Situated learning & cognition - emerging technologies


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  • Students are fed information in a descriptive but abstract wayTransfer of this substance Decontextualized and formal“Abstract and self contained”
  • • Not a new concept; one can learn something if they do it. Acquiring knowledge in an atmosphere that mirrors real life situations promotes learning. • Learners solve problems and discover knowledge rather than having information handed to them. • Dynamic communities help situated cognition effectiveness. Experts and professionals within a field advise and facilitate learning.• The process is more relevant, useful and transferable • Field trips, study abroad, role playing are all examples of situated cognitive learning. Benefits:• Increased understanding of how to apply knowledge, draw conclusions and structure knowledge. Increases learner motivation. • Inspires critical thinking.
  • Constructivist Theory-root of cognitive apprentiship and situated cognitiondiscovery learninghands-onexperientialcollaborativeproject-basedtasked-basedCognitive Apprenticeship-Learners understand and fully embrace the philosophy and innuendo of concepts through experimentation and self-learningExperiential Learning- ET-seven cyclical steps: setting goals, thinking, planning, experimentation, reflection, observation, reviewBackwards Design-start with learning outcomes then plan “performance tasks” so students can show what they are learning. Lastly create the course content.
  • Applications in and to virtual environments:Field Trips!Virtual travel to a location or environment to learnFewer or at least different limitations on travel and experience (note: I am riding a Mars Rover (having survived a meteor strike nearby) in one slide, INSIDE the bear’s cage in one slide, in China in the middle slide…etc). Each area represents a discrete set of possible experiences.Avoids cost and safety / legal issues from real travel. Space travel, animal mauling… that big green bottle of 56% alcohol would never fly – even as “Art” for students in the real world setting Drawbacks: Teacher needs to be very on-top of things and multitask. Reading chats, speaking, answering, dealing with tech issues and interruptions“The speaker [Educator] must maintain fidelity to the planned script but, at the same time, pay attention to the backchat, adjust comments to answer participant questions, role play with the mock patient, and roll with whatever technical limitations, unexpected results, or problems arise. “(Wiecha. 2010) Learning curve – and getting people to try it for the first time. institutional opposition, limited familiarity,Tech issues – short term (connection or sound issues) and long term (like slow computers or connection speeds.Do these features guarantee pedagogical effects? No.
  • Experiential Learning:technologies should be used to keep students active, constructive, collaborative, intentional, contextual, conversational, and reflectiveLearners obtain direct experience and understanding on specific issuesEnvironment can be established for the purpose of the learning experienceAvatars can be prepared ahead of time to act out roles – as was done in a medical instruction course – where some avatars performed as “patients”. This might be a useful bit of role play.Environments can be manipulated and replicated for educational purposesCan be open 24/7 for learners to visit on their own time at their own paceAdditionally there is a lot of real-world complexity in SL because it is populated by real inhabitants, so finding people to teach something they are keen about (i.e.: Amy with her skins and fantasy role playing). People can set up and educate about their interests and you can visit no matter where you might be in relation to them.
  • Presence Pedagogy (P2):Essentially about interaction – and providing a setting conducive to it. The Socratic Approach in an updated environmenta way of teaching and learning that is grounded in social constructivist theoryBuilds a community of practiceconstructing an online environment fosters collaboration People can come together in a virtual location for the express purpose or goal of accomplishing something together.Using virtual environments you can bring people “together” from various locations – distance is not a factoreveryone in the community is a potential instructor, peer, expert, and novice孔子:三人行必有我师  
  • Conclusion:Strangely, there does not seem to be a lot of recent scholarly research about the effectiveness of virtual learning environments. Much of what is out there is from the turn of the millennium.It seems like it has never really caught on, despite some attractive possibilities and capabilities.  Part of this may be from the drawbacks – as noted above.In fact with connection speeds and connectivity in general – as well as computer capabilities – going up all the time one would think that it would be getting better and better. More approachable, more lifelike.From our studies, and I would say from my experience so far – there does seem to be potential for immersive learning experiences. I feel that it would be much less intimidating, for example, to hold a new student orientation in SL at a digital replica of the campus.The doctors surveyed in one scholarly paper on virtual learning felt that it was much better than traditional refresher courses – often done on-line (but not virtual) or over the phone. Most even said that it was preferable to the in-person courses – for communication and convenience reasons.I will leave you with some of their comments on the coursework they did (which is backed up by statistics on their learning progress and success rate before and after the course. Ways in which this course was deemed superior to face-to-face CME events: participants’ responses“Able to listen to more views on the topic from other participants in a very time effective manner (by the typed answers for the presenters questions).”“I would say that the biggest advantage is being able to attend the conference from wherever and still feel as if you were actually present at the conference.”“The presentation was very interactive. Instead of raising my hand and asking a question, I could type a question at any time and know that the presenter would eventually see it. I’m not the extroverted type, so don’t always ask a question when given the opportunity.”“The ’patients’ made it interesting and helped apply what we had learned to common patient scenarios. It’s amazing how real it all feels during the presentation—a great way to learn.”“I feel having an alter ego on SL facilitates learning because of the freedom of expression—less fear of being judged. Unlike face-to-face meetings, looks, mannerisms, and speech patterns are taken out of the experience for the learner. Instead, the learner relaxes in a pleasant environment (home) and can concentrate on learning.”“This was one of the great experiences I have had. The phone or the other Web ones are a little boring. This one just kept me on my toes.”“There was a nice element of play that enhanced the fun aspect of learning. I miss having fun in class.”“Participants can communicate with each other during the session. No more saving questions till the end. The questions are addressed by all, not just the speaker, as they arise in the participants’ minds. This enhances learning.
  • Situated learning & cognition - emerging technologies

    1. 1. By Phyllis Shapiro and David Wivell
    2. 2. TraditionalLearning andTeaching: Abstract Decontextualized Self-contained One way
    3. 3. SituatedcognitionKnowledgediscoveryDynamiccommunitiesProblemsolvingReal-lifesituations
    4. 4. Learning TheoriesConstructivismCognitive ApprenticeshipExperiential LearningBackwards Design
    5. 5. Virtual Applications for Situated Cognition Immersive environments Second Life Field trips International/Interplanetary/Timetravel Day in Industry
    6. 6. Experiential LearningEnvironments can be manipulated and replicated Avatars become patients Situations can be created for role playing scenarios
    7. 7. Presence Pedagogy (P2)Essentially about interactionEnables a community ofpracticeEveryone is a potentialinstructor, peer, expert, andnovice
    8. 8. Conclusionsor Attractive possibilities and capabilities remainunderutilized Limited research results Drawbacks: learning curve, technical learner andinstructor issues, lack of school system involvement