Isabelle Anguelovski, UAB-ICTA Urban dimensions of environmental and spatial inequity

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Isabelle Anguelovski, UAB-ICTA Urban dimensions of environmental and spatial inequity

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Isabelle Anguelovski, UAB-ICTA Urban dimensions of environmental and spatial inequity

  1. 1. Urban dimensions of environmental and spatial inequity Isabelle Anguelovski, UAB-ICTA 07 July 2012 “If in the Forat, you let them lay down four bricks, then it will be a terrace as well. It is then a space that you deprive people of. What we really wanted was a green space, because if you give concessions and you cede, there ends up being terraces.” (Local organizer, Barcelona)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  2. 2. Environmental Injustices TextWednesday, July 4, 2012
  3. 3. Recent Community Organization • Community organization in marginalized neighborhoods against long- term abandonment and degradation • Growth of urban farms and community gardens in Detroit or Los Angeles in place of foreclosed abandoned houses or vacant dirty lots • Creation and enhancement of green and recreational spaces in the shantytown of Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima; • Community initiatives for improved waste collection and composting in Mumbai. • Challenges to arguments and policies: • Poor residents are eager to move to wealthier areas • Need to de-concentrate and disperse poverty • Need to move residents to neighborhoods with greater “opportunities” and diversity (Goetz 2003; McClure 2008; Turner 1998) • Challenges to conventional thinking and media reports about distressed neighborhoods: • Do not have the power to organize • Are not committed to the long-term livability of their place • Do not unite beyond fights against contaminationWednesday, July 4, 2012
  4. 4. How do underlying demands and goals shape community organization Problem across a variety of cities? How do concerns for health play out in projects for greater urban livability? 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  5. 5. How do underlying demands and goals shape community organization Problem across a variety of cities? How do concerns for health play out in projects for greater urban livability? Comparative study of neighborhoods: Dudley (Boston), Casc Antic Approach (Barcelona), and Cayo Hueso (Havana) 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  6. 6. How do underlying demands and goals shape community organization Problem across a variety of cities? How do concerns for health play out in projects for greater urban livability? Comparative study of neighborhoods: Dudley (Boston), Casc Antic Approach (Barcelona), and Cayo Hueso (Havana) Building on place connection and attachment, residents use environmental Thesis revitalization to remake a broken community, build safe havens and refuges, and control land & borders in the neighborhood 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  7. 7. How do underlying demands and goals shape community organization Problem across a variety of cities? How do concerns for health play out in projects for greater urban livability? Comparative study of neighborhoods: Dudley (Boston), Casc Antic Approach (Barcelona), and Cayo Hueso (Havana) Building on place connection and attachment, residents use environmental Thesis revitalization to remake a broken community, build safe havens and refuges, and control land & borders in the neighborhood Need to reframe traditional environmental justice to encompass physical Implications and psychological health dimensions with strong emphasis on holistic community development 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  8. 8. Traditional Meaning of Environmental InjusticeWednesday, July 4, 2012
  9. 9. Traditional Meaning of Environmental Injustice • Disproportionate exposure of poor and minority residents to environmental toxics, poor environmental services, and intensive resource extraction (Bryant and Mohai 1992; Bullard 1990; Downey and Hawkins 2008; Pellow 2000, 2007; Schlosberg 2007, Hastings 2007, Martínez Alier 2002)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  10. 10. Traditional Meaning of Environmental Injustice • Disproportionate exposure of poor and minority residents to environmental toxics, poor environmental services, and intensive resource extraction (Bryant and Mohai 1992; Bullard 1990; Downey and Hawkins 2008; Pellow 2000, 2007; Schlosberg 2007, Hastings 2007, Martínez Alier 2002) • Causes: Lack of recognition of identity and difference between people and lack of attention to unequal distribution of power at the intersection of environmental quality & social hierarchies (Pellow 2000, Schlosberg 2007)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  11. 11. Traditional Meaning of Environmental Injustice • Disproportionate exposure of poor and minority residents to environmental toxics, poor environmental services, and intensive resource extraction (Bryant and Mohai 1992; Bullard 1990; Downey and Hawkins 2008; Pellow 2000, 2007; Schlosberg 2007, Hastings 2007, Martínez Alier 2002) • Causes: Lack of recognition of identity and difference between people and lack of attention to unequal distribution of power at the intersection of environmental quality & social hierarchies (Pellow 2000, Schlosberg 2007) • Growth of EJ Movements demanding environmental equality and using a variety of strategies (Bullard, 2005, Martínez Alier 2002; Pellow 2007, Newell 2001, Cashore 2006, Macey 2004, Bandy 2005).Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  12. 12. Traditional Meaning of Environmental Injustice • Disproportionate exposure of poor and minority residents to environmental toxics, poor environmental services, and intensive resource extraction (Bryant and Mohai 1992; Bullard 1990; Downey and Hawkins 2008; Pellow 2000, 2007; Schlosberg 2007, Hastings 2007, Martínez Alier 2002) • Causes: Lack of recognition of identity and difference between people and lack of attention to unequal distribution of power at the intersection of environmental quality & social hierarchies (Pellow 2000, Schlosberg 2007) • Growth of EJ Movements demanding environmental equality and using a variety of strategies (Bullard, 2005, Martínez Alier 2002; Pellow 2007, Newell 2001, Cashore 2006, Macey 2004, Bandy 2005). • Connection of EJ to Right to the City and Spatial Justice studies (Soja 2009, Connolly and Steil 2009)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  13. 13. What are the missing pieces?Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  14. 14. What are the missing pieces? • A broadening of traditional understandings of environmental justice and livability (notable exceptions Agyeman and Evans 2003, Gottlieb 2005 and 2009, Evans 2002)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  15. 15. What are the missing pieces? • A broadening of traditional understandings of environmental justice and livability (notable exceptions Agyeman and Evans 2003, Gottlieb 2005 and 2009, Evans 2002) • Role of historic marginalization, sense of place, collective identities, and broader political agendas on community initiatives and claimsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  16. 16. What are the missing pieces? • A broadening of traditional understandings of environmental justice and livability (notable exceptions Agyeman and Evans 2003, Gottlieb 2005 and 2009, Evans 2002) • Role of historic marginalization, sense of place, collective identities, and broader political agendas on community initiatives and claims • Impact of political contexts and place connection on local neighborhood strategies, especially for proactive environmental revitalizationWednesday, July 4, 2012
  17. 17. What are the missing pieces? • A broadening of traditional understandings of environmental justice and livability (notable exceptions Agyeman and Evans 2003, Gottlieb 2005 and 2009, Evans 2002) • Role of historic marginalization, sense of place, collective identities, and broader political agendas on community initiatives and claims • Impact of political contexts and place connection on local neighborhood + Cross-national and strategies, especially for proactive longitudinal variation environmental revitalizationWednesday, July 4, 2012
  18. 18. How do underlying demands and goals shape community organization across a variety of cities? How do concerns for health play out in urban livability projects?Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  19. 19. Before ! Casc Antic Dudley ! Cayo HuesoWednesday, July 4, 2012
  20. 20. Environmental Revitalization in DudleyWednesday, July 4, 2012
  21. 21. Dudley, BostonWednesday, July 4, 2012
  22. 22. Environmental Revitalization in Casc AnticWednesday, July 4, 2012
  23. 23. Casc Antic, BarcelonaWednesday, July 4, 2012
  24. 24. Environmental Revitalization in Cayo HuesoWednesday, July 4, 2012
  25. 25. Cayo Hueso, HavanaWednesday, July 4, 2012
  26. 26. Community Rebuilding and Place RemakingWednesday, July 4, 2012
  27. 27. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing Holistic Environmental Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  28. 28. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing Holistic Environmental Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  29. 29. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Holistic Environmental Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  30. 30. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Holistic Environmental Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  31. 31. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Nutrition and economic savings Holistic Environmental Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  32. 32. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Nutrition and economic savings Holistic Environmental Sports with educational benefits Revitalization ActionWednesday, July 4, 2012
  33. 33. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Nutrition and economic savings Holistic Environmental Sports with educational benefits Revitalization Action Outdoor play, safety, and environmental goodsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  34. 34. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Nutrition and economic savings Holistic Environmental Sports with educational benefits Revitalization Action Outdoor play, safety, and environmental goods Environmental spaces and learningWednesday, July 4, 2012
  35. 35. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing From contamination to clean business practices Clean-up and safe farming Nutrition and economic savings Holistic Environmental Sports with educational benefits Revitalization Action Outdoor play, safety, and environmental goods Environmental spaces and learning Healthy and affordable habitatWednesday, July 4, 2012
  36. 36. Place-Remaking, Trauma, and Community Flourishing !"#$%&%(#)*+,& !"#$%&$2++%$.*2+& %*+32$*+,& #+-&*-%+.*./& #0&(2.2&32& 32$%0&32& 0.%+.1%+*+,& %+,#,%(%+.& #$.*2+& ! ! ! "#$%&!$#()&! 4,(),!0-! *+#,-!.!/0))! 4,(),!0-! 8,:0($#($! C,)D0()#8#:#&=! 12+&2+#($!(3! 50:#)&#>! 4-,!56,()! %#"*4#.*2+&23& A,+)0(:! @<0&#0(:! @(6#+0(<,(&:! +%*,152122-& *+0E&%! C,6#&:#G&#0(! ;0((,>&#0(! -%$#/&#+-& F>&#0(! 7+8(!9#::$,! (#,*+#"*4#.*2+& ! ",,:#($!0-! FDD+,>#&#0(! ;0<<2(#&=! A:>,! ;,:,8+&#0(! B3,(&#&=! 40>#:!;0,?#)&,(>,! ! (3!/,+(#($!Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  37. 37. Place Remaking ! • [The Forat] was a completely devastated area, and […] the neighborhood had to swallow all of this filth and the whole day bearing it. […]. It was a real degradation, like a bomb attack, ! you know, as if a war had gone through. It was an infect thing really.” (Joan, Barcelona)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  38. 38. Place Remaking • You have a lot of places where there is not enough play or green space. Children are playing out in the streets. [...] we really didnt have any large, multi-purpose facilities, no large community centers. So we had our whole campaign about expanding both indoor and outdoor play spaces, safe havens, where we can expand the positive opportunities for youth in the neighborhood.” (Mike Kozu, Boston)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  39. 39. Place Remaking • It was about “giving people a place, a sanctuary, you know, and giving people a place to go. I think that is related to environmental justice in a very weird way […]. Why shouldnt everybody have a place to go where there would be a sense of possibility and community? There arent plenty of places that are nourishing. Nourishment like on a lot of different levels I think is what I connect with the environmental just”. (Bing Broderick, Boston)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  40. 40. Place Remaking • [The Callejón de Hamel] is a landmark and gives legitimacy to the neighborhood. It helps ! legitimatizing the culture of the neighborhood. ! […].It is a pride for the identity of people from African origins. […]. It also inserts the African cultures within the society and help the socialization of culture” (Elias, Havana)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  41. 41. Place Remaking ! • “If in the Forat, you let them lay down four bricks, then it will be a terrace as well. It is then a space that you deprive ! people of. What we really wanted was a green space, because if you give concessions and you cede, there ends up being terraces.” (Paco, local organizer, Barcelona)Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  42. 42. Community activists use environmental revitalization projects as a tool and Finding 1 stepping stone rather than an end per se, and this because environmental justice and local community development are deeply intertwined 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  43. 43. Community activists use environmental revitalization projects as a tool and Finding 1 stepping stone rather than an end per se, and this because environmental justice and local community development are deeply intertwined Building on deep place connections, residents use environmental Finding 2 revitalization as a tool to remake a traumatized community, and build safe havens and refuges 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  44. 44. Community activists use environmental revitalization projects as a tool and Finding 1 stepping stone rather than an end per se, and this because environmental justice and local community development are deeply intertwined Building on deep place connections, residents use environmental Finding 2 revitalization as a tool to remake a traumatized community, and build safe havens and refuges Right to the City is also a Right to the Neighborhood with attempts to rebuild a Finding 3 dignity, security, and nurturing to residents while ensuring spatial equity 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  45. 45. Community activists use environmental revitalization projects as a tool and Finding 1 stepping stone rather than an end per se, and this because environmental justice and local community development are deeply intertwined Building on deep place connections, residents use environmental Finding 2 revitalization as a tool to remake a traumatized community, and build safe havens and refuges Right to the City is also a Right to the Neighborhood with attempts to rebuild a Finding 3 dignity, security, and nurturing to residents while ensuring spatial equity Finding 4 Environmental mobilization used as a tool and a segue for land control and constructing physical, social, & symbolic borders in a marginalized neighborhood 4Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  46. 46. A Proposed New Framework for Environmental Justice ! !"#$%&#(%)*+,#-* %-./,0-1%-2#"*3+(2/$%* 7:=0><?@!:A?@B:! FA.B?@! C1(D+$,)!1(6!-#(-/))! :A?@B:! #%-#;)&E! "#$%&()&&!*! .%/%/+(D! <,)1(!1+/!1(6!&#+,! ")&+,+)(-)! .%/++#(! :)1,+(D! H);1(6!+(!031-)! 012)!3,145!/)-/)1+#(5!*!)6%-1+#(! 1(6!2#/!031-)! 7/#)-+(D! 784&+-1,!1-+9+4! G),,()&&! :)1,84!8#;)&!*!81$+1!Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  47. 47. Further Theoretical ContributionsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  48. 48. Further Theoretical Contributions • More refined understanding and analysis of environmental justice action, with bridges between planning and public health • Ecosystem health perspective • Physical and psychological dimensions (with new measures for safety) • Holistic view on the environmentWednesday, July 4, 2012
  49. 49. Further Theoretical Contributions • More refined understanding and analysis of environmental justice action, with bridges between planning and public health • Ecosystem health perspective • Physical and psychological dimensions (with new measures for safety) • Holistic view on the environment • Further development of the “spatial justice” concept: • Construction of local identities, new uses of space, and place-remaking • Creation of safe havens and places for protection and nurturing • Community rebuilding oriented both towards the inside and the outside • Use of spatial capitalWednesday, July 4, 2012
  50. 50. Further Theoretical Contributions • More refined understanding and analysis of environmental justice action, with bridges between planning and public health • Ecosystem health perspective • Physical and psychological dimensions (with new measures for safety) • Holistic view on the environment • Further development of the “spatial justice” concept: • Construction of local identities, new uses of space, and place-remaking • Creation of safe havens and places for protection and nurturing • Community rebuilding oriented both towards the inside and the outside • Use of spatial capital • Community identity fulfills multiple roles: a motivator for action, a tactic to gather support, and a goal to be reshaped over timeWednesday, July 4, 2012
  51. 51. Policy and Planning ImplicationsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  52. 52. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesivenessWednesday, July 4, 2012
  53. 53. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesiveness • Balancing needs for urban sustainability WHILE considering memory and rootednessWednesday, July 4, 2012
  54. 54. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesiveness • Balancing needs for urban sustainability WHILE considering memory and rootedness • Balancing civic demands for protection and place re-making without falling into self-segregation patternsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  55. 55. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesiveness • Balancing needs for urban sustainability WHILE considering memory and rootedness • Balancing civic demands for protection and place re-making without falling into self-segregation patterns • Re-thinking neighborhood revitalization in ways that address gentrification, encroachment, and affordability issues: What diversity is good? What land tenure is best? How to combine various types of housing?Wednesday, July 4, 2012
  56. 56. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesiveness • Balancing needs for urban sustainability WHILE considering memory and rootedness • Balancing civic demands for protection and place re-making without falling into self-segregation patterns • Re-thinking neighborhood revitalization in ways that address gentrification, encroachment, and affordability issues: What diversity is good? What land tenure is best? How to combine various types of housing? • Avoiding fragmentized and sectoral planning to privilege comprehensive action on a specific territory, multi-year investment, and well-coordinated projectsWednesday, July 4, 2012
  57. 57. Policy and Planning Implications • Rethinking what urban sustainability and environmental justice encompasses: social dimensions include reference to community rebuilding, rootedness, and cohesiveness • Balancing needs for urban sustainability WHILE considering memory and rootedness • Balancing civic demands for protection and place re-making without falling into self-segregation patterns • Re-thinking neighborhood revitalization in ways that address gentrification, encroachment, and affordability issues: What diversity is good? What land tenure is best? How to combine various types of housing? • Avoiding fragmentized and sectoral planning to privilege comprehensive action on a specific territory, multi-year investment, and well-coordinated projects • Privileging public investment as a booster and control of private investment, not reverseWednesday, July 4, 2012
  58. 58. Thank you!Wednesday, July 4, 2012

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