This paper is the product of a collaborative multidisciplinary project on garbage struggles in Naples, Italy. It is a multidisciplinary project because we come from diverse scientific backgrounds: Giacomo is an ecological economist while Marco is an environmental historian. Plus, with this project, even if not for this specific presentation, we are working also with a geographer, Simon Maurano. We believe that it is not by a chance that such a multidisciplinary project is about ecological conflicts. In fact our thesis is that the study of the ecological conflicts can be an extraordinary common ground for cooperation among social sciences, and especially among environmental history, ecological economics, and political ecology Eric q and the archeology …
Which are the benefits of focusing on ecological conflicts? Some scholars have argued that putting ecological conflicts at the core of our scientific agenda means to lose nature again; why again? Because nature has been out of the social sciences realm for a very long time, and only recently unconventional disciplines such as environmental history, ecological economics, and political ecology have been able to bring nature back in their analysis and narratives. The critics say that focusing on ecological conflicts the social – that is, class, race, power, gender etc. - would become preponderant, undoing all the effort put in bringing nature back in the discourse. Well, we believe that this criticism is wrong and we will use the Neapolitan case-study to demonstrate it.
Through conflicts, we are able to see what is invisible but so immanent to the landscape, that is, the life cycle of goods and materials and the passage of substances through different mediums (water, soil, air, and bodies). http://web.mit.edu/17.500/www/images/pc-napoli-general-view.JPG (1) http://www.eduardocastaldo.com/wasteland.htm (2, 3, 5, 8) Castaldo E. http://images.movieplayer.it/2008/03/04/una-scena-del-documentario-biutiful-cauntri-54885.jpg http://gallery.giovani.it/img/mms/img-blog/w/walrus81/47ecfef35a5e7_big.jpg (6) http://25.media.tumblr.com/bQszyIbVj7ds68mxNVkdZHl8_400.jpg
Campania is a region in the southern part of Italy and the city of Naples is its capital. According to Svimez , the metropolitan area of Naples (Figure 1a,b) accounts for 80% of the total regional population (about 4.5 out of 5.8 million people live in the Campania region); but the Neapolitan metropolitan area covers less than 20% of Campania ’s surface ( Smarrazzo, 1999 ). The metropolitan area of Naples it the most densely populated area in Italy and one of the highest in Europe, with an average density of about 2000 habitants per km 2 , increasing to 8500 in the central district, which holds one million inhabitants (Istat, 2008).
Campania is among the region is part of the objective 1 in Europe, it means where the gross domestic product (GDP) is below 75% of the European Community average. All these regions have a number of economic signals/indicators &quot;in the red&quot;: * low level of investment; * a higher than average unemployment rate; * lack of services for businesses and individuals; * poor basic infrastructure. We can see that in relative terms of AV and Employment the agriculture is an important sector for Campania. In the graphs you can read that in 2001 the agro-food industry exports have a value of 1.350 M€ and in 2004 even if the Balance of Trade is negative (-17,50%) the Campania is positive it means Campania exports more then imports of agro-food production.
Just to show the importance of the agriculture you can see also that there are more then 15 PDO, 13 PCI e 2 TSG
We will live these two last point because we have no time to deepen it for the lack of time
Campania value of per capita production of Urban Waste is lower then Italy Average.
Even if have we seen it is a very populated region the absolute production is high but it is the fourth on 20 Regions.
In term od density production (kg/g/Km2) Campania is the first region in Italy, the production density is very high.
Even worst if you match the province level, the Province of Naples is four time the second worst region.
It is evident the govern decision to promote Price and Speed. As you can see in the picture Fibe won the tender even if the Technical proficiency and techinical value would have been 0. On the contrary if weights promote the best available technology FIBE would lose
Pacilio Raffale Quando fu costruita la piramide di Cheope era alta 147 metri , ma a causa dell'erosione la sua altezza attuale � di 137 metri (la piramide di Chefren � alta 136 metri). La sua base copre oltre 5 ettari di superficie , formando un quadrato di circa 230 metri per lato. la costruzione del solo rivestimento esterno della Grande Piramide sono state scelte pietre di calcare, basalto e granito, pesanti ognuna dalle 2 alle 4 tonnellate, mentre la parte interna, denominata Zed � costituita di monoliti in granito pesanti dalle 20 alle 80 tonnellate, per un peso totale che si aggira intorno alle 7 milioni di tonnellate. Il volume totale � di circa 2 600 000 m ｳ . Piramide di Cholula , in lingua maya Tlahchiualtepetl (montagna fatta dall'uomo) � la pi � grande piramide del mondo. Misura 500 metri per lato ed � alta 64 metri . ﾈ considerata la struttura pi � grande mai costruita dall'uomo, con i suoi 4,5 milioni di metri cubi. Il volume: Area di base*Altezza/ 3 Abbiamo 4.141.000 di balle a circa 1 m 3 ognuna, 5.800.000 tonnellate. Ogni balla � in media circa 1,4 ton . Questo significa che se facciamo una base come quella della grande Piramide di Egitto , 230 m per lato con una superficie di 52.900 m 2 , ovvero un poco pi � di 5 ettari, l’altezza sarebbe di 234 metri, ovvero sarebbe 86 metri pi � alta della piramide d’Egitto. Molto pi � leggera 5.800.000 tonnellate della Piramide monnezza con I 7 milioni di tonnellate di quella di Egitto. Siamo poco distanti, ci mancano circa 400.000 m 3 ovvero 560.000 ton 1/5 dei rifiuti prodotti in Campania in un anno, per arrivare ad essere la piramide pi � grande della storia umana! Con la stessa base della Piramide di Cholula, 500 m per lato quindi 25.000 m 2 avremmo, infatti, un’altezza di quasi 50 metri, appena 14 metri pi � corta della piramide Maya. I Campani che grande civilt � . A quanto sappiamo lo stoccaggio si installa su 3,5 mln di m 2 . Questo significa che se si � creata una piramide su mezzo ettaro 50*100=5.000 per 30 m di altezza sarebbero piccole piramidi da 50.000 m 3 per avere 82 piramidi di monneza.
Linking urban and toxic waste is a way to see power and nature together. Governo e organizzazione gestione urbana (power) neoliberalization a privatization of waste management; maximization of profit coming via minimzation of costs by the industries in the north; il control of the territory by the camorra Cost shifting No separate urban and toxic. No separate what you can see in the street (piles of garbage) what you cannot see but is there and is behind the crisis. In this way we will contrast the government narrative that crisis is over when the garbage is not in the street Now is not in the street but is in the soil, in the water, and therefore in our bodies Campania produce 19,500 €/ton of hazardous waste and Italy 12,600 €/ton of hazardous We cannot say that Campania is on average more efficient then Italy as whole but at least we can say that it’s economy is lighted or less industrialized as we prefer. 84,800.0 M€ (6%) Campania, 1,371,833.4M€, 4.344.318 ton (4%) Campania, 108.444.544 Italy.
This figure show the relevance of the Special waste (industrial waste hazardous, no hazardous and toxic) in Italy compared to Urban waste What it is more relevant is that a big part of it 14% in 2005 disappeared from the statistic, 19.700.000 tons that Ecomafia transform in a value of 5 billion €.
This clarify why some boss of mafia said that the rubbish is gold.
For this reason the activist an local committee worried about the environmental and healthy consequences going on with the struggle and the government with the beating-up
03.07.conference marco armiero
Environmental conflict: The Campania case M. Armiero Marie Curie Fellow ICTA-UAB G. D’Alisa Ph.D, Research fellow ICTA-UAB
Environmental conflicts as a research focus and a methodological challenge <ul><li>Risk/Criticism: </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on ecological conflicts the social would become preponderant, undoing all the effort put in bringing nature back in the discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Why to face with this risk/criticism </li></ul><ul><li>We believe that this criticism is wrong and we will use the Campania case-study to demonstrate it . </li></ul><ul><li>The issue is not to look at nature instead of society; rather the challenge is to see nature and society together , in their dialectic relationships, and the conflict can help us in doing so. </li></ul>
Environmental conflicts as a research focus and a methodological challenge <ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>1) Nature as power matters </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts will uncover power in nature. Power relationships and asymmetries are not external to nature but they are stratified into it. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Power as the social determined appropriation of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Power is the mix of institutions and organizations which drives the use of resources and territories. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thus, conflicts do not hide nature ; rather they make the complexity of nature clearer in both the general discourse and the scientific research . For instance, as we will see in our case-study, the rising of conflicts has implied to understand the metabolic connections between the city, the countryside, and the bodies . </li></ul>Environmental conflicts as a research focus and a methodological challenge
Environmental conflict Campania case study: Where is Campania?
Environmental conflict Campania case study: Metropolitan area of Naples
Environmental conflict Campania case study: Added Value (AV) and Employment (E) 2007 Istat <ul><li>Campania AV 84,800.0 M€ ( 6% ) Italia AV 1,371,833.4 M€ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AV=2,202.7 M€ (3%, 8% ) AV= 27,925.7 M€ (2%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E= 91 m (5%) E= 1,015.3 m (4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AV= 16,748.3 M€ (20%, 5% ) AV= 370,805.6 M€ (27%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E= 403,4 m (22%) E= 7,172,5 m (29%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AV= 65,849.0 M€ (77%, 7% ) AV= 973,102.1 M€ (71%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E= 1333,3 m (73%) E= 16,973.9 m (67%) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Environmental conflict Campania case study: EC 510/2006: PDO, PGI; EC 509/2006 TSG <ul><li>Caciocavallo Silano </li></ul><ul><li>Cipollotto Nocerino </li></ul><ul><li>Fico bianco del Cilento </li></ul><ul><li>Mozzarella di Bufala Campana </li></ul><ul><li>Olio extravergine di oliva Cilento </li></ul><ul><li>Olio extravergine di oliva Colline Salernitane </li></ul><ul><li>Olio extravergine di oliva Irpinia - Colline dell'Ufita </li></ul><ul><li>Olio extravergine di oliva Penisola Sorrentina </li></ul><ul><li>Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio </li></ul><ul><li>Pomodoro S. Marzano dell'Agro Sarnee-nocerino </li></ul><ul><li>Provolone del Monaco </li></ul><ul><li>Olio extravergine di oliva Terre Aurunche </li></ul><ul><li>Ricotta di Bufala Campana </li></ul><ul><li>Castagna di Serino </li></ul><ul><li>Oliva di Gaeta </li></ul><ul><li>Carciofo di Paestum </li></ul><ul><li>Castagna di Montella </li></ul><ul><li>Limone Costa d'Amalfi </li></ul><ul><li>Limone di Sorrento </li></ul><ul><li>Marrone di Roccadaspide </li></ul><ul><li>Melannurca Campana </li></ul><ul><li>Nocciola di Giffoni </li></ul><ul><li>Vitellone Bianco dell'Appennino Centrale </li></ul><ul><li>Suino Napoli </li></ul><ul><li>Noce di Sorrento </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta di Gragnano </li></ul><ul><li>Torrone di Benevento </li></ul><ul><li>Torroncino croccantino di San Marco dei Cavoti </li></ul><ul><li>Mozzarella </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza napoletana </li></ul>Registred Applied
Environmental conflict Campania case study: Milestones <ul><li>1994 – Welcome to the Waste Emergency Kingdom . The landfills are said to be full, even if we actually do not have any data on the capacity of the landfills. Campania region felt under an emergency legal framework which a special agency deputed to solve the crisis, which has squandered about 2 billion euros. (Shock Doctrine) </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – Let the worst be the winner and the beginning of storing the coffer . The public tender for the construction and management of the waste facilities and treatment was won by the FIBE on the basis of : cost, and speed of delivering. They start to store the combustible waste blocks which guarantee large subsidies by the state. </li></ul><ul><li>2004 - The triangle of death and the square of the beating-up . A group of researchers published on Lancet oncology an essay titled The triangle of death in which they argued that there was a correlation between the illegal dumps and the diffusion of some kind of tumors in Campania. The same year a huge march of protest held in Acerra against the incinerator was violently repressed by the police </li></ul>
Environmental conflict Campania case study: Milestones <ul><li>2007 – An international icon . Pictures of Naples flooded with garbage went all around the world. The US consul in Naples suggested his fellow Americans not to come for sanitary reasons. Internationalization as strategy? In the same year Saviano’s Gomorrah was translated in English </li></ul><ul><li>2009 – Tanks against garbage . Government issued a special law de facto suspending the ordinary laws in Campania, in terms of both social dissent and environmental protection. On one hand waste facilities became military sites, on the others those facilities can be opened in Campania notwithstanding the provisions in force both at national and EU levels. </li></ul>
EC Campania case study Milestones 1: Welcome to the Waste Emergency Kingdom Waste production per capita Tony
EC Campania case study Milestones 1: Welcome to the Waste Emergency Kingdom Total Waste production Ton/y
EC Campania case study Milestones 1: Welcome to the Waste Emergency Kingdom Density Production of Waste
EC Campania case study Milestones 1: Welcome to the Waste Emergency Kingdom Density Production of Waste
EC Campania case study Milestones 2 Let the worst be the winner and the beginning of storing the coffer .
EC Campania case study Milestones 2 Let the worst be the winner and the beginning of storing the coffer . <ul><li>The Italian Government guarantees large subsidies to be financed by a 7% increase in electricity bills. </li></ul><ul><li>Operators were therefore guaranteed a constant stream of revenue as the government subsidized energy production from waste incineration (70 € per Mw of energy produced in 2009). Hence, the biggest planned incinerator, in Acerra ( municipality in the north of Naples) with a foreseen 107 Mw capacity would generate a revenue about 100 M€ per year </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of accumulated combustible waste across Campania is today estimated at 7 million tons, equivalent to one billion Euros to be potentially generated from combustion </li></ul>
EC Campania case study Milestones 3: The triangle of death and the square of the beating-up The Lancet Oncology (Senior and Mazza, 2004). In Campania 4% of total Special waste even if 6% of Total Added Value of Italy
EC Campania case study Milestones 3: The triangle of death and the square of the beating-up <ul><li>2005 Italy </li></ul><ul><li>a) Urban waste : 31.663.458 ton </li></ul><ul><li>b) Special waste: 109.556.697 ton </li></ul>19.700.000 ton = 5 billion €
EC Campania case study Milestones 3: The triangle of death and the square of the beating-up <ul><li>“ The garbage is gold” (quotation from a telephone call between Camorra’s affiliates intercepted by the police) </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal disposal of toxic waste and the crisis of the urban waste disposal are connected in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>it is a matter of trust (people do not trust the local government which has allowed the dumping of any kind of materials in the landfills) </li></ul><ul><li>the inquiries on the illegal traffic of waste have often driven to the shutting down of landfills not properly managed. </li></ul>
EC Campania case study Milestones 3: The triangle of death and the square of the beating-up
Conclusion The standard narrative about garbage in Naples has been this one from the NYT “ In theory, a permanent solution is not difficult, and has been proposed by an emergency commission: greater recycling and the opening of several incinerators and new dumping sites in Naples and the neighboring provinces. But as has happened in several of the identified towns over the last two weeks, local people protest loudly.” (Peter Kiefer, “In Mire of Politics and the Mafia, Garbage Reigns”, NYT, May 31, 2007) New York Times May 31, 2007
Conclusion <ul><li>We want to built an alternative narrative: </li></ul><ul><li>The garbage crisis is the byproduct of the merging between neo-liberal political agenda (Privatization via illegitimate and inconsistent tender), a successful cost shifting (via business between corporate and camorra) </li></ul><ul><li>In Campania case the driving force of the uses of resources and territories becomes evident (Government, Corporate and camorra i.e. Power as the social determined appropriation of nature) </li></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li>The conflicts over garbage are not the problem but the solution. The links connecting bodies, land, and goods become visible through conflicts and give birth to possible alternative. </li></ul><ul><li>The struggle of the people because of their increasing illness (Triangle of death), because of the destroying of agriculture economies and landscape (pyramid of ecoballe and the dying sheep). </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to see the nature as the power matter. </li></ul>
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