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Robert D. Bullard School of Public Affairs Texas Southern University Houston, Texas USA  Environmental Health and Racial Equity in the U.S.Strategies for Building Environmentally Just Sustainable and Livable Communities
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Robert D. Bullard School of Public Affairs Texas Southern University Houston, Texas USA Environmental Health and Racial Equity in the U.S.Strategies for Building Environmentally Just Sustainable and Livable Communities


Environmental Health and Racial Equity in the U.S. Strategies for Building Environmentally Just Sustainable and Livable Communities …

Environmental Health and Racial Equity in the U.S. Strategies for Building Environmentally Just Sustainable and Livable Communities

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  • 1. Environmental Health and Racial Equity in the U.S.Strategies for Building Environmentally Just Sustainable and Livable Communities July 3, 2012 Robert D. Bullard, Ph.D. School of Public Affairs Texas Southern University Houston, Texas USA
  • 2. Books That I have Written: It’s JustOne Book, But Don’t Tell Anybody• Invisible Houston • Just Sustainabilities• Dumping in Dixie • Highway Robbery• In Search of the New • The Quest for South Environmental Justice• Growth and Decline of a Sunbelt Boomtown • Growing Smarter• Confronting • The Black Metropolis in Environmental Racism the Twenty-First Century• Residential Apartheid • Race, Place, and• Unequal Protection Environmental Justice• Just Transportation After Hurricane Katrina• Sprawl City • The Wrong Complexion for Protection
  • 4. Dr. King Speaks in Support ofGarbage Workers - 1968
  • 5. Environmental Justice -MemphisGarbage Strike
  • 6. The Houston Backdrop - 1978 • Houston Protests against the Whispering Pines Sanitary landfill (1978) • Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management (1979) • Houston Waste Sites and Black Community Study (1979)
  • 7. Bean v. Southwestern Waste • The 1979 Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management Corp. case was the nation’s first lawsuit to challenge environmental discrimination using civil rights law • Northeast Community Action Group (NECAG) hired Linda McKeever Bullard to represent them in the class action law suit • BFI hired the Fulbright and Jaworski law firm to defend it in the case
  • 8. Warren County, NC - 1982 • The environmental justice movement was born in rural Warren County, NC • Triple “whammy” of rural, poor, and mostly black • Over 500 demonstrators were arrested protesting the siting of a hazardous PCB landfill
  • 9. Toxic Wastes and Race in theUnited States - 1987 • The United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice produced the first national study linking race and the location of hazardous waste sites
  • 10. Legacy of “Jim Crow” - 1990 • The “Deep South” is stuck with a unique legacy of slavery, Jim Crow segregation, and resistance to equal justice for all • The South is the most environmentally befouled region of the United States • It is no accident that the modern civil rights movement and the environmental justice movement were born in the South
  • 11. People of Color SummitWashington, DC, Oct., 1991
  • 12. Defining the Environment • Where We Live • Where We Work • Where We Play • Where We Learn • Physical and Natural World
  • 13. Environmental Justice Principle • Environmental justice embraces the principle that all people and communities are entitled to equal protection of our environmental, health, employment, education, housing, transportation, and civil rights laws
  • 14. APPLYING A RACIAL EQUITY LENS • Race maps closely with the geography of social inequality and ecological vulnerability • More 100 studies now link racism to worse health • More than 200 environmental studies have shown race and class disparities • Discriminatory housing, land use, and development policies have resulted in limited mobility, reduced neighborhood options, and elevated environmental and health risks to poor people and people of color
  • 15. Government Response
  • 16. Environmental JusticeExecutive Order - 1994 • On February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 • After 15 years and more than a half-dozen studies by several federal agencies, Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, has yet to be fully implemented
  • 17. Response of State Governments • In 1993, New Hampshire passed its pioneering environmental justice policy • By 2007, 41 states had a policy or program in place that paid attention to the issue of environmental justice • In 2009, all 50 states and the District of Columbia had instituted some type of environmental justice law, executive order, or policy
  • 18. Environmental Health and RacialEquity in the U.S. - 2012 • African Americans are 79 percent more likely than whites to live in neighborhoods where industrial pollution is suspected of posing the greatest health danger • African Americans in 19 states are more than twice as likely as whites to live in neighborhoods with high pollution and a similar pattern was discovered for Hispanics in 12 states and Asians in 7 states
  • 19. Healthy People and Healthy Places • Healthy places and healthy people are highly correlated • The EPA’s most recent National- Scale Air Toxics Assessment reported that millions of Americans living in nearly 600 neighborhoods are breathing concentrations of toxic air pollutants that put them at a much greater risk of contracting cancer • The poorest of the poor within the United States have the worst health and live in the most degraded environments
  • 21. Toxic Wastes and Race in theUnited States – 1987, 1994 • The 1987 United Church of Christ study Toxic Wastes and Race found race to be the most potent variable in predicting where the location of hazardous waste facilities— more powerful than poverty, land values, and home ownership • The Toxic Wastes and Race study was revisited in 1994 using 1990 census data study and found that people of color were 47 percent more likely to live near a hazardous waste facility than white Americans
  • 22. Toxic Wastes and Race - 2007• Race continues to be a significant independent predictor of commercial hazardous waste facility locations when socioeconomic and other non-racial factors are taken into account• People of color make up the majority (56%) of those living in neighborhoods within two miles of the nation’s commercial hazardous waste facilities, nearly double the percentage in areas beyond two miles (30%)• People of color make up a much larger (over two-thirds) majority (69%) in neighborhoods with clustered facilities• People of color in 2007 are more concentrated in areas with commercial hazardous sites than in 1987
  • 23. Disparities by EPA Region • Racial disparities for people of color as a whole exist in 9 out of 10 EPA regions (all except Region 3) • Disparities in people of color percentages between host neighborhoods and non-host areas are greatest in: Region 1, the Northeast (36% vs. 15%); Region 4, the southeast (54% vs. 30%); Region 5, the Midwest (53% vs. 19%); Region 6, the South, (63% vs. 42%); and Region 9, the southwest (80% vs. 49%)
  • 24. Expansion of Research Since 1990 • In 1991, when the First National People of Color Summit was held in Washington, DC there was only one book on environmental justice, Dumping in Dixie (1990) • The second EJ book, Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards, was published in 1992 • In 2009, there were more than 200 EJ books in print
  • 25. Living with More Pollution • People of color and poor people live with more pollution than the rest of the nation • African Americans are 79 percent more likely than whites to live in neighborhoods where industrial pollution is suspected of posing the greatest health danger • African Americans in 19 states are more than twice as likely as whites to live in neighborhoods with high pollution and a similar pattern was discovered for Hispanics in 12 states and Asians in 7 states
  • 26. Dumping on the Black Middle Class • A 2008 study by researchers at the University of Colorado found that “blacks experience such as high pollution burden that black households with incomes between $50,000 and $60,000 live in neighborhoods that are, on average, more polluted than the average neighborhood in which white households with incomes below $10,000 live” (Downey and Hawkins 2008) • African Americans are 79 percent more likely than whites to live in neighborhoods where industrial pollution is suspected of posing the greatest health danger (Associated Press 2005)
  • 27. Health Benefits of AddressingPollution “Hot-Spot” Areas • Pollution “hot spots” pose real environmental, economic, and health threats to the nation’s low-income, people of color, and indigenous communities • Many “fenceline” communities are in the direct path of accidents, spills, explosions, and routine toxic emissions
  • 28. Wrong Side of the Tracks
  • 29. Toxic Public Housing Threats • A 2000 Dallas Morning News study found that 870,000 of the 1.9 million (46%) housing units for the poor, mostly minority families, sit within one mile of TRI reporting factories
  • 31. “Dirty Power” and Children • Over 78% of African Americans live within 30 miles of a power plant—the distance within which the maximum effects of the smokestack plumes are expected to occur, compared with 56% of whites and 39% of Latinos • Over 35 million American children live within 30 miles of a power plant, of which an estimated two million are asthmatic
  • 32. It’s Raining Down Mercury • Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury air pollution, accounting for roughly 40 percent of all mercury emissions nationwide • Much of the mercury stays airborne for two years and spreads around the globe • The Centers for Disease Control has found that roughly 10 percent of American women carry mercury concentrations at levels considered to put a fetus at risk of neurological damage
  • 33. Selected Health Impacts from Air Pollution from Power Plants in the United StatesHealth Effect Incidence Cases Per YearMortality 23,600Hospital Admissions 21,850Emergency Room Visits for Asthma 26,000Heart Attacks 38,200Chronic Bronchitiss 16,200Asthma Attacks 554,000Lost Work Days 3,186,000Source: Conrad G. Schneider, Dirty Air, Dirty Power (Washington, DC: Clear the Air, June 2004), based on AbtAssociates Inc., et al., Power Plant Emissions: Particulate Matter-Related Health Damages and theBenefits of Alternative Emission Reduction Scenarios (Boston: June 2004).
  • 34. Cleaner Air Extends Lifespan • A recent study published in the January 22, 2009 New England Journal of Medicine, found Americans are living longer because the air they breathe is getting cleaner • The average drop in pollution seen across 51 metropolitan areas between 1980 and 2000 appears to have added nearly five more months to peoples lives • Residents of cities that did the best job cleaning up air pollution showed the biggest jump in life span
  • 35. Ground Level Ozone and Health • Over 27 million children under age 13 live in areas with ozone levels above the EPA standard • Half the pediatric asthma population, two million children, live in these areas • Ground level ozone sends an estimated 53,000 persons to the hospital, 159,000 to the emergency room and triggers 6,200,000 asthma attacks each summer in the eastern half of the United States. • Ozone pollution is responsible for 10 percent to 20 percent, and nearly 50 percent on bad days, of all hospital admissions for respiratory conditions
  • 36. Geography of Air Pollution • Nationally, 57% of whites, 65% of blacks, and 80% of Hispanics live in counties with substandard air • Over 61.3% of Black children, 69.2% of Hispanic children and 67.7% of Asian-American children live in areas that exceed the 0.08 ppm ozone standard, while 50.8% of white children live in such areas • Air pollution costs Americans $10 billion to $200 billion a year • Air pollution claims 70,000 lives a year, nearly twice the number killed in traffic accidents
  • 38. Rising Health Costs of Asthma • U.S. asthma cases more than tripled from an estimated 6.7 million in 1980 to 25 million in 2009. • Asthma costs the US about $56 billion in medical costs, up from $53 billion in 2002.
  • 39. Asthma Epidemic and Race • The African American asthma rate is 35 percent higher than whites. The hospitalization rate for African Americans and Latinos is 3 to 4 times the rate for whites. • African Americans and Puerto Ricans are three times more likely to die from asthma-related causes than whites. • Although African Americans represent 13 percent of the U.S. population, but account for 26 percent of asthma deaths.
  • 41. Levee Breeches Cause Flooding • Much of the flooding that drowned 80 percent of New Orleans was caused by levee breaches—a man-made disaster • The Army Corps of Engineers has spent billions for New Orleans levee repairs • The 200-mile repaired and reinforced levee system is not guaranteed to hold when a Category 4 or 5 hurricane strikes
  • 42. Rebuilding on Inequity • It is unlikely that a healthy, sustainable, and “green” New Orleans and Gulf Coast can be achieved without addressing longstanding legacy issues that revolve around racial, economic, social, and environmental justice • Special care needs to be taken so not to rebuild on past inequities
  • 43. Unequal Recovery & Reconstruction • Racial disparities exist in disaster recovery and reconstruction • Race plays out in disaster survivors’ ability to rebuild, replace infrastructure, obtain loans, and locate temporary and permanent housing • Generally, low-income and people of color disaster victims spend more time in temporary housing— shelters, trailers, mobile homes, and hotels—and are more vulnerable to permanent displacement • People of color communities face discrimination in clean-up standards, management of storm debris, siting of disposal facilities, and rebuilding of damaged neighborhoods
  • 44. Katrina Leaves New OrleansRicher, Whiter, and Emptier • New Orleans lost 140,845 residents, a 29 percent drop between 2000 and 2010 • The percentage of black population fell to 60.2 percent from 67.3 percent • The loss in New Orleans translates into one fewer congressional seat for Louisiana, now six instead of seven • It also means that almost $1 billion in lost federal funds over 10 years to the local government
  • 45. Unequal Flood Protection • The Army Corps of Engineers has spent $5.7 billion for New Orleans levee repairs • Increased levee protection maps closely with race of neighborhoods with black neighborhoods such as the Ninth Ward, Gentilly, and New Orleans East receiving little if any increased flood protection • These disparities could lead insurers and investors to think twice about supporting the rebuilding efforts in vulnerable black areas • The Lakeview area resident can expect 5½ feet of increased levee protection
  • 46. IT MAKES NO SENSE AT ALL • New zoning and building codes in New Orleans (which is below sea level) require some residents to elevate their houses three feet—even though they may have gotten eight feet of water
  • 47. WHO GETS LEFT BEHIND BEFOREAND AFTER DISASTERS STRIKE? • People of color • Poor People • Elderly • Disabled • Sick People • Children • People without Cars • Transit Dependent • Non-Drivers • Homeless People
  • 48. Washed Away by Katrina
  • 49. Waiting for Government Response • Long before Katrina devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast, African Americans learned the hard way that waiting for government to respond can be hazardous to their health and the health of their communities
  • 50. NO AUTOMOILE, NO ESCAPEFROM KATRINA • Two in ten households in the Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama in Katrina disaster area had no car • People in the hardest hit areas were twice as likely as most Americans to be poor and without a car • Over one-third of New Orleans’ African Americans do not own an automobile • Over 15 percent of New Orleans residents rely on public transportation as their primary mode of travel • Between 100,000 to 134,000 New Orleans citizens do not have means of personal transportation to evacuate in case of a major storm • An estimated 15,000 to 17,000 New Orleanians were homeless • Another 102,122 disabled persons lived in New Orleans at the time of the hurricane
  • 51. Failed Emergency Transport Plan • The New Orleans Rapid Transit Authority (RTA) emergency plan was woefully inadequate to transport an estimated 100,000 to 134,000 transit dependent residents out of harms way • Given the size of transit- dependent population, some transportation experts estimate that at least 2000 buses would have been needed to evacuate all New Orleans residents who needed transportation
  • 52. FLOODED TRANSPORTATION • Most of the city’s 500 transit and school buses were without drivers • About 190 city transit buses were flooded • Most of the 1,300 transit employees are dispersed across the country and many are unemployed and homeless
  • 53. Forced to “Ride Out” Storm
  • 54. Private Car Ownership • Car ownership is almost universal in the United States with 91.7 percent of American households owning at least one motor vehicle • Nationally, 7 percent of white households own no car, compared with 24 percent of black households, 17 percent of Latino households, and 13 percent of Asian-American households • Blacks with No Car: Pittsburgh (48.6%), Baltimore (44.4%), Washington, DC ( 42.1%), St. Louis (36.2%), New Orleans (34.8%), Atlanta (34.6%), Cleveland (31.7%)
  • 55. You Can’t Get There from Here
  • 56. Public Transit in New Orleans • In August, 2010, the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority (NORTA) operated 30 routes, just 43% of its pre-Katrina level • It had only 69 buses, or just 19% of 368 buses it operated in July 2005 • NORTA carries an average of 28,590 daily riders, down from an average of 71,543 in July 2005
  • 57. The “Mother of All ToxicCleanups” in the U.S. • Katrina floodwaters left miles of sediments laced with cancer- causing chemicals, toxic metals, industrial compounds, petroleum products, and banned insecticides, all at levels that pose potential cancer risk or other long-term hazards • Government agencies have chosen not to clean up the contaminated topsoil where 80% of New Orleans flooded homes sit • Since Katrina struck, more than 100 million cubic yards of debris have been removed in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi
  • 58. Katrina’s “Toxic Soup” • Katrina caused six major oil spills releasing 7.4 million gallons of oil, or 61 percent as much as the 11 million gallon that leaked into Alaskas Prince William Sound from the Exxon Valdez in 1989 • The storm hit 60 underground storage tanks, five Superfund sites, 466 industrial facilities that stored highly dangerous chemicals before the storm • It disabled more than 1,000 drinking-water systems, creating a "toxic soup with e. coli in the floodwaters far exceeding EPAs safe levels.
  • 59. Clean Enough for Horses . . . • Although government officials insist the dirt in New Orleans residents’ yards is safe, Church Hill Downs, Inc., the owners of New Orleans’ Fair Grounds, felt it was not safe for its million dollar thoroughbred horses to race on • The owners scooped up and hauled off soil tainted by Hurricane Katrina’s floodwaters and rebuilt a grandstand roof ripped off by the storm’s wind • The Fair Grounds opened on Thanksgiving Day 2006 • The Fair Grounds is the nation’s third-oldest track—only Saratoga and Pimlico have been racing longer
  • 60. Arsenic on School Playgrounds • In November 2005, EPA found arsenic in 95 percent of the sediment samples it collected in the greater New Orleans area high enough to pose a significant cancer risk under its current guidelines • Thirty percent of samples could trigger cleanup under the weaker Louisiana guidelines • Two years after the storm, arsenic levels were still present in the soil at 25 percent of the 35 New Orleans playgrounds and schoolyards tested by NRDC—classified as arsenic “hot spots”
  • 61. New Orleans Gets Clean Bill of Health • On August 17, 2006, nearly a year after Katrina struck, the federal EPA gave New Orleans and surrounding communities a clean bill of health, while pledging to monitor a handful of toxic hot spots • EPA officials concluded that “Katrina did not cause any appreciable contamination that was not already there” • Although EPA tests confirmed widespread lead in the soil, a pre- storm problem in 40 percent of New Orleans, EPA dismissed residents’ calls to address this problem as outside it’s mission
  • 63. Indoor and Outside Mold Threats • A number of asthma triggers are associated with excess moisture and mold • Independent tests conducted by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) have also found dangerously high airborne mold levels inside and outside of homes, especially in the New Orleans neighborhoods that flooded • Such high concentration of mold spores is likely to be a significant respiratory hazard • Unfortunately, federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), have not monitored mold levels in areas that flooded, and have done little to assist residents cope with the mold problem
  • 64. The “Katrina Cough” and Mold • Health officials saw a large number of evacuees afflicted with "Katrina cough," an illness believed to be linked to mold and dust • Many individuals returned to their flooded homes without the necessary protective gear and ended up getting sick • Mold spores can trigger asthma attacks and set up life- threatening infections when normal immune systems are weakened
  • 65. Living on a Toxic Dump • Residents of New Orleans’ Press Park neighborhood were living on top of the Agricultural Street Landfill Superfund site • The landfill was reopened in 1965 for the disposal of debris from Hurricane Betsy • Moton Elementary School was also built on the landfill site • Before Hurricane Katrina, residents of Agricultural Street had been fighting a legal battle for decades to get relocated from the site • The lawsuit was finally settled in January 2006 where the judge declared the neighborhood “unreasonably dangerous” and “uninhabitable”
  • 66. FEMA’s Toxic Travel Trailers • In February 2008, more than two years after residents of FEMA trailers deployed along the Mississippi Gulf Coast began complaining of breathing difficulties, nosebleeds and persistent headaches, CDC confirmed that the FEMA trailers pose a serious danger to residents still living in them • CDC trailer tests revealed average formaldehyde levels of 77 ppb (parts per billions), significantly higher than the 10 to 17 ppb concentration seen in newer homes Levels were as high as 590 ppb • Levels of formaldehyde gas in 519 trailer and mobile homes tested in Louisiana and Mississippi were about five times what people are exposed to in most modern homes
  • 67. CDC’s Flawed FEMA Trailer Study • People exposed to as little as 30 parts of formaldehyde per billion parts of air for more than two weeks can suffer constricted airways, headaches and rashes • However, instead of 30 parts per billion, CDC said health dangers wouldn’t occur until the substance reached 300 ppb, 10 times greater than the long-term standard • Exposure to 300 ppb for just a few hours can trigger respiratory problems and other ailments • More than 38,000 families, or roughly 114,000 individuals, were living in FEMA-provided travel trailers or mobile homes along the Gulf Coast as late as September 2008
  • 69. Environmental Minefield in the Gulf • More than 27,000 abandoned oil and gas wells lurk in the hard rock beneath the Gulf of Mexico • More than 3,500 of these wells are classified by federal regulators as "temporarily abandoned," but some have been left that way since the 1950s, without the full safeguards of permanent abandonment • The Minerals Management Service (MMS) has 56 inspectors in the Gulf of Mexico to oversee 3,500 production facilities that operate 35,591 wells
  • 70. BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico • The April 20, 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil disaster killed eleven workers and leaked more than 200 million gallons of crude into the Gulf of Mexico—making it the worst offshore oil disaster in U.S. history • More than 1.8 million gallons of dispersants were used—whose health and environmental effects are not known
  • 73. Location of Landfills in Costal Counties
  • 74. Dumping on People of Color • Although people of color make up 26 percent of the coastal counties in AL, LA, FL, and MS, nearly 60 percent of the BP cleanup waste was disposed in landfills located in people of color communities as of July 2010 • Six of the nine EPA approved landfills are located in areas where the percentage of people of color is larger than the people of color percent in the corresponding county—amounting to more than 80 percent of the total BP waste disposed July 2010
  • 75. BP Oil Waste Disposal Trends• As of 11/7/2010, all approved landfills have received a total of 82,589 tons of waste from the BP spill.• As of 11/7/2010, landfills in areas where the minority population is larger than 50% of the total population received 33,259 tons or 40.3% of the waste from the BP spill.• As of 11/7/2010, landfills in areas where the minority population is larger than the county’s minority population received 62,017 tons or 75.1% of the waste from the BP spill.• As of January 9, 2011, a total of 93,434 tons of BP waste went to 11 landfills in the five Gulf Coast states, of which 39,608 (42.4 percent) tons went to landfills in minority communities, and 78,732 tons (84.3 percent) went to landfills located in communities whose minority population exceeded the county’s percent minority.
  • 76. Tar Ball Still Washing Ashore • On Sept. 6, 2011, tar balls washed up on beaches in Gulf Shores, Alabama after Tropical Storm Lee • The tar balls are suspected to be from a tar mat left over from the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico • The tar balls were likely sent to the Chastang Landfill in Mobile County for disposal
  • 77. BP Oil Waste Disposal Trends• As of 4/1/2012, all approved landfills have received a total of 110,695 tons of waste from the BP spill.• As of 4/1/2012, landfills in areas where the minority population is larger than 50% of the total population received 39,399 tons or 35.6% of the waste from the BP spill.• As of 4/1/2012, landfills in areas where the minority population is larger than the county’s minority population received 94,463 tons or 85.3% of the waste from the BP spill.• On 7/25/2010 (first fata report), a total of 39,399 tons of BP waste went to 9 landfills in the five Gulf Coast states, of which 18,329 (46.5 percent) tons went to landfills with more than 50 percent minority population, and 30,338 tons (77.0 percent) went to landfills located in communities whose minority population exceeded the county’s percent minority.
  • 78. Health Impacts of Diesel Trucks • Truck traffic and diesel engine emissions contribute to serious public health problems, including premature mortality, aggravation of existing asthma, acute respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and decreased lung function. • More than 30 health studies have linked diesel engine emissions to increased incidences of various cancers • Diesel particulate matter alone contributes to 125,000 cancers in the U.S. each year.
  • 79. Multidisciplinary Movement Building• The number of people of color environmental groups has grown from 300 groups in 1992 (when the People of Color Environmental Groups Directory was first published) to more than 3,000 groups and a dozen networks in 2012• In 1990, there was not a single university-based environmental justice center or program that offered a degree in environmental justice• In 2012, there are 13 university-based environmental justice centers, four of which are located at Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), 22 legal clinics that list environmental justice as a core area, and 6 academic programs that grant degrees in environmental justice, including one legal program
  • 80. Recognition of the Work • Environmental justice leaders are beginning to win awards and recognition for their work • From 1990-2012, more than two-dozen environmental justice leaders were singled out for prestigious national awards that included the Heinz Award, Goldman Prize, MacArthur “Genius” Fellowship, Ford Foundation Leadership for a Changing World Award, Robert Wood Johnson Community Health Leaders Award, and others
  • 81. Funding Trends, Challenges andOpportunities for Advancement • Strategic foundation support has enabled the success of the Environmental Justice Movement • Yet, the movement is still under- funded after three decades of proven work • The number of foundations that have funded designated environmental justice programs has been shrinking in recent years • There are hopeful signs, however, from a number of foundations that are funding multidisciplinary work that intersects environment, health, and racial equity • Government funding has be spotty and highly politicized in last decade
  • 82. Just and SustainableCommunities for All • Sustainability must address equity and social inequality, i.e., equitable development, families below poverty, households without livable wage, and widening health and income/wealth gap • It is unlikely that we can achieve sustainability without addressing these equity issues
  • 83. For More Information Contact: Robert D. Bullard, Dean Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs Texas Southern University Houston, TX 77004 Phone: 713/313-6849 Fax: 713/313-7153 E-Mail: Bullardrd@tsu.edu