CITY PLANNING AS AN ARENA OF SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT IN NEOLIBERAL TIMES The case of Malmö, Sweden GUY BAETEN Departm...
<ul><li>Try to bring together social, environmental, economic and sustainability issues in city building under the heading...
Hegemonic neoliberalism... <ul><li>” Neoliberalism is the most successful ideology in world history” (Anderson, 2000) </li...
’ Neoliberal city planning’ as an usual combination <ul><li>Contradiction in terms, or ’giving up’ </li></ul><ul><li>Yet: ...
Reading neoliberal planning as a set of contradictions <ul><li>Contradictions create eternal tension, linger on, suppresse...
CONTRADICTORY URBANITIES <ul><li>The plan : short term profits, long term problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFIT MAXIMISATI...
Malmö reinvented
Sustainability as core city planning idea <ul><li>1980s: Planning in crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago School and Milto...
Eco-branding as core regeneration strategy <ul><li>4th most ecological city (GRIST, 2010) after Reykjavik, Portland, Curit...
HYLLIE, THE PROJECT <ul><li>new city district in southern Malmö  </li></ul><ul><li>7 000 dwellings, 15 000 inhabitants </l...
THE PLAN
IMMIGRATION IN MALMÖ BY REGION OF ORIGIN (2007), AND MIGRATION SALDO (2006) Saldo Origin
REWORKING THE DEMOGRAPHIC FABRIC: WWW <ul><li>Looking west for imagined immigrants while real immigration flows come from ...
THE BUILDINGS Point Hyllie 45,000 sqm PEAB 2/3 bostadsrätt 300 flats 1/3 kontor hyresrätt
CITY BUILDERS STEER MALMÖ’S FUTURE <ul><ul><li>VISIONARY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” Malmö will be the new Scandinavi...
NEO-LIBERAL SPATIAL DUALITIES <ul><li>New landscapes of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cashing in on bridge, outer ring road...
<ul><li>New scale of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of ”Öreplaces”,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connected with excel...
Bara new golf  courses Davidshall Slotsstaden Rörsjostaden Copenhagen Örestad Kastrup Ideon Dockan Unversitets- holmen Nyh...
NEO-LIBERAL FALL-OUT <ul><ul><li>New landscapes of deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding (Olle Sundh, Fa...
<ul><ul><li>Homelessness in Malmö </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing most: women, youth, non-addicts </li></ul>
<ul><li>New scale of deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places not connected to Öreplaces and Örenetwork become in-between ...
BUILDING AWAY HISTORY TAKE II <ul><li>Unbridled believe in economic growth and progress </li></ul><ul><li>leaving history ...
FUCK THE CONTEXT Elitist and individualistic urban living with the city as decorum ’ In’ the city but not ’of’ the city
CONCLUSION 1: neoliberal city planning as a set of contradictions <ul><li>Malmö neo-liberal variant steers away from, yet ...
CONCLUSION 2: neoliberal city planning as the reworking of politics and justice <ul><li>CITY MARKETING : image of the city...
The blurring of concepts <ul><li>Neoliberal planning, tempered by and embedded in social-democratic past </li></ul><ul><li...
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course 30/6 Guy Baeten

  1. 1. CITY PLANNING AS AN ARENA OF SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT IN NEOLIBERAL TIMES The case of Malmö, Sweden GUY BAETEN Department of Human Geography University of Lund BARCELONA, SUMMER SCHOOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT June-July 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Try to bring together social, environmental, economic and sustainability issues in city building under the heading of ’neoliberal contradictions ’ </li></ul><ul><li>The case fo the Hyllie UDP in one of most ’ sustainable ’ cities of the world: Malmö </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-environmental issues as reworking urban politics </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions make common categories always have an unfulfilled character, blurred, incomplete, messy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hegemonic neoliberalism... <ul><li>” Neoliberalism is the most successful ideology in world history” (Anderson, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>” Neoliberalism has swallowed up the world in its clutches” (Said, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>” Neoliberalism is a utopia of unlimited exploitation” (Bourdieu, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>” Neoliberalism is not simply an economic structure, it is a philosophy” (Treanor, 2005) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ’ Neoliberal city planning’ as an usual combination <ul><li>Contradiction in terms, or ’giving up’ </li></ul><ul><li>Yet: neoliberalism has a decidedly urban history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” To mobilise city space as an arena both for market-oriented economic growth and for elite consumption practices” (Brenner and Theodore, 2002, 368) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coming to terms with ’actually existing neoliberal planning’ as an uneasy co-habitation, planning in an anti-planning ideology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Reading neoliberal planning as a set of contradictions <ul><li>Contradictions create eternal tension, linger on, suppressed, explode, thought away but always present, haunting specter </li></ul>
  6. 6. CONTRADICTORY URBANITIES <ul><li>The plan : short term profits, long term problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROFIT MAXIMISATION V DURABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The people : reworking the Malmö demographic fabric against the odds: desired immigrants and real immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CREATIVE CLASS V REAL PEOPLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The builders : men in black, beyond democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AUTHORITARIAN STATE TO IMPLEMENT ’FREEDOM’ V DEMOCRATIC PLANNING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The place : disjointed landscapes and scales of super- and subplaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POLARISATION V INTEGRATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The history : Building away history, take II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OVERCOMING SOCIAL DEMOCRACY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The environment : building a car city in the most ’sustainable’ city in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NATURE V PROVEN PROFIT EXTRACTION </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Malmö reinvented
  8. 8. Sustainability as core city planning idea <ul><li>1980s: Planning in crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago School and Milton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friedman promoting anti-state theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and free market absolutism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning as part of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning as the opposite of ’freedom’, ’market’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek new legitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>’ Sustainability’ discourse perfect match for planning as a discipline and a profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning had long tradition of bringing together social, economic and environmental issues in making land use decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability is what planning is all about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity of ’sustainability’ could revitalise planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Eco-branding as core regeneration strategy <ul><li>4th most ecological city (GRIST, 2010) after Reykjavik, Portland, Curitiba </li></ul><ul><li>One of the 12 ’Fast Cities’ 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>First Fairtrade City </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking world-leading ecological identity after deindustrialisation </li></ul>
  10. 10. HYLLIE, THE PROJECT <ul><li>new city district in southern Malmö </li></ul><ul><li>7 000 dwellings, 15 000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>new railway (21 km, 6 km tunnel, ready 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>new railway station (5 min to centre, 15 min to Kastrup, 25 min to Copenhagen) </li></ul><ul><li>ice hockey stadium (15 000) </li></ul><ul><li>shopping centre (75 000 m²) </li></ul><ul><li>hotel (600 rooms) </li></ul><ul><li>offices </li></ul><ul><li>Point Hyllie (95m) </li></ul><ul><li>parks and parking </li></ul><ul><li>(3 500) (1 300) </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE PLAN
  12. 12. IMMIGRATION IN MALMÖ BY REGION OF ORIGIN (2007), AND MIGRATION SALDO (2006) Saldo Origin
  13. 13. REWORKING THE DEMOGRAPHIC FABRIC: WWW <ul><li>Looking west for imagined immigrants while real immigration flows come from the east </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not building for people who do come while building for people who may not come </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ For groups, like the homeless who already have difficulties on the housing market, a acute housing shortage is in the making. There is not one apartment for rent for those who are poorly embedded in the housing market like people on low income, or youngsters ” (Olle Sundh, Real Estate Office Malmö, 31-10-07) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. THE BUILDINGS Point Hyllie 45,000 sqm PEAB 2/3 bostadsrätt 300 flats 1/3 kontor hyresrätt
  15. 15. CITY BUILDERS STEER MALMÖ’S FUTURE <ul><ul><li>VISIONARY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” Malmö will be the new Scandinavian powerhouse in 20-30 years time” (Artur Buchardt, hotel developer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POWERFUL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” Percy Nilsson took a detailed plan with a hotel, shopping mall, a new tower and ice hockey stadium to the town hall” (E24 business magazine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMERICAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” In Malmö people spend 20 pct of their consumption budget in shopping malls. In the US that is up to 35-40 pct. People in Malmö could and should shop more in shopping malls ” (Peter Warming, Emporia shopping mall) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” I want this stadium to symbolise my entrepreneurship for the next five hundred years” (Percy Nilsson, Sydsvenskan) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. NEO-LIBERAL SPATIAL DUALITIES <ul><li>New landscapes of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cashing in on bridge, outer ring road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and opening up of nearby land: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the production of space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ambient power” through design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and architecture (J Allen, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very strict idea of what the end-state of Hyllie centre should be: well-off suburb with top-quality services (transport, shopping, entertainment) and prime office market </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>New scale of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of ”Öreplaces”, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connected with excellent transport means rising above the ordinary urban skyline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elite consumption and housing, prime office markets, tunnels, in control of glocal mobilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aestethic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upscaled city feeding off the existing city but in denial of it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Bara new golf courses Davidshall Slotsstaden Rörsjostaden Copenhagen Örestad Kastrup Ideon Dockan Unversitets- holmen Nyhamnen Västra Hamnen Hyllie
  19. 19. NEO-LIBERAL FALL-OUT <ul><ul><li>New landscapes of deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding (Olle Sundh, Fastighetskontoret) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moving to cheaper places in town or away from Malmö </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overspending on housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing need for transit housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing homelessness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Homelessness in Malmö </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing most: women, youth, non-addicts </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>New scale of deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places not connected to Öreplaces and Örenetwork become in-between places, unnoticed, disconnected from the Örespectacle and its monies and possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>places of burden, of cost, of socialbidrag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downscaled city, depending on the Örescale but unable to connect </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. BUILDING AWAY HISTORY TAKE II <ul><li>Unbridled believe in economic growth and progress </li></ul><ul><li>leaving history behind, long-term futurism </li></ul><ul><li>Unmatched desire to build a new city </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale, industrial, impatient development </li></ul><ul><li>Modern architectural language </li></ul><ul><li>A-historical modern man overcomes social divides: difference with the other becomes redundant through modern progress </li></ul><ul><li>Progress for the few, not the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Building away the other take II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>industrial, social-democratic Malmö, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growing ethnic presence </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. FUCK THE CONTEXT Elitist and individualistic urban living with the city as decorum ’ In’ the city but not ’of’ the city
  24. 24. CONCLUSION 1: neoliberal city planning as a set of contradictions <ul><li>Malmö neo-liberal variant steers away from, yet embedded in past planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoes Million Program’s belief in progress and modernity, copying Million Program forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building away history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disjointed, fragmented urban landscape of superplaces and subplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Reworking the demographic fabric of Malmö through the built environment: white, western and wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>In the city but not of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Building an unsustainable city under the heading of sustainability: solving sustainability issues elsewhere, or afterwards </li></ul>
  25. 25. CONCLUSION 2: neoliberal city planning as the reworking of politics and justice <ul><li>CITY MARKETING : image of the city as engaged with nature, liveability </li></ul><ul><li>Attract and/or keep MIDDLE CLASS POPULATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>DEPOLITICISING POLITICS : green roof politics – marginalising hard politics of justice </li></ul><ul><li>MORALISING POLITICS : sustainable projects as ”good” for the city – marginalising justice </li></ul><ul><li>JUSTIFYING INJUSTICE : elitist but green </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting the very development of ecological INDUSTRIES (eco-clusters) </li></ul><ul><li>ENGAGING WITH ’GRAND’ VISIONS for the city, rallying broad support, while maintaining existing power relations </li></ul>
  26. 26. The blurring of concepts <ul><li>Neoliberal planning, tempered by and embedded in social-democratic past </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-ecological concern, tempered by the race for profit </li></ul>
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