Grade 4 primary school based mathematics teachers (Presentation Transcript
Grade 4 Primary School BasedMathematics Teachers-Training Measurement Module
Let us Break IceThe introduction of ‘ice breakers’ is important toopen the class as it:• Helps the teacher in assessing the students in the class• Relaxes the students and establishes an environment that is conducive to learning and not intimidating• Increases prosocial behaviour (concern, empathy, generosity, cooperation, compassion; Beaty, J,J, Observing development of the young child)• A few ice breakers…let us try some
The 3, I’s A Teaching Approach Utilising the 3 I’sIdentification: Students should be able to identify different typesof measurement and explain the prefixes, when and why eachmeasurement is used. Non-intimidating concept introduction.Investigation: Students should develop an appetite or curiosity ,an eagerness to discover why the relationship existsbetween/among various measurements. A tactical approach isrequired.Interrogation: Students should be able to ‘join the dots’. Theteacher will use open ended question as one method ofsoliciting critical thinking enabling the student to processinformation and respond independently to questioning.Cognitive stimulation is required.
Definition of MeasurementMeasurement is the determination of a physicalquantity and is assessed by units; each unit isspecific to:• Length is measured in metres• Volume is measured by litres• Mass is measured by grams• Time is measured by seconds• Temperature is measured by degree Celsius
Key Words for ModuleLength• The standard unit of length in the metric system is the metre. Other units of length and their equivalents in metres are as follows: 1 millimetre = 0.001 metre 1 centimetre = 0.01 metre 1 decimetre = 0.1 metre 1 kilometre = 1000 metres• We symbolize these lengths as follows: 1 millimetre = 1 mm 1 centimetre = 1 cm 1 metre = 1 m 1 decimetre = 1 dm 1 kilometre = 1 kmFor instance: 1 metre is a little longer than 1 yard or 3 feet
Key Words contd.Volume• The standard unit of volume in the metric system is the litre. One litre is equal to 1000 cubic centimetres in volume. Other units of volume and their equivalents in litres are as follows: 1 millilitre = 0.001 litre 1 centilitre = 0.01 litre 1 decilitre = 0.1 litre 1 kilolitre = 1000 litres• From these units, we see that 1000 millilitres equal 1 litre; so 1 millilitre equals 1 cubic centimetre in volume. We symbolize these volumes as follows: 1 millilitre = 1 ml 1 centilitre = 1 cl 1 decilitre = 1 dl 1 litre = 1 l 1 kilolitre = 1 klFor instance, 1 litre is a little more than 1 quart. One teaspoon equalsabout 5 millilitres
Key Words contd.Mass• The standard unit of mass in the metric system is the gram. Other units of mass and their equivalents in grams are as follows: 1 milligram = 0.001 gram 1 centigram = 0.01 gram 1 decigram = 0.1 gram 1 kilogram = 1000 grams• We symbolize these masses as follows: 1 milligram = 1 mg 1 centigram = 1 cg 1 decigram = 1 dg 1 gram = 1 g 1 kilogram = 1 kgFor instance: 1 gram is about the mass of a paper clip. One kilogram isabout the mass of a litre of water
Key words contd.Temperature• Temperature is expressed in degrees Celsius.• The boiling point of water (at sea level) is 100°Celsius, or 100°C.• The freezing point of water (at sea level) is 0° Celsius. A hot day is about 30° Celsius
Activities to Undergrid ‘What will I need?’Measurement:Length: Cartridge paper or any plain paper orStyrofoam plate and a pair of scissors. The teachershould have a metre ruler or rulers.Capacity: A small plastic glass or transparent cup.You will need a permanent marker or anything thatmark and be distinguished on the surface of the cupMass: Small rocks from the school yard and a scale
ConversionMeasurement: Students to be guided byteacher.From milli to centi to deci to metre. Use metreruler created and how it applies to letter writing.Capacity: fluids . Use marked cups.Mass: weight by hand and scale convert on spot.Encourage Mental reasoning.
Conversion contd.Now that the student has satisfied, the first of the 3I’s: Identify. It is time to go to Investigate.This requires a subject interrelated approach and/orapplication to real life scenarios in order for thestudent to establish meaning and relevance to theirlife and possible career choice.If field trips can be organised or a guest presenterfrom a profession that uses measurement; it is atthis juncture that is to be introduced.
InterrogationThis of the 3 I’s is most important. As the student learns to think and isunabashed to do so. The teacher needs to ask questions that allow forprocessing, ‘joining of dots’, and underpinning of relevance to contentto domestic and intended professional life.An example of an interrogative question:“Which is more, 1 gram or 3000 milligrams?a) 1 gramb) 3000mlligramsc) Neither, they are equalThe idea of the exercise is not only to arrive at the right answer butwhy it is the right answer.
Interrogation Contd. The idea is to get the students to understand the why of the subject matter1. Which is greater, 1 gram or 1000 milligrams?2. 3 litres = ?3. 1,000milimetres= ? Metres4. Complete the following table:Metres 2000 3000 8000Kilometres ? ? ? 9
Dispelling Myths Poof!Let us share common myths in the classroomthat students have about measurement,capacity and mass.Share the ‘poof’ method or response used whenstudents articulate a ‘myth aboutmeasurement.’. Open session!
Let us try SharingGet in groups and share what you have learnedand one person from each group will present.
Evaluation of PresentationThe ‘P-A’ approach. Propensity to & Ability to… Indicator Evaluation Support Indicator Evaluation Support Propensity to: Rate 1-5 Action Ability to: Rate:1-5 ActionFight Express ideasBe Quiet or Withdraw InnovateQuit Function cooperativelyComplete Complete independentlyWork in team Identify, InterrogateUse of violent language Think & joinor action the dots