Economics of global_environmental_pollution

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  • 1. Economics of Global Environmental Pollution 1/4/2014 BY:-ABHISHEK RAJPUT 1
  • 2. Contents • Introduction • Global Environmental Pollution • Environmental Issues • Effects on Economy • Conclusion 1/4/2014 2
  • 3. Introduction •The environment encompasses the whole of life on earth and the complex interactions that link the living world with the physical world. • In a general sense, this covers everything contained within the air, land and water. 1/4/2014 3
  • 4. •Sudden and dramatic natural changes to the environment have occurred, and continue to occur, which have the potential to upset the whole balance of the Earth's ecosystem. •Significant environmental issues cause impacts throughout the world economy. •This presentation aims to inform people on the global, regional and local environmental issues that relate indirectly to Economy. 1/4/2014 4
  • 5. Global Environmental Issues 1/4/2014 5
  • 6. Global Warming Waste Disposal Desertification 1/4/2014 Ozone Layer Depletion Global Environmental Issues Water Pollution Acid Rain Deforestation Loss of Biodiversity 6
  • 7. Global Warming • Greenhouse gases help to maintain the earth’s temperature at a level suitable to support life. • Human activities are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which cause more heat to be trapped. • Predicted effects of global warming include:  Higher sea levels  Higher temperatures  Variable climatic conditions  These changes are expected to cause a significant impact on agriculture and ecosystems. 1/4/2014 7
  • 8. Ozone Layer Depletion • The ozone layer protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) light. • The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting substances as refrigerants, solvents and insulation is destroying the ozone layer. • Depleted ozone levels cause the following impacts:  Increased penetration of UV light to earth  Increased risks of skin cancer and eye diseases  Damage to agricultural crops  Disruption to marine food chains 1/4/2014 8
  • 9. Acid Rain • The burning of fossil fuels leads to atmospheric emissions of NOx and SO2 • These gases react with water and oxygen to make sulfuric and nitric acids. Sunlight increases the rate of these reactions • The deposition of acids can:  Damage forests and soils  Causes acidification of waterbodies  Disturb wildlife  Impact on human health 1/4/2014 9
  • 10. Deforestation •The deforestation of tropical rainforests is a major global problem-each year millions of hectares are lost •Deforestation rates in some countries continue to increase despite worldwide pressures •The impacts of deforestation include: Loss of livelihood for local inhabitants Variable environmental conditions (susceptibility to flood, aggravated droughts, soil erosion etc) Loss of biodiversity and disturbance to ecosystems Loss of carbon sink 1/4/2014 10
  • 11. Loss of Biodiversity •Biodiversity has three key components: Genetic diversity Species diversity Ecological diversity •Approximately 2.1 million species are known to exist, but up to 50 million still to be discovered •Biodiversity is important for food, drugs, maintaining ecological stability, aesthetic and cultural benefits •Natural causes and human activity can threaten biodiversity, The loss of biodiversity means ecosystems are destabilized. 1/4/2014 11
  • 12. Water Pollution •A change in water quality that impacts on living organisms •Types and effects of water pollution include: Infectious agents, such as typhoid, cholera Nutrients and eutrophication Toxic materials, through mining Organic chemicals Sediments can disrupt aquatic ecosystems 1/4/2014 12
  • 13. Waste Disposal Waste disposal methods include: Open dumping and landfill Ocean dumping Exporting waste Waste to energy plants Minimize the waste stream: 3R’s: reduce, reuse, recycle Composting Waste to energy Hazardous waste disposal Needs to be safely handled and disposed of to minimize threats to the environment and human health 1/4/2014 13
  • 14. Environmental Issues 1/4/2014 14
  • 15. •Air Pollution •Corrosion •Loss of Tourists •Rubbers Cracking •Land Degradation •Damage to building materials •Effects on Glasses & Ceramics •Deterioration of Leather & Paper •Water Pollution •Increased Transportation Costs During Smog . etc 1/4/2014 15
  • 16. Corrosion • Pollution damages materials chiefly by corrosion of metals. • The prime air pollutant responsible for metallic corrosion is SO2. • In the presence of oxygen & moisture , its converts in H2SO4. 1/4/2014 16
  • 17. Rubber Cracking • Cracking of vehicles tyres . •Cracking of electrical insulation . •It caused mainly by ozone & PAN. 1/4/2014 17
  • 18. Land Degradation Many Asian nations, particularly India, China, Afghanistan and Mongolia are facing the challenges of desertification Desertification in these areas is caused by: •Overgrazing •Overploughing •Vegetation removal These problems continue to intensify as human and livestock numbers continue to increase 1/4/2014 18
  • 19. Damage to building materials & Glasses & Ceramics •Reacts with lime stones ,marbles & other building materials to cause deterioration & disfigured the building materials. •Glasses & ceramics are especially resistant to the chemical action of Air/water ,but a long exposure for years showed a change in their appearances. 1/4/2014 19
  • 20. Deterioration of Leather & Paper • SO2 caused leather to lose too much of its strength & ultimately disintegrated. • The impurities in paper absorb SO2 & convert it into H2SO4 in the presence of moisture . • which makes the paper extremely brittle & decreases its folding resistance. 1/4/2014 20
  • 21. Effects on Economy 1/4/2014 21
  • 22. • • • • • • • Consumer Spending GDP-Gross Domestic Product GNP-Gross National Product National Dept. Exchange Rate Rate of Inflation Balance of Trade 1/4/2014 22
  • 23. Conclusion • Development recognises that social, economic and environmental issues are interconnected, and that decisions must incorporate each of these aspects if there are to be good decisions in the longer term. • For sustainable development, accurate environment forecasts and warnings with effective information on pollution which are essential for planning and for ensuring safe and environmentally sound socio-economic activities should be made known. 1/4/2014 23
  • 24. • There is therefore the need for a cooperative program among all stake holders (government, public and private) in order to advance our understanding of the weather for a sustainable socio-economic development. 1/4/2014 24
  • 25. 1/4/2014 25
  • 26. Any Queries ?? 1/4/2014 26