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Economics of Global
• Global Environmental Pollution
• Environmental Issues
• Effects on Economy
•The environment encompasses the whole
of life on earth and the complex interactions
that link the living world with the physical
• In a general sense, this covers everything
contained within the air, land and water.
•Sudden and dramatic natural changes to the
environment have occurred, and continue to
occur, which have the potential to upset the whole
balance of the Earth's ecosystem.
•Significant environmental issues cause impacts
throughout the world economy.
•This presentation aims to inform people on the
global, regional and local environmental issues that
relate indirectly to Economy.
• Greenhouse gases help to maintain the earth’s
temperature at a level suitable to support life.
• Human activities are increasing the amount of
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which cause
more heat to be trapped.
• Predicted effects of global warming include:
Higher sea levels
Variable climatic conditions
These changes are expected to cause a
significant impact on agriculture and ecosystems.
Ozone Layer Depletion
• The ozone layer protects the earth from harmful
ultraviolet (UV) light.
• The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone
depleting substances as refrigerants, solvents and
insulation is destroying the ozone layer.
• Depleted ozone levels cause the following impacts:
Increased penetration of UV light to earth
Increased risks of skin cancer and eye diseases
Damage to agricultural crops
Disruption to marine food chains
• The burning of fossil fuels leads to
atmospheric emissions of NOx and SO2
• These gases react with water and oxygen to
make sulfuric and nitric acids. Sunlight
increases the rate of these reactions
• The deposition of acids can:
Damage forests and soils
Causes acidification of waterbodies
Impact on human health
•The deforestation of tropical rainforests is a major global
problem-each year millions of hectares are lost
•Deforestation rates in some countries continue to
increase despite worldwide pressures
•The impacts of deforestation include:
Loss of livelihood for local inhabitants
Variable environmental conditions (susceptibility to
flood, aggravated droughts, soil erosion etc)
Loss of biodiversity and disturbance to ecosystems
Loss of carbon sink
Loss of Biodiversity
•Biodiversity has three key components:
•Approximately 2.1 million species are known to
exist, but up to 50 million still to be discovered
•Biodiversity is important for food, drugs, maintaining
ecological stability, aesthetic and cultural benefits
•Natural causes and human activity can threaten
biodiversity, The loss of biodiversity means
ecosystems are destabilized.
•A change in water quality that impacts on living
•Types and effects of water pollution include:
Infectious agents, such as typhoid, cholera
Nutrients and eutrophication
Toxic materials, through mining
Sediments can disrupt
Waste disposal methods include:
Open dumping and landfill
Waste to energy plants
Minimize the waste stream:
3R’s: reduce, reuse, recycle
Waste to energy
Hazardous waste disposal
Needs to be safely handled and disposed of to minimize
threats to the environment and human health
•Loss of Tourists
•Damage to building materials
•Effects on Glasses & Ceramics
•Deterioration of Leather & Paper
•Increased Transportation Costs During Smog . etc
• Pollution damages materials chiefly by
corrosion of metals.
• The prime air pollutant responsible for
metallic corrosion is SO2.
• In the presence of oxygen & moisture , its
converts in H2SO4.
• Cracking of vehicles tyres .
•Cracking of electrical insulation .
•It caused mainly by ozone & PAN.
Many Asian nations, particularly
India, China, Afghanistan and Mongolia are facing the
challenges of desertification
Desertification in these areas is caused by:
These problems continue to intensify as human and
livestock numbers continue to increase
Damage to building materials
Glasses & Ceramics
•Reacts with lime stones ,marbles & other
building materials to cause deterioration &
disfigured the building materials.
•Glasses & ceramics are especially resistant to
the chemical action of Air/water ,but a long
exposure for years showed a change in their
Deterioration of Leather
• SO2 caused leather to lose too much of its
strength & ultimately disintegrated.
• The impurities in paper absorb SO2 & convert
it into H2SO4 in the presence of moisture .
• which makes the paper extremely brittle &
decreases its folding resistance.
GDP-Gross Domestic Product
GNP-Gross National Product
Rate of Inflation
Balance of Trade
• Development recognises that social, economic
and environmental issues are
interconnected, and that decisions must
incorporate each of these aspects if there are to
be good decisions in the longer term.
• For sustainable development, accurate
environment forecasts and warnings with
effective information on pollution which are
essential for planning and for ensuring safe and
environmentally sound socio-economic activities
should be made known.
• There is therefore the need for a cooperative
(government, public and private) in order to
advance our understanding of the weather for a
sustainable socio-economic development.