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<ul><li>Moving People, Changing Nature. Migrations, Climate Change, and the Environment in the Modern World </li></ul><ul>...
Aims   <ul><li>Show the methodological opportunities offered by EH for political ecology research </li></ul><ul><li>Connec...
Visions and Previsions How many people will be affected  by climate change by 2050? Forecasts vary from 25 million to 1 bi...
Source: London Futures, exhibition Museum of London
FEAR! <ul><li>Numbers and visions conspire in building a threatening narrative:   </li></ul><ul><li>1990 -  the Intergover...
The scientific basis are <ul><li>Security studies </li></ul><ul><li>Natural sciences </li></ul>Decolonizing the migration ...
Dust Bowl More than 40 million hectares of land
The Black Thursday or the Dirty Thirty?   <ul><li>Worster proposes an ecological tale about the Great Depression  </li></u...
Capitalism as a culture <ul><li>Nature must be seen as capital </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have right even an obligation to u...
The Joads <ul><li>Between the 1930 and 1935 the rural population of the Great Plains decreased less than 3%; but from 1935...
Beyond Climate Change <ul><li>The ‘locust paradigm’ (and the greening of the anti immigration discourse) </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>“ Toward wild life the Italian laborer is a human mongoose. Give him power to act, and he will quickly exterminate...
Immigrants’ hostility towards nature?  <ul><li>California was a paradise then (in the 1900s). (…) Sonoma County was pretty...
Current rhetoric linking immigrants  and lack in environmental concerns   <ul><li>How Immigration Hastens Destruction of t...
Seeing nature through  other  eyes  <ul><li>The squirrel stew  </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens in the backyards  </li></ul><ul>...
Are these old stories from the past? Two projects from the ICTA, UAB   Urban gardening and immigrant traditions in Terrass...
Through their bodies   “ Not only have humans mixed their labor with nature to create hybrid landscapes; nature – already ...
Immigrant germs   <ul><li>the 1832 cholera epidemic was attributed to the Irish;  </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese were the scape...
Immigration and EJ <ul><li>Foreign-born and non-English-speaking populations in the United States are much more likely to ...
Resources  Environment and Migration Group of Research  http://migrationenvironment.webnode.com Worldwide  Laboratório de ...
Climate Change and Migration:  Knowledge, Law and Policy, and Theory Europe Canada, India Climate Change, Hydro-Conflicts ...
Thank you Marco Armiero ICTA UAB, Spain CNR, Italy  [email_address]
<ul><li>‘ The American people expect the military to plan for the worst. It's that sort of mindset, I think, that has conv...
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Migrations, Climate Change, and the Environment in the Modern World

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Marco Armiero
ICTA UAB

Thursday 14 July 2011

Migrations, Climate Change, and the Environment in the Modern World

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Transcript of "Migrations, Climate Change, and the Environment in the Modern World"

  1. 1. <ul><li>Moving People, Changing Nature. Migrations, Climate Change, and the Environment in the Modern World </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Armiero </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Researcher/CNR Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Curie Researcher/ICTA Spain </li></ul>
  2. 2. Aims <ul><li>Show the methodological opportunities offered by EH for political ecology research </li></ul><ul><li>Connect the understanding of present with the study of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate research in EH </li></ul>
  3. 3. Visions and Previsions How many people will be affected by climate change by 2050? Forecasts vary from 25 million to 1 billion people. The most widely cited estimates of the number of people expected to migrate as a result of climate change - 200 million individuals by 2050 – is based on predictions of sea-level rise
  4. 4. Source: London Futures, exhibition Museum of London
  5. 5. FEAR! <ul><li>Numbers and visions conspire in building a threatening narrative: </li></ul><ul><li>1990 - the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990:20) warned that “the greatest single impact of climate change could be on human migration” </li></ul><ul><li>2007 - the UN Security Council identified climate change-induced migration as an issue of international security </li></ul><ul><li>2010 - Pentagon included climate change among the security threats identified in the Quadrennial Defense Review </li></ul>
  6. 6. The scientific basis are <ul><li>Security studies </li></ul><ul><li>Natural sciences </li></ul>Decolonizing the migration and the environment studies What could a humanistic approach add to this vision? <ul><li>Discourse analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Life stories, ethnographical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>The political </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming reductionism and the search for </li></ul><ul><li>the ultimate cause </li></ul><ul><li>(D. Worster’s Dust Bowl, 1979) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dust Bowl More than 40 million hectares of land
  8. 8. The Black Thursday or the Dirty Thirty? <ul><li>Worster proposes an ecological tale about the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a separate plot, but it is the same story </li></ul><ul><li>Dust Bowl and Great Depression revealed fundamental weaknesses in the traditional culture of America (Worster, 5 ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Capitalism as a culture <ul><li>Nature must be seen as capital </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have right even an obligation to use this capital for constant self-advancement </li></ul><ul><li>The social order should encourage this continual increase of personal wealth </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Joads <ul><li>Between the 1930 and 1935 the rural population of the Great Plains decreased less than 3%; but from 1935 and 1937 34% of population left </li></ul><ul><li>Only from Oklahoma more than 300,000 people left between 1935 and 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 poor people entered in California in the second half of 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =N_ehYkr0NhU&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =arRmz4kUisE </li></ul>
  11. 11. Beyond Climate Change <ul><li>The ‘locust paradigm’ (and the greening of the anti immigration discourse) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic cultures and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Polluting bodies/polluted bodies (the infectious immigrant vs. the contaminated immigrants) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ Toward wild life the Italian laborer is a human mongoose. Give him power to act, and he will quickly exterminate every wild thing that wears feathers or hair” (US naturalist William Temple Hornaday, 1900) </li></ul>Italians’ hunting party, Library, University of New Mexico
  13. 13. Immigrants’ hostility towards nature? <ul><li>California was a paradise then (in the 1900s). (…) Sonoma County was pretty because of agriculture, vineyards were all over; there was nothing but vineyards and plums. The plums were in very minor quantity, but the vineyards were all over (Perelli Minetti interview: 82). </li></ul>Nouveau Medoc Vineyard and Wine Cellars (1890?) Bancroft Library, Berkeley, CA
  14. 14. Current rhetoric linking immigrants and lack in environmental concerns <ul><li>How Immigration Hastens Destruction of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants’ Trials destroying wilderness in the Arizona Parks </li></ul><ul><li>‘ While Canada is often criticized for the environmental consequences of its oil sands development, the impact on the environment of our immigration intake is significantly greater’ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Seeing nature through other eyes <ul><li>The squirrel stew </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens in the backyards </li></ul><ul><li>The wild next door </li></ul>
  16. 16. Are these old stories from the past? Two projects from the ICTA, UAB Urban gardening and immigrant traditions in Terrassa, Catalonia (Mar Grau Satorras) What a wasteful world. Illegal immigrants and waste recycling in Barcelona ( Marta García Sierra) 
  17. 17. Through their bodies “ Not only have humans mixed their labor with nature to create hybrid landscapes; nature – already a mixture of human and nonhuman elements – has intermixed with human bodies, without anyone’s consent or control, and often without anyone’s knowledge (Linda Nash: 209). Immigrants being inspected at Ellis Island circa 1910. Photo by Underwood & Underwood.
  18. 18. Immigrant germs <ul><li>the 1832 cholera epidemic was attributed to the Irish; </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese were the scapegoat for several outbreaks in San Francisco, from 1870s smallpox to 1900 plague; </li></ul><ul><li>in 1907 Italians were blamed for a polio epidemic and in 1915 for the typhoid infection in Philadelphia; </li></ul><ul><li>for long time tuberculosis was defined as a Hebrew disease </li></ul>La domenica del Corriere’s Archive
  19. 19. Immigration and EJ <ul><li>Foreign-born and non-English-speaking populations in the United States are much more likely to live next to toxic waste sites than the average native-born resident (Hunter 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and France foreign workers have a rate of occupational injuries that is about twice as high as that of native workers (Bollini and Siem, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>In Massachusetts the children of immigrants have the blood lead level twice as high as US born children (Geltmanet et al. 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. 300,000 farmworkers suffer acute pesticide poisoning each year (Hansen 2010) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Resources Environment and Migration Group of Research http://migrationenvironment.webnode.com Worldwide Laboratório de Imigração, Migração e História Ambiental http://www.labimha.ufsc.br/ Brazil Espacio de estudios migratorios http://www.espaciodeestudiosmigratorios.org Latin America
  21. 21. Climate Change and Migration: Knowledge, Law and Policy, and Theory Europe Canada, India Climate Change, Hydro-Conflicts and Human Security http://www.clico.org/ EC 7th Framework Programme Europe
  22. 22. Thank you Marco Armiero ICTA UAB, Spain CNR, Italy [email_address]
  23. 23. <ul><li>‘ The American people expect the military to plan for the worst. It's that sort of mindset, I think, that has convinced the vast majority of military leaders that climate change is a real threat and that the military plays an important role in confronting it’ (Retired Vice Adm. Lee Gunn, president of the American Security Project) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 the National Intelligence Council (NIC) completed a new classified assessment that explored how climate change could threaten U.S. security in the next 20 years by causing mass movements of refugees </li></ul>
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