Information Technology Act 2000


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Information Technology Laws in India-By Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate Partner and Head IP & IT Laws Diivision, Vaish Associates Advocates, India

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Information Technology Act 2000

  1. 1. THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT, 2000 Purpose of the Act <ul><ul><li>To provide legal recognition for transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by means of electronic date interchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>electronic communication, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;electronic commerce“ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. JURISDICTION [section 75] <ul><li>Applicable to whole of </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>to offences committed outside India </li></ul>
  3. 3. Important Definitions <ul><li>What is Data ? </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>concepts </li></ul><ul><li>instruction </li></ul><ul><li>which are being prepared / have been prepared </li></ul><ul><li>in a formalized manner, </li></ul><ul><li>is intended to be processed, is being processed or has been processed </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or computer network, and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>may be in any form or stored internally in the memory of the computer [Section 2(1)(o) ] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Digital Authentication Sec. 3 Sec. 14 and Sec. 15 <ul><li>Digital Authentication of any electronic record by a signature subscriber </li></ul>
  5. 5. Legal Recognition and Acknowledgement of Electronic Record <ul><li>Electronic Records Recognized [section 4 ] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is REQUIRED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be in writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or typewritten </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has been </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rendered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Made Available in Electronic Form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is accessible and usable for subsequent references </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Acknowledgement of Receipt [ section 12 ] <ul><li>When There is no Specific Provision </li></ul><ul><li>Or mode prescribed </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement can be GIVEN By </li></ul><ul><li>Any Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Otherwise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of the addressee </li></ul>
  7. 7. Establishments & Authorities <ul><li>Certifying Authority – A person who has been granted licence to issue a Digital Signature Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy Controller & Assistant Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Controller - Controller of Certifying Authorities appointed under Section 17 (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal- Tribunal established under Section 48 (1) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digital Signature Certificates Sec. 35 to 39 <ul><li>Certifying Authority issues the Digital Signature Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Representations upon issuance of the Digital Certificate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Key Private Key PAIRING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revocation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Offences under the Act <ul><li>Tampering [section 65] </li></ul><ul><li>Hacking [ section 66] </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing obscene information [section 67] </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation [section 71] </li></ul><ul><li>Breach of confidentiality and privacy [section 72] </li></ul><ul><li>Publication for fraudulent purpose [section 74] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tampering [section 65] <ul><li>Knowingly or intentionally </li></ul><ul><li>Himself or through another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any computer source code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for computer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer programme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where such source code is required to be kept or maintained </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment : 3 Years or Fine 2 Lakh INR or Both </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hacking [ section 66] <ul><li>Hacking is a Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Done with the intention to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrongful Loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Public </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or any person </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Delete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Alter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Any Information in computer resource </li></ul><ul><li>Or Diminish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>its Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or Utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or affects injuriously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment : 3 Years or Fine 2 Lakh INR or Both </li></ul>
  12. 12. Publishing obscene information [section 67] <ul><li>Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Or getting it published </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Electronic Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any Material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lascivious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to Prurient interest or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to DEPRAVE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or Corrupt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persons likely to read – see – hear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>First Offence 5 Years + Fine Upto 1 Lakh INR </li></ul><ul><li>Second and Subsequent Offence 10 Years + Fine Up to 2 Lakh INR </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Forget Sec. 292, 293 and 294 of the IPC </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other Offences <ul><li>Misrepresentation [section 71] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Years or Fine or Both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breach of confidentiality and privacy [section 72] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Years or Fine or Both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publication for fraudulent purpose [section 74] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Years or Fine or Both </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Penalties <ul><li>Penalty for damage to computer system- damages by way of compensation upto one crore </li></ul><ul><li>[ ‘damage’ means to destroy, alter, delete , add, modify or rearrange any computer resource by any means] </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty for failure to furnish any information, return or report </li></ul><ul><li>Residuary Penalty upto Rupees 25,000/- </li></ul><ul><li>Confiscation of any computer/ system//floppies/disks/drives in contravention of the Act </li></ul>
  15. 15. Investigation of Offences & Access to computers <ul><li>Power to investigate contraventions [section 28 & section29] </li></ul><ul><li>lies with the Controller/any officer authorised by him in this behalf </li></ul><ul><li>who shall exercise the like powers which are conferred on Income-tax authorities under Chapter XIII of the Income-tax Act, 1961 subject to such limitations laid down under that Act </li></ul><ul><li>have access to any computer system, any apparatus, data or any other material connected with such system, for the purpose of searching or causing a search to be made </li></ul>
  16. 16. Power of the Controller to give directions to a subscriber to extend facilities to decrypt information [section 69] <ul><li>If the Controller is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of India, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the security of the State, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>friendly relations with foreign Stales or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public order or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for preventing incitement to the commission of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any cognizable offence, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>he may, by order, direct any agency of the Government to intercept any information transmitted through any computer resource. However, he must record reasons in writing for the same </li></ul>
  17. 17. Power of police officer and other officers in respect of search, etc [Section 80] <ul><li>Any police officer[ not below the rank of a Deputy Superintendent of Police or any other officer of the Central Government / State Government authorised by the Central Government in this behalf may enter any public place and search and arrest without warrant any person found therein who is reasonably suspected or having committed or of committing or of being about to commit any offence under this Act </li></ul>
  18. 18. Appeal to Cyber Appellate Tribunal [Section 57] <ul><li>An appeal from an order made by Controller or an adjudicating officer under this Act lies to Cyber Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction in the matter. </li></ul><ul><li>However, no appeal shall lie to the Cyber Appellate Tribunal from an order made by an adjudicating officer with the consent of the parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Every appeal shall be filed within a period of forty-five days from the date on which a copy of the order made by the Controller or the adjudicating officer is receive </li></ul><ul><li>Endeavour shall be made to dispose off the appeal finally within six months from the date of receipt of the appeal. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Various forms of cyber crime <ul><li>Cyber stalking - Following and pursuing a person online </li></ul><ul><li>Spam - Unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud & - Dishonest misrepresentation of fact identity theft intended to induce another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss </li></ul><ul><li>Obscene or </li></ul><ul><li>offensive content </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cyber Crimes <ul><li>Phishing Scams- Fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber terrorism An act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources </li></ul>
  21. 21. Personal Data Protection <ul><li>It is pertinent to note that “personal data has not been defined in the IT Act. </li></ul><ul><li>However, “Personal Data Protection Bill, 2006” aimed at protecting personal data and information of an individual collected for a particular purpose by one organization is under consideration by the  Indian Parliament. The said bill has already been introduced in the Upper House (Rajya Sabha). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contact Us <ul><li>India Head Office Flat No. 5, 2 nd Floor, 10, Hailey Road, New Delhi-110001, India email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Phone:- +91-11-42492525 Fax :- +91-11-23320484 </li></ul><ul><li>Branch Offices at </li></ul>Mumbai 106, Peninsula Center, (Behind Piramal Chambers-Income-tax Office) Dr. S.S. Rao Road, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India), Phone: +91-22-42134101 Fax : +91-22-42134102 [email_address] Gurgaon, Haryana 803, Tower A, Signature Towers, South City-1, NH-8,Gurgaon-122001, Haryana, India [email_address] Phone- +91-124-4541000 Fax:: +91-124-4541010 IP & IT Laws Division Vaish Associates Advocates Flat No. 903, Indra Prakash, 21, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi-110001, India email: [email_address] Phone:- +91-11-42492532 (Direct) Mobile: +91-9810081079 Fax :- +91-11-23320484
  23. 23. Flat No 903, Indra Prakash, 21, Barakhamba  Road, New Delhi 110001 (India) Phone: +91 11 42492532 (Direct) Phone: +91 11 42492525 Ext 532 Mobile :- 9810081079 Fax: +91 11 23320484 email:- [email_address] Intellectual Property & Information Technology Laws Division