically, there is significantdifference of opinion. The inclination of respondents (52.42%) is towards disagreementwith the statement. Hence the statement” The teacher makes clear statement of objectivesof lesson to students before starting teaching” is rejected. The calculated value of χ2whether, teachers prepares course contents properly is found to be 141.07 which isgreater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically, there is significant difference ofopinion. The inclination of respondents (56.06%) is towards agreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher prepares course contents properly “isaccepted. Out of the seven statements asked to professional teachers, five are accepted 134
  • 151. and two are rejected after application of the test. It is leading to the inference thatgenerally teachers are controlling the classroom instructional process.5.2.5 Teaching Evaluation Competencies The purpose of effective school and effective teacher is to provide every studentthe opportunity for quality education. An effective school always attracts and retains highquality teachers. Similarly, it is required from the students that they come prepared andwant to learn. The student must be made to realize that he / she will be responsible forhis / her family, community and ultimately the country. Teachers are role models,mentors for the students. They use instructional process to ensure effectiveness and goalsand standards of the school. Important elements of quality instruction include methodseffective delivery, time management, assessing and providing additional / advancedopportunities in learning process. The teacher is committed to provide resources, material support to the students.Once teacher is providing quality instructions, it is necessary to evaluate teachers’performance. Evaluation here has two fold meanings, one evaluation relates to teachers’own competency to evaluate and assess students during the classroom instructionalprocess and after class as well. The other is teacher’s own evaluation. Here the researcherobserved that how teacher judges students. This evaluation differs from tests and otherforms of students assessment and is aimed at overall improvement of the student ratherthan achieving grades only. The basic goal of teaching evaluation is to understand moreabout the learning, made by them and to improve teaching practices. The questionnairedeveloped and results are shown in the following table. 135
  • 152. Table 5.5 Items analysis of teaching evaluation competencies Percentages A UD DA Total χ2 Statements The teacher uses various 26.67% 1.21% 72.12% 100% 255.49 evaluation techniques The teacher assesses student’s 28.48% 5.76% 65.76% 100% 181.69 behavior effectively The teacher assesses students own 51.82% 8.18% 40.00% 100% 100.85 work adequately The teacher always keeps record 28.48% 7.27% 64.24% 100% 164.15 of individual students Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job 66.36% 5.15% 28.48% 100% 188.96 effectiveness. The ability of a teacher to perform 67.29% 4.98% 27.73% 100% 191.46 effectively is an inborn quality Professional qualification 63.33% 4.24% 32.42% 100% 172.96 improves teacher’s job effectively The teacher uses evaluation data 22.12% 3.03% 74.85% 100% 273.98 to improve job situation. The teacher has direct interaction 41.52% 3.03% 55.45% 100% 145.98 with his/her students It was asked how far teachers are using various evaluation techniques, thecalculated value of χ2 is found to be 255.49, which is greater than the table value at 0.05levels. Statistically there is significant difference of opinion. The inclination ofrespondents (72.12%) is towards disagreement with the statement. Hence the statement“The teacher uses various evaluation techniques” is rejected. It is very important that theteacher should use evaluation techniques, in order to assess student understanding level.There is another way of evaluation that is by assessing the behavior of the student. It isvery important to make overall assessment, the class behavior and an individual student’sinterest in the class. The calculated value of χ2 is found to be 181.69 which is greaterthan the table value at 0.05 level. Statistically there is significant difference of opinion. 136
  • 153. The inclination of respondents (65.76%) is towards disagreement with the statement.Hence statement “The teacher assesses student’s behavior effectively” is accepted. Theother student evaluation by the teacher is to assess student work quality. Another questionis also asked about the assessment of the student work by the teacher and the calculatedvalue of χ2 is found to be 100.85 which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. Theinclination of respondents (51.82%) is towards agreement with the statement. Hence thestatement "The teacher assesses students own work adequately” is accepted. The resultsshow that teachers are generally engaged in evaluation process, in a traditional mannerand not using new and innovative evaluating techniques. It was also tried to know, thatteachers are in the habit of keeping individual record of the students or not. Thecalculated value of χ2 is found to be 164.15, which is greater than the table value at 0.05level. The inclination of respondents (64.24%) is towards disagreement with thestatement. Hence the statement “The teacher always keeps record of individual students”is rejected. As discussed earlier the evaluation has two parts. First is the evaluation of thestudents by the teachers. The second part of the evaluation process is teacher’sevaluation. Good quality of teaching is important to improve student outcomes andoverall school effectiveness. It reduces gaps in student learning. Evaluating theperformance of teacher evaluation enables meaningful appraisals, that results inprofessional learning and growth. The process develops teacher development andidentifies further openings, for additional qualifications. The basic purposes of thesequestions asked from teachers are whether they believe in the process of achieving higherqualification to improve their teaching skills or not. The calculated value of χ2 was found 137
  • 154. to be 188.96 which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. The inclination ofrespondents (66.36%) is towards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement"Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness” is accepted. It isgenerally believed that teachers have inborn quality to teach and in case teachers don’thave this inborn quality then they can improve by learning process. The calculated valueof χ2 is found to be 191.46 which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statisticallythere is significant difference of opinion. The inclination of respondents (67.29%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement “The ability of a teacher toperform effectively is an inborn quality” is accepted. Teachers were also asked that howfar professional development enhances the teaching skills. The calculated value of χ2was found to be 172.96 which is greater than the table value at 0.05 level. Statisticallythere is significant difference of opinion. The inclination of respondents (63.33%) istowards agreement with the statement. Hence the statement " Professional qualificationimproves teacher’s job effectively” is accepted.5.2.6 Focused Group Discussions – Principals The researcher has made efforts to obtain maximum information about schooleffectiveness. These efforts required that the study draws reliable information onstandards of school effectiveness. To achieve this, substantial literature was reviewed,which helped in highlighting these standards, which if practiced would effectivelyimprove school effectiveness. During the process of literature review, it was feltnecessary to obtain, views of principals also, as they were practically implementingstandards for school effectiveness. 138
  • 155. Participation of principals in the study was thus considered as an essential aid andhelp in arriving at realistic opinions. A focused group discussion was held with a group of twenty principals, regardingstandards and practices in schools. Leading questions for the focused group discussionare given at Annex-A. Summary of discussion is given below:a) What are the major standards of school effectiveness? Majority, were of the view that there is no single answer to these standards and itis rather a contested concept. According to the discussion, the standards of schooleffectiveness depend on many factors, including educational philosophy of particularnation, demographic and cultural development, standards set by national educationalpolicies, as per the needs of society and the socio-economic development etc.After detailed discussion, the participants of Focused Group Discussion (FGDs) agreed,on the following major standards for school effectiveness. 1 Effectiveness of Teacher’s training 2 Students achievement – as reflected in annual results 3 Overall personality development of students Seventy percent of participants were of the view, that the above mentionedstandards can only be achieved through effective teacher. They were of the view, thatwithout effective teacher, it is not possible that students can get good marks or hispersonality can be groomed effectively. These points generated further discussion, as to, what are the major areas ofteacher effectiveness, which need to be focused. The participants agreed on the 139
  • 156. following competencies, which if developed, will make a teacher, an effective agent ofschool effectiveness. 1 Appropriate subject knowledge 2 Professional Training 3 Understanding of students needs 4 Professionalism and commitmentb) What is the role of a teacher in school effectiveness? Sixty five percent of the participants, were of the considered view, that teacherhas to play, a leading role in school effectiveness, while 35% were of the view, that theleading role is not limited to the teacher alone. They were of the view that there aremany other factors, which have to be considered for school effectiveness. These include infrastructure and other physical facilities, funds and grants,parental involvement and national educational policies. Majority emphasized on theimportance of teacher and teacher’s training and considered it as a major component ofschool effectiveness. The focused group was also of the view, that a teacher can play a leading role inschool effectiveness, if he / she is well trained. According to them the training will helphim / her, to become an effective teacher. A trained teacher will produce better resultsand better groom students’ personality. It was further opined, that role of a teacher can be viewed from various angles,which include teacher’s ability to create interest and love of learning among students, his/ her role in grooming and giving sense of proportion & purpose to students. This group 140
  • 157. placed more importance on personality development, which encourages other faculties.These factors will contribute in obtaining, good results, by the students.c) What are the problems in implementation? The participants were of the view, that teacher’s willingness and motivation is amajor problem in implementation of the required standards. It was also agreed thatteacher training is a problematic area, and that teachers have to be motivated, to focus onthe students, to inculcate the spirit of competition and achieving higher results. Majority of the participants agreed, that most of the teachers are not properlytrained, as per required and accepted standards of an effective teacher. Most teachers are lacking in pedagogical competencies. Besides, the teacher’ssubject knowledge is not adequate and satisfactory. It was also pointed out thatknowledge of the teacher regarding children psychology is not sufficient. They areunable to handle the behavior of students or suitably advise and direct them.5.3 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION This research study aimed at finding out the relationship between teachercompetencies and school effectiveness. Research questions were developed to determineprofessional competencies of the teachers. This is to find out how far these teachingcompetencies are practiced by the professionally trained teachers in Workers WelfareModel Schools. WWF has been hiring traditionally trained teachers who have graduatedfrom the teachers training institutes in the country, awarding B.Ed and M.Ed Degrees.Workers Welfare Fund also launches in its own in-service training programs from time totime, which has not been touched in this study due to delimitation. 141
  • 158. Teachers’ student relationship is fundamental in school effectiveness. Valuableresearches have been done during the last two decades in school effectiveness. The term‘school effectiveness’ has been used to describe educational research concerned withexploring differences within and between schools (Goldstein, 1997). These researches are mainly focusing on the student’s progress. The effectiveschool is described as "one in which pupils progress further than might be expected fromconsideration of its intake" (Mortimore, 1991a, p.9). Various researches are continuingto measure school effectiveness, which has already been covered in the literature review. 1. The ‘multi-level modeling’ is the statistical technique of quantitative research, which is adopted from school effectiveness researchers, in order to investigate various factors that might influence pupils’ performance (Goldstein, 1987). Keeping in view this technique, one factor, dealing with how far professionally developed and trained teachers are adding value in school effectiveness has been studied in this research.2. This research study is aimed at how teachers can make the normal school more effective. The research question that how do teaching skills contribute in school effectiveness? Results of all the teaching competencies show that teachers are using pedagogy in a very traditional manner. Findings show that teaching competencies in WWF professionally trained teachers are not fully utilized. The majority of teachers disagreed that they used problem solving methods in teaching; they used individual teaching methods for individual differences and they also utilized teaching situation effectively. Same was the result found by the researcher in his observation of actual classroom teaching. The other findings also 142
  • 159. show that good a teachers make schools more effective and there is direct relationship between teachers and effective schools. 3. Second research question relates to the essential qualities required of professionally trained teacher. This research proves that effective teacher is one who manages the classroom effectively and can earn respect of the students. Professionally trained teachers are those who know what they are doing and do the right thing continuously. An effective and efficient teacher needs all teaching competencies, such as positive expectations, good classroom management, designing lessons and material use competencies etc. Teachers always have high expectations from the students. Effective instruction can be defined as transmitting knowledge to others and not the knowledge possessed by an individual. It is essential for teachers to encourage their students, manage the classroom properly, clearly assess previous knowledge of students, consider the individual characteristics of the students, assess outcomes of the teaching and evaluate the feedback and standards of all students.4. A teacher should have the knowledge of the principles of good teaching, which can be applied in the classroom. This includes proper knowledge of the subject matter and availability of teaching resources, analytical thinking and problem solving skills, background knowledge about the students, and good teaching and communication skills. Majority of teachers were in agreement with the statement that the teacher appreciates students for correct answers. Most of the teachers agreed that the teacher gave hints to students in order to lead them to the correct answers. The results of observations done by the researcher showed that majority 143
  • 160. of the teachers ‘sometimes’ appreciated their students for correct answers and it was also concluded through classroom observations, that sixty percent teachers did not give hints to students for correct answers. Most of the teachers never gave second chance to students for correct answer of question asked by them.5. Certain other things which are being identified through this study which make a teacher outstanding. One of these things is purpose and intention to be a good teacher. Mostly teachers agreed that they know the students but do not apply innovative solution and problem solving techniques. Effective teachers are those who are constantly thinking about the outcomes, they would expect from their students. They consider how each decision, they take, enables their students to come closer to the expected results. Effective teachers use a number of methods, experiences, assignments and materials to ensure that the students are achieving the required objectives. In this study, it is concluded that majority of teachers disagreed that the teacher used reinforcement effectively, selected appropriate and relevant teaching materials, the teacher uses prescribed teaching tools, the teacher used personal teaching tools in addition to the prescribed tools. The actual observation, however, done by the researcher in classrooms showed a contrary picture, that most of the teachers did not use reinforcement techniques effectively. Most of the teachers selected appropriate learning materials for students frequently. Majority of teachers were not using even their personal teaching tools, and never used devised teaching tools. It leads to the conclusions that teachers in WWMS do not make efforts in making their school more effective 144
  • 161. 6. It was concluded by the results of both questionnaires and observations, that most of the teachers prepared course contents properly, majority of teachers managed discipline in his/her classroom, teachers were following the principles of classroom management effectively.7. The researcher concluded that teachers were not using evaluation techniques properly, effectively and efficiently because they were not assessing students’ behavior and students’ own work in an effective manner. Though they had ability to select and present course contents in a good manner, they could not write or make clear lesson objectives, they did not exhibit their general knowledge and new ideas in their teaching. They had no interaction with students.8. It was concluded that majority of teachers were in favour of higher qualification academically as well as professionally, because according to them these paved the way to improvement of their job effectiveness. The researcher on the whole is convinced that most teachers took cognizance of most standards of school effectiveness, however, it was verified through classroom observations that most teachers were not practicing these standards.3.4 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the present research study, there are recommendations, which may notonly improve the present competencies of the teachers but may also enhance the schooleffectiveness programme particularly in WWMS and Federal / Provincial Governments,Private Sector institutions and Civil Society Organizations directly or indirectly, mostimportantly the policy makers. 145
  • 162. There is need to revisit the theme of school effectiveness in WWMS system inparticular and generally in Pakistani educational system & schools in Pakistan which are stillfunctioning on the traditional concept of learning academics only. It is, therefore,recommended to consider what counts for effective education, beyond academic achievementto include such areas as student engagement, participation in community & social capital.There is a need to explore more serious approaches to meet the “value added school” need ofthe society. There is peculiarity in WWM schools. These are having different mission ascompared with other public sector school systems. WWMS system is providing opportunitiesof education to children of industrial workers. To be good and effective, WWB schoolsshould setup, a well defined organization, characterized by clearly defined goals andobjectives, values, and expected performance standards. Workers Welfare Fund has to make efforts to create a professional environment forteachers to facilitate the accomplishment of their work. Teachers who participate in decisionmaking which effects their work must have reasonable autonomy to carry out their requiredfunction, develop a sense of purpose, be recognized, and treated with respect and dignity.They should enjoy a sense of pride and fulfillment in their profession and achievement. Withthis purpose behind, there is, a need to establish a Teachers Training Institute, within theWWMS system. The institute may cater for B.Ed and M.Ed etc., programme along with shortcourses. This institute may be named as National Institute of Teacher Education (NITE). Recognizing the importance of teacher professional development, there is strong needto examine current professional policies for teachers, at the entrance level and programs fortraining of teachers on job or during the service. It is suggested that standards for professionaldevelopment of the teachers be carefully observed. There is need to set career development 146
  • 163. direction through certificates, degrees, and career ladders, linked to compensationcommensurate with experience and qualifications. These achievements have to be adequatelycompensated financially, based on achievement and experience. It is suggested that the teachers go beyond traditional definition of professionaldevelopment. Today the professional development does not include training which includeslearning skills, rather it includes both formal and informal measures for a teacher to learnnewer practices and a more deeper knowledge of pedagogy, their own practices and acquiringadvance understanding of the contents and resources includes. This requires support forteachers as they face challenges when practically applying those, specially in the use oftechnology. The use of current technologies and resources supplement the efforts forcontinued professional development. It includes various means, “informal & formal” toenable teachers to learn new skills as well as develop additional skills in pedagogy, how theyon practicing these, and to acquire more knowledge, about the advances made in the contentsand available resources. Teachers need to learn all formal and informal methods of impartingknowledge among students to make their school more effective. A future research may also be conducted, as to why most of the teachers do notfollow the concepts and standards of school effectiveness, in their teaching, despite havingknowledge and information about these concepts. In-house seminars, workshops and conferences may also be held on different areas ofschool effectiveness. 147
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  • 176. Annexure A QUESTIONS FOR FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION1) What are the major standards of school effectiveness? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________2) What is the role of a teacher in school effectiveness? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________3) What are the problems in implementation? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 160
  • 177. RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE TO DESIGN TEACHER EDUCATION MODEL FOR SCHOOL EFFECTIVE FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS & SCIENCES RAWALPINDIDear Respondent,I am undertaking research for Ph.D on development of Teacher Education model, tofacilitate the process of school effectiveness. In this regard I have prepared aquestionnaire. The questionnaire is purely for a Ph. D dissertation (academic purposes)and designed to help me, to find out teachers’ competencies for effective teaching.I request you to spare some time in filling it and return the filled questionnaire in 15 days,to enable me to meet my dead lines.The Information supplied will be treated in strict confidence.Thanking You,Sincerely,Tahir Kaleem SiddiquiPhD ScholarFoundation University College ofLiberal Arts & SciencesRawalpindi (Cantt)Email: tahirksiddiqui@hot mail.com 161
  • 178. Annexure-B PART “A” PERSONAL DATAPlease THE APPROPRIATE BOX1. Gender: (a) Male (b) Female2. Age: (a) 20-29 years (b) 30-39 (c) 40-49 (d) 50 and above3. Designation: (a) Principal (b) Teacher (c) Supervisor4. Subject taught: (a) Social Sciences (b) Sciences (c) Humanities 162
  • 179. 5. Higher academic and professional qualification:(A) Academic Qualification (a) Bachelors Degree (b) Master’s Degree (c) M. Phil (d) Ph. D(B) Professional Qualification (a) B. Ed / B.Sc (ED) (b) M. Ed (c) Doctor of Education6. Job Experience: YearsPART “B”Please give your responses to the following items and mark the column ( ) you consideras the most appropriate.A= Agreed, UD= Undecided, DA= DisagreeMETHODOLOGICAL COMPETENCIES DA UD A • I use problem solving methods in my teaching. • I use individual teaching methods keeping in view the individual differences. • I utilize teaching situation effectively. 163
  • 180. MOTIVATIONAL COMPETENCIES • I appreciate students for correct answers. • I give hints to lead to the correct answers. • I give second chance to give correct answers. • I use reinforcement effectively.MATERIAL UTILIZATION COMPETENCIES • I select appropriate and relevant teaching materials • I use prescribed teaching tools effectively • I use my own teaching tools over and above the prescribed tools.INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS COMPETENCIES •11 I apply contemporary knowledge, new ideas in my teaching. • I use different questioning skills. • I manage discipline in my classroom. • I use time management techniques in my teaching. • I manage and arrange classroom activities. • I clearly state my objectives. 164
  • 181. • I develop course contents properlyTEACHING EVALUATION COMPETENCIES • I use various evaluation techniques • I assess student’s behavior effectively • I assess students own work effectively. • I keep record of individual students • Higher academic qualification improves teacher’s job effectiveness. • Ability to perform effectively is inborn in teaching. • Professional qualification improves teacher job effectively? • I use evaluation data to improve job situation.INTERACTION PROCESS COMPETENCIES • I have direct interaction with my students 165
  • 182. Annexure-C CLASSROOM OBSERVATION SHEET1. Name ____________________________________________________________2. School ____________________________________________________________3. Subject ____________________________________________________________4. Topic ____________________________________________________________5. Duration ____________________________________________________________6. Class Size ____________________________________________________________7. Date ____________________________________________________________8. Time ____________________________________________________________ 166
  • 183. F= Frequently, S= Sometime, N= Never F S N • Used problem solving methods in his/her teaching • Used individual teaching methods • Utilized teaching situation effectively. • Students were appreciated for correct answers. • Students were given hints for correct answers. • Students were given second chance to correct answers. • Reinforcement effectively. • Selected appropriate and relevant teaching materials • Used prescribed teaching tools effectively • Used his/her own devised teaching tools over and above the prescribed methods • Applied contemporary knowledge, new ideas in his/her teaching. • Used questioning skills. • Presented course contents in the classroom properly • Used time management techniques in his/her teaching. • Managed and arranged classroom. 167
  • 184. • Managed discipline in the classroom.• Clearly stated his/her objectives.• Used various evaluation techniques• Assessed student’s behavior effectively.• Assessed students own work effectively.• Assessed Presentation and explanation etc ability• Knowledge of subject matter• Organization(effective learning environment)• General knowledge• Teacher students Interaction• Ability to motivate students• Ability to assess and evaluate students’ and their own work 168