TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELTIPS TO ORGANIZE YOUR TEXTS PROPERLY WHEN WRITINGText organization refers to how a text i...
TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELThese are vital for any job: interest, skills, manners... (these refers to interest,skill...
TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELNOTE: Remember that sentences beginning with Not only ... use invertedstructure (Not only...
TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELAlthough, Even Though, ThoughNotice how though, even though or although show a situation ...
TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELExamples:As a result, all funding will be suspended until further review.Consequently, th...
TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELWe were sure everything was ready, but then we discovered some unexpectedproblems.Immedia...
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Tips on Text Organization

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Just a few tips on how to organixe texts properly when writing an advanced ESL text.

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Transcript of "Tips on Text Organization"

  1. 1. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELTIPS TO ORGANIZE YOUR TEXTS PROPERLY WHEN WRITINGText organization refers to how a text is organized to help readers follow andunderstand the information presented. There are a number of standard formsthat help text organization when writing. This text organization tips will help youlogically guide your readers through your text.Text OrganizationReferring to Ideas Already PresentedPronouns and determiners are used to refer to ideas, points or opinions that youhave previously introduced, or will immediately introduce. Here is a quick reviewof pronouns and determiners with examples.PronounsRemember that ideas, opinions and arguments are considered objects inEnglish which take object pronouns.it / it / its -> singularthey / them / their -> pluralExamples:Its importance cannot be underestimated.It now becomes clear that their role in production is vital.The government has given it ample consideration, but rejected its validity.Determinersthis / that -> singularthese / those -> pluralThis is key:children need to be encouraged in order to succeed.Jefferson referred to those as unnecessary complications.Make sure that pronouns and determiners are clearly defined either before, orimmediately after their introduction in order to avoid confusion.Examples:The need for economic growth is vital to any society. Without it, societiesbecome defensive and ... (it refers to need for economic growth)Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com
  2. 2. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELThese are vital for any job: interest, skills, manners... (these refers to interest,skills, manners)Providing Additional InformationA number of forms are used to provide additional information in textorganization. These forms are used at the beginning of a sentence to link text tothe previous sentence:In addition to X, ...As well as X, ...Examples:In addition to these resources, we will require a further investment of ...As well as his difficulties in childhood, his continuing poverty as a young adultcaused many problems.These phrases can be used in the middle of a sentence or a phrase to provideadditional information in your text organization:alsoas well asExamples:Our commitment to the cause, as well as our financial resources, will make thispossible.There were also time considerations to take into account.Sentence StructureNot only ... but alsoThe sentence structure Not only + clause, but also + clause is also used toprovide additional information and emphasize the later point in your argument:Examples:Not only does he bring experience and expertise to the company, but he alsohas an outstanding reputation.Not only are the students improving scores, but they are also having more fun.Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com
  3. 3. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELNOTE: Remember that sentences beginning with Not only ... use invertedstructure (Not only do they do...)Introducing a Number of PointsIts common to use phrases to signify the fact that you will be making differentpoints in your text. The simplest way to indicate that you will be touching on anumber of different points is to use sequencers. The appearance of sequencersindicates that there are points to follow or that precede your sentence. For moreinformation on sequencers, continue on to the section on sequencing your ideasfor text organization.There are also some set phrases that point to the fact that there are a numberof points to follow. Here are the most common:There are a number of ways / means / manners ...The first point to make is ...Lets begin with the assumption that / the idea that / the fact that ...Examples:There are a number of ways we can approach this problem. First, ...Lets begin with the assumption that all of our courses are necessary for ourstudents.Other phrases are used to indicate that one phrase is related to another in anadditional sense. These phrases are common in text organization:For one thing ...and another thing / and for another ...besides that ...and besidesExamples:For one thing he doesnt even believe what hes saying...., and another thing is that our resources cant begin to meet the demand.Contrasting InformationThere are a number of ways to contrast information in text organization. In mostcases, two clauses are used: one with the most important information, as wellas a clause introduced with a word or phrase showing contrast. The mostcommon of these are although, though, even though, but, yet and despite, inspite of.Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com
  4. 4. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELAlthough, Even Though, ThoughNotice how though, even though or although show a situation which iscontrary to the main clause to express conflicting information. Even though,though and although are synonymous. Use a comma after beginning asentence with although, even though, though. No comma is required if youfinish the sentence with although, even though, though.Examples:Even though it was expensive, he bought the car.Though he loves doughnuts, he has given them up for his diet.Although he course was difficult, he passed with the highest marks.Whereas, WhileWhereas and while show clauses in direct opposition to each other. Noticethat you should always use a comma with whereas and while.Examples:Whereas you have lots of time to do your homework, I have very little timeindeed.Mary is rich, while I am poor.But, YetBut and yet provide contrary information that is often unexpected. Notice thatyou should always use a comma with but and yet.Examples:He spends a lot of time on his computer, yet his grades are very high.The research pointed to a specific cause, but the results painted a very differentpicture.Text Organization: Showing Logical Connections and RelationsLogical consequences and results are shown by beginning sentences withlinking language indicating a connection to the previous sentence (orsentences). The most common of these include as a result, accordingly, thus,hence, consequently.Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com
  5. 5. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELExamples:As a result, all funding will be suspended until further review.Consequently, the most important elements combine to provide a rich tapestryeffect.Sequencing Your IdeasIn order to help your audience understand, you need to link ideas together inyour text organization. One of the most important ways to link ideas is tosequence them. Sequencing refers to the order in which events happened.These are some of the most common ways to sequence in writing:Beginning:Firstly,First of all,To start off with,Initially,Examples:Firstly, I began my education in London.First of all, I opened the cupboard.To start off with, we decided our destination was New York.Initially, I thought it was a bad idea, ...Continuing:Then,After that,Next,As soon as / When + full clause,... but thenImmediately,Examples:Then, I started to get worried.After that, we knew that there would be no problem!Next, we decided on our strategy.As soon as we arrived, we unpacked our bags.Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com
  6. 6. TEXT ORGANIZATION. ADVANCED LEVELWe were sure everything was ready, but then we discovered some unexpectedproblems.Immediately, I telephoned my friend Tom.Interruptions / New Elements to the Story:Suddenly,Unexpectedly,Examples:Suddenly, a child burst into the room with a note for Ms. Smith.Unexpectedly, the people in the room didnt agree with the mayor.Events Occurring at the Same TimeWhile / As + full clauseDuring + noun (noun clause)Examples:While we were getting ready for the trip, Jennifer was making the reservationsat the travel agents.During the meeting, Jack came over and asked me a few questions.Ending:Finally,In the end,Eventually,Lastly,Examples:Finally, I flew to London for my meeting with Jack.In the end, he decided to postpone the project.Eventually, we became tired and returned home.Lastly, we felt we had had enough and went home.Mª Jesús García San Martín. EOI Luarca. April 2011From About.com

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