Overview of the Instructional Design Process Curriculum Development TED5495
What is Instruction? Education –all experiences in which people learn Instruction – the deliberate arrangement of learning conditions to promote the attainment of some intended goal Training – instructional experience typically where specific skills are developed for immediate use Teaching – learning experience facilitated by a human being
What is Instruction?
What is Design? Design – implies a systematic or intensive planning and ideation process prior to the development of something of the execution of some plan in order to solve a problem Observations of design (Rowland, 1993) Goal directed process that creates something of practical utility Requires social interaction Involves problem solving, although not all problem solving is designing Involves technical skills, creativity, and rational and intuitive thought processes
What is Instructional Design? A systematic process for creating appropriate instruction. “Systematic” – methodical in procedure or plan; marked by thoroughness and regularity “appropriate” – especially suitable or compatible “instruction” – to give knowledge to; the action, practice, or profession of teaching
Why do we need a systematic process? Provides guidance in the creation of instruction Provides standards and measures for quality It is replicable Founded in research
What are the various models? Dick and Carey’s Systematic Design of Instruction ADDIE Instructional Systems Model Smith and Ragan’s Instructional Design Process Model
Dick and Carey Dick and Carey Design Model One of the best known models Approach is similar to software engineering Iterative process that starts by identifying instructional goals and ends with summative evaluation Model is applicable across a range of context areas (e.g., K-12 to business to government) and users (novice to expert).
Dick and Carey Dick and Carey
ADDIE Instructional Systems Design Affectionately know as ADDIE Five phases that revolve around the final phase of evaluation Simple, well-known, easy to use and understand
ADDIE Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design Analyze the system in order to understand it and describe the goals you wish to achieve. Design a method or model to achieve your goals. Develop the model into a product/course Implement the course Evaluate the course to ensure it is achieving the desired results.
Analyze Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design Adopted from Idaho State’s site at http://ed.isu.edu/addie/analyze/analyze.html Who is the audience (student characteristics) What do they need to learn (what is the goal) What are the delivery options What will the students do to determine competency What needs to be included in the content of the course
Design Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design What are the learning objectives (most important aspect of the process) What is the detailed course outline What is the sequence of topics/activities What assessment activities are needed What texts and materials are necessary What are the prerequisites
Develop Materials are collected, selected, and/or created Content is placed in delivery mechanism Check for alignment with goals and objectives Pilot content on similar audiences Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design
Implement Where the “rubber hits the road” Prepare the instructor / students Set up learning environment Facilitate instruction Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design
Evaluate Should be ongoing throughout the process Did the students meet the learning objectives What needs to be changed/revised Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design
ADDIE Analyze – what is the situation Design – what needs to be done Develop – create or locate resources needed Implement – facilitate the course/training in its intended environment Evaluate – what worked well, what didn’t, what needs to be changed Analyze Evaluate Implement Develop Design
Smith and Ragan Model we will use in the course Similar to others, although reduced to three primary processes Analysis Strategy Evaluation Gaining popularity in the field
Smith and Ragan
Who Does Instructional Design? Trainers Teachers Multimedia developers Activity – What jobs are out there? What are the requirements? What is the pay?