Eyes of the ReefEyes of the Reef
Community Reporting NetworkCommunity Reporting Network
Coral Bleaching, Disease, COTS,Cor...
World Resources InstituteWorld Resources Institute
20112011
Global, map-basedGlobal, map-based
analysis of threats to thea...
75% world’s coral reefs currently threatened75% world’s coral reefs currently threatened
Threats have increased 30% in the...
•In 2002, the US Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF)In 2002, the US Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF)
identified six management fo...
• Climate Change and Marine Disease
• Aquatic Invasive Species
Address Hawaii’s need to maintain
reef resources in the fac...
Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta Aeby
Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta Aeby Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta AebyPhoto ...
Rapid response by management agencies to
events of coral bleaching, coral disease, COTS,
and marine invasive species
• Req...
Eyes of the Reef Network: Level I InvolvementEyes of the Reef Network: Level I Involvement
• All ocean usersAll ocean user...
 Coral Bleaching
 Coral Disease
 Crown-of-Thorns Sea Stars
 Marine Alien Invasive Species
 Native Species Blooms
You will know how to:
• Classify coral types by shape and texture
• Recognize and categorize coral diseases
• Differentiat...
Our Reefs: The Facts
• Hawaii’s reefs are vast
– 410,000 acres, representing almost
85% of coral reefs under US protection...
Coral Reefs 101
Coral reefsCoral reefs should be considered as wholewhole
ecosystems.ecosystems.
The habitathabitat and as...
Coral:Coral:
Animal,Animal,
Plant,Plant,
oror
Mineral?Mineral?
Corals as GardenersCorals as Gardeners
Plant: ZooxanthellaePlant: Zooxanthellae
ZooxanthellaeZooxanthellae
• Produce sugar...
Coral Reef Ecology
What does a healthy reef look like?
Bacteria
Virusses
Herbivores
Predators
Apex predators
Coral
Crustose coralline
algae
Benthic algae
Slide courtesy of Dr Ma...
Bleaching:
loss of symbiotic algae within coral tissue
leads to reduced growth, reproduction
and sometimes death
19981998
...
Understanding Coral Bleaching
Bleaching risk = regional SST + local weather
Regional temperature anomaly
+ Lack of clouds
+ Little to no wind
+ Weak cur...
Causes of Mass Coral Bleaching
Relationship between intensity and
duration of temperature stress
Understanding Coral Bleac...
Sunlight
Max light level a
coral is adapted
to handle.
Damage from
excess light.
daily cycle
Full repair of
daily damage.
...
daily cycle
High temperature
lowers the light
threshold.
More light damage.
Not enough
repair, so damage
builds up.
STRESS...
 Bleached coral enhances light
 Normal conditions: coral skeleton
scatters light to enhance the light
field for the zoox...
 Severe stress
may cause
cell death
directly
 Starvation
from chronic
bleaching
may occur in
the long term.
Understandin...
Courtesy of K. Michalek-Wagner
• Less calcification / slower growth rates
• Less reproductive output
• Less resistance to ...
Bleaching = mortality unless:
• Temperatures soon drop below thresholds
• Corals have good lipid reserves
• Corals can fee...
Photo: Masanori Nonaka
Recovery of coral populations is dependent on:
▪ Growth of surviving colonies
▪ Recruitment of new ...
The first mass bleaching occurred in 1996 in the
main Hawaiian Islands.
A second major bleaching event occurred in 2002
ce...
Midway backreef Sept. 2002
Midway backreef July 2003
Maui - Montipora & Pocillopora:
Molokini, Kapalua Bay, Makena
Landing, Maluaka, Kahakeli
Big Island – Montipora:
Along Wes...
Coral Disease
Disease: Any impairment of vital body
functions, systems, or organs.
• Biotic
– Causal agent a living organism
• Pathogen,...
Black band
Coral disease
Before 1996: 4 diseases described
2004: 29 diseases described
Aspergillosis
White pox
Yellow band...
Black band
Florida Keys
1996-2000
# stations w/ disease: 26 -> 131
# coral species w/ disease: 11 -> 36
Overall coral cove...
Black band
Australia
GBR
1998-2003
# reefs w/ white syndrome: 4 -> 33
avg. # cases of white syndrome/reef: 1.7 -> 47.7
Wil...
Disease outbreaks across the Indo-Pacific
Coral disease
in Hawaii
18 disease states
widespread
low prevalence
Montipora multi-focal TLS
Montipora dark band
Por trem...
The first disease outbreak occurred in 2003 at French
Frigate Shoals
Acropora white syndrome
May 2005
May 2006
Acropora white syndrome
kills coral
Year # reefs surveyed # reefs w/ AWS
2002 6 0
2003 7 1
2004 6 3
2005 5 4
2006 9 7
AWS is spreading across FFS
Outbreak of Montipora
white syndrome
Montipora white syndrome
2006
2007
Sept 2006
57 colonies tagged
Rate of tissue lost:
~3% of colony/month
Sept 2007
53 colo...
Montipora white syndrome – Acute Outbreak
Kaneohe Bay – 2010
Montipora white
syndrome outbreak
Dr Greta Aeby & team
surveyed 12 sites
198 colonies
3-22-10
4-1-10
Acute Montipora White Syndrome
April 2010 April 2011
2nd
outbreak of acute MWS
Kaneohe Bay
December 2011
2012 surveys
NB
CB
SB
area 2010 2012
SB 313 1179
CB 0 23
NB 39 30
3
8
46
2
17
0
3
10
285
31
46
163
86
132
239
197
MWS outb...
Outbreak of Montipora White Syndrome on Maui in 2008
Ahihi Kinau, Maui
MWS prevalence=9.5%
2008-2011
M. capitata declined from
48.5% to 27.5%
Ross et al., in press
MWS outbreak on Maui
March 2010
Sept. 2010
EOR report
Terry Lilley
March 2011
Tunnels, Kauai
EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
GBR- 3 major COTS outbreaks in the past 40 years
Sept 1969-Nov 1970
Outbreak of COTS
off Molokai
20,000 animals
Branham et al. 1971. Science 172(3988):1155-1157
Sept 2005
Outbreak of COTS
off Oahu
1,000 animals
5 min tow
2,260m2
Kenyon & Aeby, in press
CRED
Naturally occurring in small numbers,
but report unusually large numbers of COTS
Causes for COTS outbreaks:
- Increased nu...
Maui’s Kihei coast
lost potential revenue $20 million
Oahu
Smothering corals
Fish disease
Tumors in butterflyfish
severe
mild
moderate
Skin cancer in kole
• Coastal Development
– Nutrient runoff
• Injection wells, cesspools,
septic tanks
• Agriculture, ranching
• Fertilizing
–...
Maui’s Reefs in Danger
Sedimentation Invasive Algae
Over Fishing
Over-use
Groundings and
Anchor Damage
Maui Monitoring Program
Changing weather patterns
Increased sea surface temperatures
Ocean Acidification
Decreases in Coral growth and
recruitment...
Climate Change + increasing anthropogenic stressors
Reefs at risk
Are Hawaii’s reefs at risk?
YES!
1. What type of coral?
2. What kind of change?
– Is there a change in color?
– Are there growths or protuberances?
Cauliflower CoralLace Coral Antler Coral
Key features:
• Discrete, branching coral heads
• Wart-like surface
• Polyps betw...
Red Blue
Key features:
• Encrusting, plate-like
• “Rice-like” projections
• Polyps between projections
Tan/Purple
(Montipo...
Massive Corals:
• Surface smooth,
• crowded, small polyps
• Forms mounds, plates,
encrustations, fingers
Finger CoralMound...
Key features:
• Encrusting
• “Corrugated” appearance:
steep-sided ridges
• Polyps in valleys
(Pavona)
Rice Coral
Smooth Coral
Small/Branching Coral
Smooth Coral
Rice Coral
Smooth
Coral
Corrugated
Coral
1. What type of coral?
2. What kind of change?
– Is there a change in color?
• Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other?
– Are...
1. What type of coral?
2. What kind of change?
– Is there a change in color?
• Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other?
– Are...
Is the coral colony white?
Bleaching Bare Skeleton
• loss of symbiotic
algae within coral
tissue
– Polyps are alive
and present
– Leaves
transparent coral
tissue
Large, complete
colonies
Look for polyps!
Spotty
Appearance
• Fast growing branching
and plates corals first to
bleach
• Some change color
Is the coral colony white?
Bleaching Bare Skeleton
Predation Disease
Predator present?
Pattern of tissue loss
Progressive tissue loss
One or more:
– Progressive tissue loss
– Spotty, uneven areas
of bare skeleton
– Distinct banding
Pocillopora
white-band d...
• Discolored area, purple or red
• Raised, pink “zits”
Porites Trematodiasis
Pavona
Endolithic
Hypermycosis
1. What type of coral?
2. What kind of change?
– Is there a change in color?
• Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other?
– Are...
Porites Growth Anomalies
Montipora Growth Anomalies
Excess skeletal growth
- Paler tissue
- Enlarged calices
Natural Interactions between coral and other organisms
can be mistaken for disease or bleaching.
Do Not Report:
• Fish Pre...
• Numerous distinct
bites
• Large, deep scrapes
• Fresh bites over old
Blennies
Filefish
Parrotfish
Kahe
crab
Shrimp
burrows
COTS
Drupella snails
• Coral tissue
discoloration due to
algal interactions
Toxic compounds
Abrasion
• Colonies use stinging cells, resulting in
white, dead areas
Naturally occurring in small numbers,
but report unusually large numbers of COTS
Causes for COTS outbreaks:
- Increased nu...
Prefer small/branching corals
and rice coral
– Look for bare, white skeleton,
often with some live healthy
coral
– Look fo...
COTS predation: note
tissue down in branches
Montipora growth anomaly
Porites trematodiasis
Discoloration due to
biological interaction
COTS predation: note
newly bare skeleton with no
discoloration, progression
or algal growth
Montipora White Syndrome:
note...
Growth Anomalies
Bleaching
Fish predation
Spotty Coral Bleaching:
Live coral polyps, irregular
sizes and shapes
Porites Multi-Focal Tissue
Loss: Intact, bare skelet...
Coral Competition: Note
white are where two
colonies come together
Montipora Band Disease: note
dark band with progressing
deterioration
Pavona dark spot
Calculate percent affected
Calculate percent affected
•Percent Live Cover
•Percent Coral Affected
•# animals
EOR investigation
• Clear, clean, low nutrient water
– prevents algae from growing overly fast
• Intense grazing by fish and invertebrates
–...
Phase Shifts on Coral ReefsPhase Shifts on Coral Reefs
Transition from coral dominated to algal dominated reef
Lahaina, Maui: Cladophora spp.
•Algal overgrowth by:
–Introduced alien species
–Invasive native algae
The largest and most
destructive invasive algae in
Hawai‘i
• Branches coarse and
heavy, thick as a finger
• Up to 2m tall
...
Massive blooms on Maui
– Responds to increased
nitrogen and phosphorus
and fragments easily
• Flattened “hooks” at tips
• ...
Massive blooms on
O‘ahu and overtaking fishponds on
Moloka‘i
- 3 dimensional growth, adapts to
most conditions
- Brittle, ...
Most common alien alga
- Responds quickly to
nutrients, out-competing &
displacing native species
- Grazed by fish and tur...
Once established—very competitive
- Soft-bottom & deep water habitats
- Competing with native species and
endemic seagrass...
Upside-down Jellyfish
– Usually lies upside down on bottom
– Yellow-brown with white or pale spots
and streaks
– 12-14 inc...
Common algae and invertebrate species that bloom
out of control
– Response to changing environmental conditions
– Nutrient...
• Blue-green algae, Honaunau
– Leptolyngbya crosbyana
• Green Bubble algae, Kāne‘ohe
Bay, O‘ahu
– Dictyosphaeria cavernosa...
Leather Mudweed
Gorillo Ogo
Smothering Seaweed
Prickly Seaweed
Hookweed
Fish disease
Tumors in butterflyfish
severe
mild
moderate
Skin cancer in kole
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
`Ahihi Kina`u`Ahihi Kina`u
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
`Ahihi Kina`u`Ahihi Kina`u
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
Honlua BayHonlua Bay
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
Honlua BayHonlua Bay
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
Honlua BayHonlua Bay
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
KahekiliKahekili
`Ahihi Kina`u
The Aquarium
Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
http://www.reefcheckhawaii.org/eyesofthereef.htm
http://eyesofthereef.myphotoalbum.com
Username: eotr
Password: eotr
Report unusual events of bleaching, disease or COTS to:
www.reefcheckhawaii.org/eyesofthereef.htm
808-953-4044
or
EOR site...
• Volunteers and members
• Reef Check Hawai‘i
• Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB)
• Malama Kai
• Project Aware
• ...
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
Eor training 111512
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  • Large areas of reef Not enough scientists and managers
  • Large areas of reef Not enough scientists and managers
  • Large areas of reef Not enough scientists and managers
  • Coral Reefs 101 Coral reefs should be considered as whole ecosystems. The habitat and associated marine life are deeply interlinked! It’s a complex system, where the biology, the water chemistry, and the physical ocean forces are all part of the whole, all working together to form thriving ecosystems. They are not separable. Imagine a car engine, all of the parts working together to make it run. If one of the pieces wears out or breaks or falls off, it affects another part that it was connected to, which affects another part, and eventually it breaks down. All of the pieces and fluids need to be present and clean for it to run properly.
  • What are corals? Animal, plant, or mineral? Coral is an animal Illustration: C. Vernon
  • Where is the “plant part”? coral polyps have symbiotic algae living in their tissues, called zooxanthellae zooxanthellae does what all plants do…photosynthesize! As much as 90% of the organic material they manufacture photosynthetically is transferred to the host coral tissue This is a symbiotic relationship Symbiosis in coral reefs zooxanthellae: produce sugar/carbohydrates and oxygen for the polyp polyp: creates waste products and CO2 for the zooxanthellae
  • “ Bleaching weather” is a set of characteristics that we have observed occur during mass-bleaching events. Generally the sky has few, if any, clouds (clear and sunny); there is little to no wind; and the water currents are weak.
  • This is just another way of making the point from the previous slide. Under normal temperature conditions, there will be damage in the middle of the day. However, the zoox has repair mechanisms that can fully repair this damage by the end of the day. There is no accumulation of damage that carries over from day to day.
  • When the water temperature is too high, it essentially makes the corals more sensitive to light. The light threshold that the zoox can tolerate is lowered. This means more of the day is spent in damaging light conditions, and less time is spent in net repair. The zoox are not able to repair all of the light damage that happens in a day, so some of the damage will carry forward into the next day.
  • The aragonite skeleton of corals is very effective at “harvesting” the ambient light, to make photosynthesis very efficient. Incoming light is scattered by the coral skeleton, giving lots of opportunities for the light energy to be absorbed by the zooxanthellae. In bleaching, this strategy backfires. In a severely bleached coral, more of the incoming light reaches the skeleton because almost all of the colored zoox are gone from the coral tissue. More of the sunlight gets bounced around by the scattering. This enhances the light field even more than normal. Since excess light energy is what causes coral bleaching, there’s a positive feedback loop which makes the bleaching even worse.
  • Schematic diagram showing the “cascade effect” of the bleaching process. Temperature stress enhances light stress, which causes bleaching. A positive feedback loop with enhanced light scattering means that bleaching actually makes the light stress worse. Absorbed light energy that can’t be used in photosynthesis goes into reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The coral has to get rid of the zoox cells, or risk that the oxidative stress will also kill the coral. Of course, this leaves the coral without its main food source. If the bleaching lasts for a long time, the coral may die of starvation.
  • /tge incidence of coral disease has increased dramatically within the past decade.
  • With coral disease contributing to the severe decline of coral reefs in the fl keys as well as other regions in the carribbean.
  • Coral disease has also emerged as a problem out here in the Pacific. And so it is with this knowledge that disease is becoming an increasing threat and that it can severly impact reefs that studies were begun out here in Hawaii.
  • IN 2002 CRTF identified six major threats to coral reefs and requested that each US jurisdiction develop LAS to address each of the priority threats. There are many threats to Hawaii’s reefs and we are focusing on 6 key threats with support from the US Coral Reef Task Force.
  • Using this PowerPoint break timer This PowerPoint slide uses images, custom animation, and timing to provide a countdown timer that you can use in any presentation. When you open the template, you’ll notice that the timer is set at 00:00. However, when you start the slide show, the timer will start at the correct time and count down by 1-minute intervals until it gets to 1 minute. At that point, it will count down in two 30-seconds intervals to 00:00. To insert this slide into your presentation Save this template as a presentation (.ppt file) on your computer. Open the presentation that will contain the timer. On the Slides tab, place your insertion point after the slide that will precede the timer. (Make sure you don't select a slide. Your insertion point should be between the slides.) On the Insert menu, click Slides from Files . In the Slide Finder dialog box, click the Find Presentation tab. Click Browse , locate and select the timer presentation, and then click Open . In the Slides from Files dialog box, select the timer slide. Select the Keep source formatting check box. If you do not select this check box, the copied slide will inherit the design of the slide that precedes it in the presentation. Click Insert . Click Close .
  • 3 tiered system Based on ccmd recommendations as well as reef managers guide
  • Eor training 111512

    1. 1. Eyes of the ReefEyes of the Reef Community Reporting NetworkCommunity Reporting Network Coral Bleaching, Disease, COTS,Coral Bleaching, Disease, COTS, and Marine Invasive Speciesand Marine Invasive Species
    2. 2. World Resources InstituteWorld Resources Institute 20112011 Global, map-basedGlobal, map-based analysis of threats to theanalysis of threats to the world’s coral reefsworld’s coral reefs Threats:Threats: Local:Local: overfishing,overfishing, destructive fishing, coastaldestructive fishing, coastal development, pollutiondevelopment, pollution Global:Global: climate change ->climate change -> rising ocean temperatures,rising ocean temperatures, coral bleachingcoral bleaching
    3. 3. 75% world’s coral reefs currently threatened75% world’s coral reefs currently threatened Threats have increased 30% in the past decadeThreats have increased 30% in the past decade
    4. 4. •In 2002, the US Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF)In 2002, the US Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) identified six management focus of nationwide threats:identified six management focus of nationwide threats: • Coral reef fisheriesCoral reef fisheries • Land-based pollutionLand-based pollution • Lack of public awarenessLack of public awareness • Recreational useRecreational use • Coral bleachingCoral bleaching • Reef organism diseaseReef organism disease The USCRTF requested that each U.S. jurisdictionThe USCRTF requested that each U.S. jurisdiction develop three-year plans, or local action strategiesdevelop three-year plans, or local action strategies (LAS), for each of the priority threats(LAS), for each of the priority threats
    5. 5. • Climate Change and Marine Disease • Aquatic Invasive Species Address Hawaii’s need to maintain reef resources in the face of increasing human populations and changing climatic conditions
    6. 6. Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta Aeby Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta Aeby Photo by Greta AebyPhoto by Greta AebyPhoto by Darla WhitePhoto by Darla White
    7. 7. Rapid response by management agencies to events of coral bleaching, coral disease, COTS, and marine invasive species • Requires Early Detection of these events • Community Reporting System
    8. 8. Eyes of the Reef Network: Level I InvolvementEyes of the Reef Network: Level I Involvement • All ocean usersAll ocean users • Train to spot 5 dangers to reef healthTrain to spot 5 dangers to reef health • Watch and report!Watch and report! •Activate a rapid responseActivate a rapid response by managementby management •Develop a database ofDevelop a database of changing reef conditionschanging reef conditions
    9. 9.  Coral Bleaching  Coral Disease  Crown-of-Thorns Sea Stars  Marine Alien Invasive Species  Native Species Blooms
    10. 10. You will know how to: • Classify coral types by shape and texture • Recognize and categorize coral diseases • Differentiate between coral disease and biological interactions • Recognize the 5 most dangerous alien invasive algae • Recognize and assess native invasive blooms • Report reef threats to the Eyes of the Reef Network YOU WILL BE THE “EYES” ON OUR HAWAIIAN REEFS
    11. 11. Our Reefs: The Facts • Hawaii’s reefs are vast – 410,000 acres, representing almost 85% of coral reefs under US protection – Over 5,000 species, almost 25% endemic – Culturally, economically, biologically critical
    12. 12. Coral Reefs 101 Coral reefsCoral reefs should be considered as wholewhole ecosystems.ecosystems. The habitathabitat and associated marine lifemarine life are deeply interlinked!interlinked! Coral reefs evolved inevolved in CleanClean,, Clear,Clear, Low nutrientLow nutrient waterwater •BiologyBiology •PhysicsPhysics •ChemistryChemistry InseparableInseparable
    13. 13. Coral:Coral: Animal,Animal, Plant,Plant, oror Mineral?Mineral?
    14. 14. Corals as GardenersCorals as Gardeners Plant: ZooxanthellaePlant: Zooxanthellae ZooxanthellaeZooxanthellae • Produce sugarsProduce sugars (carbohydrates)(carbohydrates) • Oxygen for theOxygen for the coralcoral • 90% of production90% of production goes to coralgoes to coral • Photosynthesis byPhotosynthesis by zooxanthellae helpszooxanthellae helps corals build theircorals build their skeletons, formingskeletons, forming reefsreefs • Zooxanthellae giveZooxanthellae give corals their colorcorals their color Coral PolypCoral Polyp Provides a safe homeProvides a safe home Fertilizer from wasteFertilizer from waste Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Photos courtesy of NOAA and Dr. Greta AebyPhotos courtesy of NOAA and Dr. Greta Aeby
    15. 15. Coral Reef Ecology What does a healthy reef look like?
    16. 16. Bacteria Virusses Herbivores Predators Apex predators Coral Crustose coralline algae Benthic algae Slide courtesy of Dr Mark VermeijSlide courtesy of Dr Mark Vermeij
    17. 17. Bleaching: loss of symbiotic algae within coral tissue leads to reduced growth, reproduction and sometimes death 19981998 world-wideworld-wide massmass bleachingbleaching 16% of16% of world’sworld’s
    18. 18. Understanding Coral Bleaching
    19. 19. Bleaching risk = regional SST + local weather Regional temperature anomaly + Lack of clouds + Little to no wind + Weak currents Understanding Coral Bleaching Conditions conducive to bleaching
    20. 20. Causes of Mass Coral Bleaching Relationship between intensity and duration of temperature stress Understanding Coral Bleaching Thresholds are a function of temperature & time 4 degree heating weeks = bleaching 8 degree heating weeks = mortality
    21. 21. Sunlight Max light level a coral is adapted to handle. Damage from excess light. daily cycle Full repair of daily damage. NORMAL TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS Roberto Iglesias, UNAM Understanding Coral Bleaching
    22. 22. daily cycle High temperature lowers the light threshold. More light damage. Not enough repair, so damage builds up. STRESSFUL TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS Sunlight Roberto Iglesias, UNAM Understanding Coral Bleaching
    23. 23.  Bleached coral enhances light  Normal conditions: coral skeleton scatters light to enhance the light field for the zooxanthellae  Bleaching: more light reaching the skeleton, more scattering, more enhancement of the light field  Past a tipping-point, the bleaching makes the cause of bleaching worse Understanding Coral Bleaching
    24. 24.  Severe stress may cause cell death directly  Starvation from chronic bleaching may occur in the long term. Understanding Coral Bleaching
    25. 25. Courtesy of K. Michalek-Wagner • Less calcification / slower growth rates • Less reproductive output • Less resistance to disease and competition Photo: Andrew Baird Understanding Coral Bleaching
    26. 26. Bleaching = mortality unless: • Temperatures soon drop below thresholds • Corals have good lipid reserves • Corals can feed heterotrophically Understanding Coral Bleaching Physiology of bleaching
    27. 27. Photo: Masanori Nonaka Recovery of coral populations is dependent on: ▪ Growth of surviving colonies ▪ Recruitment of new corals Understanding Coral Bleaching
    28. 28. The first mass bleaching occurred in 1996 in the main Hawaiian Islands. A second major bleaching event occurred in 2002 centered in the northern portion of the Archipelago
    29. 29. Midway backreef Sept. 2002
    30. 30. Midway backreef July 2003
    31. 31. Maui - Montipora & Pocillopora: Molokini, Kapalua Bay, Makena Landing, Maluaka, Kahakeli Big Island – Montipora: Along West Coast O‘ahu - Montipora: North Shore
    32. 32. Coral Disease
    33. 33. Disease: Any impairment of vital body functions, systems, or organs. • Biotic – Causal agent a living organism • Pathogen,such as viruses or bacteria • Parasites • Abiotic – Causal agent an environmental stressor • Changes in salinity, temperature, light, etc. • Exposure to toxic chemicals
    34. 34. Black band Coral disease Before 1996: 4 diseases described 2004: 29 diseases described Aspergillosis White pox Yellow band Dark spots
    35. 35. Black band Florida Keys 1996-2000 # stations w/ disease: 26 -> 131 # coral species w/ disease: 11 -> 36 Overall coral cover: decreased by 37% Porter et al. (2002) Aspergillosis White pox Yellow band Dark spots
    36. 36. Black band Australia GBR 1998-2003 # reefs w/ white syndrome: 4 -> 33 avg. # cases of white syndrome/reef: 1.7 -> 47.7 Willis et al. (2004) Lobophyllia white syndrome Acropora white syndrome Acropora growth anomalies
    37. 37. Disease outbreaks across the Indo-Pacific
    38. 38. Coral disease in Hawaii 18 disease states widespread low prevalence Montipora multi-focal TLS Montipora dark band Por trematodiasis Poc white-band disease Acrop white syndrome Acrop growth anomalies Porites growth anomalies
    39. 39. The first disease outbreak occurred in 2003 at French Frigate Shoals Acropora white syndrome
    40. 40. May 2005 May 2006 Acropora white syndrome kills coral
    41. 41. Year # reefs surveyed # reefs w/ AWS 2002 6 0 2003 7 1 2004 6 3 2005 5 4 2006 9 7 AWS is spreading across FFS
    42. 42. Outbreak of Montipora white syndrome
    43. 43. Montipora white syndrome 2006 2007 Sept 2006 57 colonies tagged Rate of tissue lost: ~3% of colony/month Sept 2007 53 colonies (93%) suffered partial to total mortality Case fatality rate: 2006-2007=7% 2006-2008=28%
    44. 44. Montipora white syndrome – Acute Outbreak Kaneohe Bay – 2010
    45. 45. Montipora white syndrome outbreak Dr Greta Aeby & team surveyed 12 sites 198 colonies
    46. 46. 3-22-10 4-1-10 Acute Montipora White Syndrome
    47. 47. April 2010 April 2011
    48. 48. 2nd outbreak of acute MWS Kaneohe Bay December 2011
    49. 49. 2012 surveys NB CB SB area 2010 2012 SB 313 1179 CB 0 23 NB 39 30 3 8 46 2 17 0 3 10 285 31 46 163 86 132 239 197 MWS outbreak 2012 Rapid response surveys
    50. 50. Outbreak of Montipora White Syndrome on Maui in 2008 Ahihi Kinau, Maui MWS prevalence=9.5%
    51. 51. 2008-2011 M. capitata declined from 48.5% to 27.5% Ross et al., in press MWS outbreak on Maui March 2010 Sept. 2010
    52. 52. EOR report Terry Lilley March 2011 Tunnels, Kauai
    53. 53. EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
    54. 54. EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
    55. 55. EOR report: Terry Lilley Kauai, November 2012
    56. 56. GBR- 3 major COTS outbreaks in the past 40 years
    57. 57. Sept 1969-Nov 1970 Outbreak of COTS off Molokai 20,000 animals Branham et al. 1971. Science 172(3988):1155-1157
    58. 58. Sept 2005 Outbreak of COTS off Oahu 1,000 animals 5 min tow 2,260m2 Kenyon & Aeby, in press CRED
    59. 59. Naturally occurring in small numbers, but report unusually large numbers of COTS Causes for COTS outbreaks: - Increased nutrients lead to increased planktonic food for larvae - Fluctuations in salinity and temperature contribute to larval survival - Removal of natural predators - Triton trumpets, Harlequin shrimp, stripebelly puffers
    60. 60. Maui’s Kihei coast lost potential revenue $20 million Oahu Smothering corals
    61. 61. Fish disease Tumors in butterflyfish severe mild moderate Skin cancer in kole
    62. 62. • Coastal Development – Nutrient runoff • Injection wells, cesspools, septic tanks • Agriculture, ranching • Fertilizing – Sedimentation – Pollution
    63. 63. Maui’s Reefs in Danger Sedimentation Invasive Algae Over Fishing Over-use Groundings and Anchor Damage
    64. 64. Maui Monitoring Program
    65. 65. Changing weather patterns Increased sea surface temperatures Ocean Acidification Decreases in Coral growth and recruitment Increases in: Coral Bleaching Coral Disease
    66. 66. Climate Change + increasing anthropogenic stressors Reefs at risk
    67. 67. Are Hawaii’s reefs at risk? YES!
    68. 68. 1. What type of coral? 2. What kind of change? – Is there a change in color? – Are there growths or protuberances?
    69. 69. Cauliflower CoralLace Coral Antler Coral Key features: • Discrete, branching coral heads • Wart-like surface • Polyps between and on projections (Pocillopora)
    70. 70. Red Blue Key features: • Encrusting, plate-like • “Rice-like” projections • Polyps between projections Tan/Purple (Montipora)
    71. 71. Massive Corals: • Surface smooth, • crowded, small polyps • Forms mounds, plates, encrustations, fingers Finger CoralMounding Coral Plate and Pillar (Porites)
    72. 72. Key features: • Encrusting • “Corrugated” appearance: steep-sided ridges • Polyps in valleys (Pavona)
    73. 73. Rice Coral Smooth Coral
    74. 74. Small/Branching Coral Smooth Coral
    75. 75. Rice Coral
    76. 76. Smooth Coral Corrugated Coral
    77. 77. 1. What type of coral? 2. What kind of change? – Is there a change in color? • Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other? – Are there growths or protuberances?
    78. 78. 1. What type of coral? 2. What kind of change? – Is there a change in color? • Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other? – Are there growths or protuberances?
    79. 79. Is the coral colony white? Bleaching Bare Skeleton
    80. 80. • loss of symbiotic algae within coral tissue – Polyps are alive and present – Leaves transparent coral tissue
    81. 81. Large, complete colonies Look for polyps! Spotty Appearance
    82. 82. • Fast growing branching and plates corals first to bleach • Some change color
    83. 83. Is the coral colony white? Bleaching Bare Skeleton
    84. 84. Predation Disease Predator present? Pattern of tissue loss Progressive tissue loss
    85. 85. One or more: – Progressive tissue loss – Spotty, uneven areas of bare skeleton – Distinct banding Pocillopora white-band disease Multi-focal tissue loss Porites Tissue Loss Montipora White Syndrome Montipora banded tissue loss
    86. 86. • Discolored area, purple or red • Raised, pink “zits” Porites Trematodiasis Pavona Endolithic Hypermycosis
    87. 87. 1. What type of coral? 2. What kind of change? – Is there a change in color? • Bleaching? Disease? Predation? Other? – Are there growths or protuberances?
    88. 88. Porites Growth Anomalies Montipora Growth Anomalies Excess skeletal growth - Paler tissue - Enlarged calices
    89. 89. Natural Interactions between coral and other organisms can be mistaken for disease or bleaching. Do Not Report: • Fish Predation • Invertebrate Predation Burrowing • Coral Competition • Algal Interactions
    90. 90. • Numerous distinct bites • Large, deep scrapes • Fresh bites over old Blennies Filefish Parrotfish
    91. 91. Kahe crab Shrimp burrows COTS Drupella snails
    92. 92. • Coral tissue discoloration due to algal interactions Toxic compounds Abrasion
    93. 93. • Colonies use stinging cells, resulting in white, dead areas
    94. 94. Naturally occurring in small numbers, but report unusually large numbers of COTS Causes for COTS outbreaks: - Increased nutrients lead to increased planktonic food for larvae - Fluctuations in salinity and temperature contribute to larval survival - Removal of natural predators - Triton trumpets, Harlequin shrimp, stripebelly puffers
    95. 95. Prefer small/branching corals and rice coral – Look for bare, white skeleton, often with some live healthy coral – Look for animals in vicinity
    96. 96. COTS predation: note tissue down in branches Montipora growth anomaly
    97. 97. Porites trematodiasis Discoloration due to biological interaction
    98. 98. COTS predation: note newly bare skeleton with no discoloration, progression or algal growth Montipora White Syndrome: note progressing deterioration
    99. 99. Growth Anomalies
    100. 100. Bleaching Fish predation
    101. 101. Spotty Coral Bleaching: Live coral polyps, irregular sizes and shapes Porites Multi-Focal Tissue Loss: Intact, bare skeleton, some algal growth in middle
    102. 102. Coral Competition: Note white are where two colonies come together
    103. 103. Montipora Band Disease: note dark band with progressing deterioration Pavona dark spot
    104. 104. Calculate percent affected
    105. 105. Calculate percent affected
    106. 106. •Percent Live Cover •Percent Coral Affected •# animals EOR investigation
    107. 107. • Clear, clean, low nutrient water – prevents algae from growing overly fast • Intense grazing by fish and invertebrates – controls algal biomass
    108. 108. Phase Shifts on Coral ReefsPhase Shifts on Coral Reefs Transition from coral dominated to algal dominated reef
    109. 109. Lahaina, Maui: Cladophora spp. •Algal overgrowth by: –Introduced alien species –Invasive native algae
    110. 110. The largest and most destructive invasive algae in Hawai‘i • Branches coarse and heavy, thick as a finger • Up to 2m tall • Shiny green to yellow orange • Gnarled with spines to tangled, fleshy mats • Found on calm reef flats (Kappaphycus, Eucheuma)
    111. 111. Massive blooms on Maui – Responds to increased nitrogen and phosphorus and fragments easily • Flattened “hooks” at tips • Usually red, varying to yellow • Long, tendril-like branches • Often attached to other algae • May form large mats • Found on calm, intertidal and shallow reef flats (Hypnea musciformis)
    112. 112. Massive blooms on O‘ahu and overtaking fishponds on Moloka‘i - 3 dimensional growth, adapts to most conditions - Brittle, smallest fragment can grow • Cylindrical, brittle branches, forked at tips • Tips bluntly rounded • Varies in color from bright yellow at tips to orange or brown at base • Found intertidal to subtidal to 4m (Gracilaria salicornia)
    113. 113. Most common alien alga - Responds quickly to nutrients, out-competing & displacing native species - Grazed by fish and turtles • Spine-like, brittle branches • Red, brown to yellow in bright sunlight • Easily fragment, forms floating masses • Attaches to rock and coral rubble • Found in brackish ponds, tide pools, intertidal and reef flats (Acanthophora spicifera)
    114. 114. Once established—very competitive - Soft-bottom & deep water habitats - Competing with native species and endemic seagrass • Fan-shaped, spongy blades • Green to gray-green • Densely clustered blades attached to a thick stalk • Clumps often covered with silty sand, appearing muddy brown • Calm, sandy bottoms, 1-80 m (Avrainvillea amadelpha)
    115. 115. Upside-down Jellyfish – Usually lies upside down on bottom – Yellow-brown with white or pale spots and streaks – 12-14 inches in diameter – Frilly tentacles, mistaken for anemones Snowflake Coral – Polyps have eight tentacles – Polyps and branches white, but branches may appear orange from encrusting sponge – Settles and grows on other corals and shellfish (Carijoa) (Cassiopea)
    116. 116. Common algae and invertebrate species that bloom out of control – Response to changing environmental conditions – Nutrients – Sedimentation • Unusual organism that appears to be spreading quickly • Changes in biodiversity • Stressed or overgrown corals • Change in water quality, clarity • All types of reef locations
    117. 117. • Blue-green algae, Honaunau – Leptolyngbya crosbyana • Green Bubble algae, Kāne‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu – Dictyosphaeria cavernosa • Blue Octocoral, Kona Coast – Sarcothelia edmondsoni
    118. 118. Leather Mudweed
    119. 119. Gorillo Ogo
    120. 120. Smothering Seaweed
    121. 121. Prickly Seaweed
    122. 122. Hookweed
    123. 123. Fish disease Tumors in butterflyfish severe mild moderate Skin cancer in kole
    124. 124. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work `Ahihi Kina`u`Ahihi Kina`u
    125. 125. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work `Ahihi Kina`u`Ahihi Kina`u
    126. 126. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work Honlua BayHonlua Bay
    127. 127. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work Honlua BayHonlua Bay
    128. 128. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work Honlua BayHonlua Bay
    129. 129. Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work KahekiliKahekili
    130. 130. `Ahihi Kina`u The Aquarium Photo Credits: Matt Ramsey, Greta Aeby, & Thierry Work
    131. 131. http://www.reefcheckhawaii.org/eyesofthereef.htm
    132. 132. http://eyesofthereef.myphotoalbum.com Username: eotr Password: eotr
    133. 133. Report unusual events of bleaching, disease or COTS to: www.reefcheckhawaii.org/eyesofthereef.htm 808-953-4044 or EOR site coordinators Kauai: Paul Clark SOS@saveourseas.org Big Island: Linda Preskitt preskitt@hawaii.edu Maui: Darla White Darla.J.White@hawaii.gov Coral bleaching, disease & marine invasives reporting network
    134. 134. • Volunteers and members • Reef Check Hawai‘i • Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) • Malama Kai • Project Aware • DLNR/DAR/DOFAW-HISC

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