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Island historical-political ecologies: ecologically unequal exchange, landesque capital and environmental/social justice o...
Aims <ul><li>to systematically explore regional and global power inequalities as constitutive of processes of landscape ch...
<ul><li>Piers Blaikie & Harold Brookfield: </li></ul><ul><li>“ any investment in land with an anticipated life well beyond...
<ul><li>terracing </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>raised fields </li></ul><ul><li>stone clearance </li></ul...
<ul><li>“ Just as human use can have the effect of stripping and gullying soils, so it can also create enduring  beneficia...
<ul><li>  “ landesque capital … confronts stereotyped images of relations between humans and nature… it acknowledges the r...
Critical question There is an assumption that landesque capital is consistent with sustainability and the opposite of degr...
Improvement is the Juggernaut of capitalist expansion. Karl Polanyi (1944 [2001])  The great transformation
Kinmen Penghu Pongso-no-Dawo (Orchid Island)
Tao =  Pongso no Tao Spanish =  Botel Tobago Japanese =  Koto-sho shima Han Chinese =  Lanyu Hong-tou yu   (Redhead Island...
 
(Davidson 1901)
1901
Yayo Iraralai Iranumiruk Ivarinu Imurud Iratai * Pongso no Tao Orchid Island area: 47 KM 2 Population:  3000 6 villages
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Becoming civilized <ul><li>First regular contacts: Japanese from 1910s </li></ul><ul><li>Schools for ”savage children” 192...
 
 
 
 
forest Afforested woods  1970-1980 Rain forest grass land shrubs Marks on the selected wood for building boats
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Why can’t we allow the Tao people to decide for themselves what constitutes an improvement … and what shall flow in and ou...
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03.07 conference erick_clark

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  1. 1. Island historical-political ecologies: ecologically unequal exchange, landesque capital and environmental/social justice on Taiwan’s small islands Eric Clark Lund University Department of Human Geography and Lund University Centre of Excellence for Integration of Social and Natural Dimensions of Sustainability (LUCID) International Conference on Environmental Conflicts and Justice, organized by ICTA, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2-3 July 2010
  2. 2. Aims <ul><li>to systematically explore regional and global power inequalities as constitutive of processes of landscape change, </li></ul><ul><li>to develop and refine a theoretical framework: global historical-political ecology , and </li></ul><ul><li>to assess policies of sustainable development. </li></ul>Power, Land and Materiality: Global studies in historical-political ecology as a framework for assessing policies for sustainable development Research framework Lead Researcher: Alf Hornborg
  3. 3. <ul><li>Piers Blaikie & Harold Brookfield: </li></ul><ul><li>“ any investment in land with an anticipated life well beyond that of the present crop, or crop cycle” </li></ul><ul><li>(1987) Land Degradation and Society </li></ul>Historical political ecology Landesque capital
  4. 4. <ul><li>terracing </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>raised fields </li></ul><ul><li>stone clearance </li></ul><ul><li>anthropogenic soils </li></ul><ul><li>planted trees </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing capacity of land </li></ul>Historical political ecology Landesque capital
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Just as human use can have the effect of stripping and gullying soils, so it can also create enduring beneficial changes that yield capital for use by future generations.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Brookfield 2001) </li></ul>Sustainability vs degradation
  6. 6. <ul><li> “ landesque capital … confronts stereotyped images of relations between humans and nature… it acknowledges the role of humankind in improving ’natural’ conditions… humans may have altered conditions for future sustainable use for the better , and not only for the worse, as is often the unproven assumption in much writing on environmental history.” (Widgren 2007) </li></ul>Mats Widgren Sustainability vs degradation
  7. 7. Critical question There is an assumption that landesque capital is consistent with sustainability and the opposite of degradation. ”Enduring beneficial change” creeps into the very definition of landesque capital. What about “ investments in land with an anticipated life well beyond that of the present crop” which result in stripping and gullying soils, and exploitative investments in land characterized more by extract-and-move-on than by soil husbandry or sustainable niche construction?
  8. 8. Improvement is the Juggernaut of capitalist expansion. Karl Polanyi (1944 [2001]) The great transformation
  9. 9. Kinmen Penghu Pongso-no-Dawo (Orchid Island)
  10. 10. Tao = Pongso no Tao Spanish = Botel Tobago Japanese = Koto-sho shima Han Chinese = Lanyu Hong-tou yu (Redhead Island) English = Orchid Island Tao = Pongso no Tao Spanish = Botel Tobago Japanese = Koto-sho shima Han Chinese = Lanyu Hong-tou yu (Redhead Island) English = Orchid Island Indigenous backyard
  11. 12. (Davidson 1901)
  12. 13. 1901
  13. 14. Yayo Iraralai Iranumiruk Ivarinu Imurud Iratai * Pongso no Tao Orchid Island area: 47 KM 2 Population: 3000 6 villages
  14. 25. Becoming civilized <ul><li>First regular contacts: Japanese from 1910s </li></ul><ul><li>Schools for ”savage children” 1923, 1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan dispossession (99.5%) 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Military prison from 1958 – 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>’ Modern’ dwellings (90%) 1966 – 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and transport infrastructure 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Strip-logged half the forest 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear waste site since 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>National Park proposal 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation money 2001 </li></ul>
  15. 30. forest Afforested woods 1970-1980 Rain forest grass land shrubs Marks on the selected wood for building boats
  16. 41. Why can’t we allow the Tao people to decide for themselves what constitutes an improvement … and what shall flow in and out from their home?
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