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    02.07.conference ortega 02.07.conference ortega Presentation Transcript

    • Environmental justice in Catalonia Maria Calaf Forn & Miquel Ortega Cerdà
    • 1. Introduction 2. Methodology 3. Some results 3. Conclusions Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Index
      • Authors: Maria Calaf Forn and Miquel Ortega Cerdà.
      • Time line: Most of the research was done in 2006 and reviewed in 2009.
      • Main objective of the project: support the public administration to introduce the environmental justice concept in Catalonia.
        • Introduce the “environmental justice” concept from a theoretical, historical and methodological perspective
        • Give an overview of the main current initiatives form a public administration perspective
        • Identify some environmental issues that can be interesting to be analysed from an environmental justice perspective and produce a preliminary analysis
        • Suggest some initiatives to be developed by the Catalan public administration
      • This report is part of an ongoing research by the authors and does not represent necessarily the opinion of CADS or Generalitat de Catalunya.
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Introduction
      • 1 rst part: background and previous international initiatives (47 pp)
      • Overview of the main concepts related with environmental justice
        • What does it means environmental justice?
        • What is the relation between environmental equity and environmental justice?
        • How public administration understand environmental justice?
        • Which are the main methodologies of environmental justice research?
      • International initiatives related with environmental justice developed by public administrations
        • United States
        • Europe
        • Africa
        • Latin America
      • Is it possible to develop environmental justice initiatives by the Catalan public administration?. The Catalan context
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Introduction
      • Justice can be distilled into three broad categories: social, geographic and procedural (Bullard, 2005)
      • Social justice
        • Assess the role of sociological factors, such as race, ethnicity, class, culture, etc. in decision making
        • EG. Does the poorest live in the near areas of the most polluting industries?
      • Geographic justice
        • How is the location and spatial configuration of communities and what is the relation with environmental hazards and locally unwanted land uses such as landfills, incinerators, refineries, etc.
      • Procedural justice
        • To which extend the governing rules, regulations, evaluation criteria, and enforcement are applied uniformly across the board. Are there nonscientific and undemocratic decisions, exclusionary practices? Does every body has the chance to parcipate in the decission-making processes?
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Introduction
      • 2 nd part: Analysis and recommendations (113 pp)
      • Methodological chapter
      • Inequities related to local environmental impacts
        • Most polluting industries
        • Environmental infrastructures: waste management, energy
        • Transport infrastructures
        • Land use
      • Inequities related to global environmental impacts
        • Resource use
        • CO 2 emissions
      • Inequities related to the access to “environmental goods”
        • Public transport
      • Conclusions and recommendations
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Introduction
    • Analytical methodology
      • Definition of issues to be analysed.
        • Group of experts. Include administration, NGOs and researchers.
        • Main ideas:
          • Include environmental justice perspective at local and global level.
          • Some data should be already available.
          • Issues should be relevant and with some public awareness of the problematic.
      • Main characteristics and limits of the analysis:
        • Based on previously available data obtained from public administration, research groups and social movements.
        • The analysis is based on visual and statistical techniques obtained from GIS and discourse analysis .
        • It includes, when possible, causality links and economic costs distribution.
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Methodology
      • Geographic equity:
        • Maps
        • Use of indicators: land density (number of polluting industries per km 2 ), per capita intensity (energy production per capita at the different counties).
      • Socio-economic equity:
        • Economic capacity: RFBD per capita
        • Size of municipality
        • Percentage of elder people
        • Percentage of non-UE citizens
      • Public perception and participation:
        • Is there any social movement, NGO, institutions, etc using environmental justice discourse in relation with the environmental variable? Analysis of manifestos and public press statements.
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Methodology
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Methodology
      • County
      • 41
      • Secondary residence ownership
      • Municipality
      • 946
      • 79%<5000 inhabitants
      • Family gross disposable income>5000
      • Census tracts
      • 5284
      • Population
      • Age
      • Non EU population
    • Some examples of results
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries Source European Pollutant Emission Register Year 2006 Activity Number Combustion industry 12 Metal industry 67 Ore industry 68 Chemical industry 194 Waste management industry 95 Paper and cardboard industry 32 Textile 9 Leather industry 6 Agribusiness and cattle raising 622 Organic dissolvent industry 8 Coal 3 TOTAL 1.116
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries Number of EPER industries by surface area
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries Agribusiness and cattle raising Chemical industries
      • Chemical sector: Tarragona petrochemical concentration
        • 19 th of October 2002: Manifest de La Masó. Key issue: h ealth and chemical industry concentration.
        • Some organizations that developed environmental justice claims: GEPEC-Ecologistes de Catalunya and Escurçó de Tarragona .
        • The administration answer: L’Observatori de la Salut del Camp de Tarragona .
        • Conflictive health studies.
      • Agribusiness and cattle raising: pig manure produce high level of nitrates in water
        • Some organizations that developed environmental justice claims: Grup de Defensa del Ter ( monitoring, management proposals, denounces, etc. ).
        • Well know problem since 90s. In the period 1999-2002: 370 denounces, only 14 were successful.
        • In 1998 first legal initiatives ( Decret 283/1998, de 21 d’octubre, amb la designació d’algunes zones vulnerables en relació amb la contaminació de nitrats procedents de fonts agràries ). 203 municipalities where involved.
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries
      • Since 2000:
        • 2003. Pla de suport a la gestió de les dejeccions ramaderes de l’any 2003
        • 2004. The Environmental Department of the Generalitat de Catalunya recognize that 50 municipalities in Girona do have nitrate levels over the highest recommended value by the WHO (50 ml/l) . Bisbal d’Empordà and Forallac (Baix Empordà), where the most affected. More than 10.000 consumers where affected. Also some problems in Tarragona area (Caseras – 80 ml/l in June. The municipality do have to carry water by track).
        • 2004. More municipalities where involved in the “vulnerable zone” (312)
        • 2005. The Environmental Department of the Generalitat de Catalunya recognize that 130 water distribution municipal services were affected regularly by high nitrates levels (more than 50 ml/l) . 38.352 consumers are affected. Most affected areas: Empordà, el Maresme, l’Alt Empordà i el Vallès Oriental. 69 water distribution municipal services more where sporadically affected (39.528 consumers).
        • 2005 . End of pipe solution: more water-treatment plants and long term proposals: Consorci de Gestió de la Fertilització Agrària- GESFER
        • 2009: Once more new municipalities have been involed in the “vulnerable zone”
      Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Most polluting industries
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management 2006, DMAH Treatment facilities Number Municipal waste Landfills 44 Composting facility 24 Anaerobic digestion 4 Incinerator 10 Transference plant 13 Recycling sorting plant 17 Industrial waste Landfills 87 Composting facility 21 Collection and transference plant 49 Incinerator 16 Physical-chemical treatment 4 Recycling 14 Agricultural treatment plant 1 Cattle waste Pig manure ponds 19 Compost facility 13 Treatment 25 Construction Landfills 62 Recicling plants 11 Transference plant 25
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management Number of waste management facilities by surface area
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management Number of waste management facilities by surface area and capita
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management Kgs of waste managed per capita for municipal waste
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management Industrial waste facilities
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management Source: Anuaris territorials de Catalunya 2003-2006 Source: IPCENA Source: IPCENA Source: Salvem l’Anoia Vinaixa landfill (2004), Tivissa landfill (2004), Conca de Barberà treatment plant (2004), Collcardús landfill (Vacarisses) (2004), constrution waste disposals of Andorra in Alt Urgell, Grefacsa incinerator (Térmens) (2005), ECOPARC 2 (Montcada i Reixac) (2005), Pujalt landfill (2005), Escarp incinerator (2006), temporal nuclear waste facility at Vandellòs (2006), compost facility at Maldà (2006), etc.
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Waste management
      • Decret 1/2009, de 21 de juliol, pel qual s'aprova el Text refós de la Llei reguladora dels residus. Main principles: valorisation, sufficiency and proximity
      • Industrial waste management plan : Programa de Gestió de Residus Industrials de Catalunya (PROGRIC) 2007-2012
      • 20.000 tonnes per year of industrial waste are exported out of Catalonia to be incinerated while there is some overcapacity in some private plants.
      • While the planning does recommend new landfills there is also a recognition that there is not enough control of what is incorporated in today’s landfills
      • The criteria for new landfills allocations are: good access and considering the population density, it does not include existing facilities density or other parameters…use of the carrying capacity concept for waste management?
      • The “auto contention” concept should be used as it is used in municipal waste infrastructure planning
      • In order to improve the burning sharing poorest and municipalities with older population should be avoided.
      • The planning regions should be little an similar to PROGREMIC areas, so a better integration could be done.
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Number of big production facilities per surface unit and capita
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Ordinary regime production capacity (MW) Sources: Red eléctrica de España. 2008 corrected by use data. Category Name Municipality Production capacity (MW) Coal Cercs Cercs 162 Nuclear Ascó 1 Ascó 1028 Nuclear Ascó 2 Ascó 1027 Nuclear Vandellós 2 Vandellós 1087 Fuel/Gas Foix Cubelles 520 Fuel/Gas San Adrián 1 Sant Adrià del Besòs 350 Fuel/Gas San Adrián 3 Sant Adrià del Besòs 309 Combined cycled power plant Besòs 3 Sant Adrià del Besòs 412 Combined cycled power plant Besòs 4 Sant Adrià del Besòs 407 Combined cycled power plant Tarragona Endesa Tarragona 400 Combined cycled power plant Tarragona Power Tarragona 424 Combined cycled power plan Plana del Vent 1 Vandellòs i l’Hospitalet de l’Infant 412 Combined cycled power plant Plana del Vent 2 Vandellòs i l’Hospitalet de l’Infant 421 Hydroelectricity Tavascan Lladorre 152 Hydroelectricity Canelles Os de Balaguer 108 Hydroelectricity Ribarroja Ribera d’Ebre 263 Hydroelectricity Estangento-Sallente La torre de Capdella 446
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Especial regime production capacity (MW) Source: ICAEN. Year 2007 Type Number Production capacity (MW) Landfills 5 19,5 Biomass 1 0,5 Cogeneration 111 977,9 Ecoparcs 2 5,4 EDAR 11 67,3 Wind production 14 342,5 Photovoltaic 1081 33,5 Hydraulic 284 271,9 Pig manure 5 76,6 Non renewable industrial waste 1 5,2 Renewable industrial waste 2 15,0 Urban solid waste 4 44,4
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Energy consumption Source: Pla de l’energia a Catalunya 2006-2015. 2003 data Energy production capacity per capita (KW per capita) Source: e special regime l’ICAEN 2007, ordinary regime Red eléctrica de España, population IDESCAT
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Source: Anuaris territorials de Catalunya 2003-2007 Source : Plataforma per a la defensa de Terra Alta Source: Sticker of Plataforma per a la defensa de Terra Alta
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Source: Anuaris territorials de Catalunya 2003-2007 1 rst of December 2007 “ A les Terres de l'Ebre comencem a estar cansats, cansats de vore com una vegada i una altra les nostres terres són l'objectiu única i exclusivament per a tirar tota la &quot;merda&quot; que los altres no volen, no estem ni contra el progrés ni contra la modernització, ans lo contrari, però tot sobre un desenvolupament sostenible amb el territori. Poder decidir lo que volem per a les nostres terres en el futur, això és tot lo que demanem. Per poder decidir i per a demostrar que mai ens cansarem de lluitar, us convoquem a tots a l'Assemblea de Plataformes de les Terres de l'Ebre .”
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Source: Anuaris territorials de Catalunya 2003-2007
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Source: Anuaris territorials de Catalunya 2003-2007
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production
      • 2002. Pla de l’Energia a Catalunya en l’horitzó de l’any 2010
      • 2005. Pla de l’Energia de Catalunya 2006-2015 ( some changes in 2009)
      • Main changes in ordinary regime (2015):
        • Closing of Cercs (coal), Foix and Sat Adrià 1 and Sant Adrià 2 (fuel-gas) (gasoil-gas)
        • 12 new combined cycle power plants (from 2450 MW in 2007 to 4932 in 2015)
        • Where? Few indications: mainly near Barcelona and Girona areas.
        • Substitution, redistribution or same pattern concentrations?
      • Main changes in especial regime (2015):
        • The most important growth will be in wind production, from 324 MW to 1313,2 MW or 3500,4 MW depending on the scenario.
        • Where the wind mills should be placed?
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production
      • Decret 147/2009, de 22 de setembre, pel qual es regulen els procediments administratius aplicables per a la implantació de parcs eòlics i instal·lacions fotovoltaiques a Catalunya
        • Definition of Zones de Desenvolupament Prioritari (ZDP). Areas for big wind farms: more than 10 MW and 5 wind mills.
        • Main problem: how are they defined? Who participates in the decision-making process? Environmental justice procedural problem.
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Energy production Preliminar proposal
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: Material Use in the European Union 1980-2000. Indicators and analysis. European Comission. Working papers and studies. 2002. ISBN: 92-894-3789-8 i (Sendra, C., Gabarrel, X., i Vicent, T., 2009) Importacions 44% entrada materials
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: Informe resumen anual del boletín estadístico de hidrocarburos año 2008. Ministerio de economía. CORES Origen del cru importat
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: Informe resumen anual del boletín estadístico de hidrocarburos año 2008. Ministerio de economía. CORES Origen del gas importat
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: Informe resumen anual del boletín estadístico de hidrocarburos año 2008. Ministerio de economía. CORES i The Economist Categoria Proveïdors de petroli i gas % cru importat 2008 % gas importat 2008 Democràcies plenes Noruega, països de la Unió Europea 4 7,1 Democràcies fallides Mèxic, Trinidad i Tobago 13,2 12,2 Règims híbrids Veneçuela, Iraq, Rússia 21,4 0 Règims autoritaris Iran, Aràbia Saudí, Líbia, Nigèria, Algèria, Qatar, Egipte i Oman 45,8 68,5
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: FAOSTAT
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: FAOSTAT
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Ús dels recursos naturals Font: Adaptat de (Rosset, P., 2004)
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Gassos amb efecte d’hivernacle IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Nota: dades corresponents a l’any 2004
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Gassos amb efecte d’hivernacle Font: Elaboració pròpia a partir de les dades del Programa de Nacions Unides de Desenvolupament Humà i de l’IDESCAT pel cas de Catalunya (punt de color vermell al gràfic)
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Gassos amb efecte d’hivernacle
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Font: Expedicions-any/habitant. Tots els transports
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Municipis amb transport urbà Municipis amb transport nocturn Font: (Canales, C. et al., 2006) Font: (Canales, C. et al., 2006) Font: (Canales, C. et al., 2006)
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Font: Indicadors del Transport Urbà de Viatgers per superfície a Catalunya . Direcció General de Ports i Transports. Viatgers transportats per hora de servei Km útils per km 2 de superfície de municipi
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Font: Indicadors del Transport Urbà de Viatgers per superfície a Catalunya . Direcció General de Ports i Transports. Nombre de viatges any per habitant Freqüència
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Font: Enquesta de mobilitat quotidiana de Catalunya, 2006. Departament de política territorial i obres públiques. Generalitat de Catalunya i Autoritat del Transport Metropolità. Tipologia de desplaçaments segons edat i mitjà de transport en dia feiner.
    • Justiciambiental a Catalunya Accés al transport públic Font: Enquesta de mobilitat quotidiana de Catalunya, 2006. Departament de política territorial i obres públiques. Generalitat de Catalunya i Autoritat del Transport Metropolità. Tipologia de desplaçaments segons edat i mitjà de transport en dissabte i festius <15 i >65 = 40% de la població
    • Conclusions
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Conclusions
      • Environmental justice concept is increasingly important all around the world
      • It embrace not only race and polluting industries problems but may be used for very different issues
      • Every time more public administrations are using this concept to address some environmental inequities and to support the socio-environmental integration in decision-making
      • In Catalonia there are no technical barriers to develop some environmental justice policies
      • There are some evidences of some environmental inequalities that can be improved by the development of proper environmental justice policies.
      • This report is just a first step. Much more needs to be done if we want to see environmental justice perspective applied in Catalonian public policies.
    • Equitat ambiental a Catalunya Final remark The report can be found in: http://www15.gencat.net/cads/AppPHP/images/stories/publicacions/documentsrecerca/ddr_15_versi_web.pdf
    • Thanks for your attention Miquel Ortega Cerd à [email_address] www.ent.cat http://miquelortega.cat