Understanding People (Basic Personality Psychology) It may seem obvious, but we really do need to start by thinking of our ‘users’ as real people. Using personality psychology, we can understand where people are different, what makes them similar and generally visualise them to help humanise them for design purposes. A good place to start is with personality traits - One of the most established and respected ‘trait theories’ is that of the Five Factor Model (FFM) – aka ‘The Big Five’, pioneered by Lewis Goldberg. Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism The tendency to be the tendency to be the tendency to be the tendency to be the tendency to be calm, imaginative, independent, organized, careful, and sociable, fun-loving, and softhearted, trusting, and secure, and self-satisfied and interested in variety disciplined vs. affectionate vs. retiring, helpful vs. ruthless, vs. anxious, insecure, and vs. practical, conforming, disorganized, careless, and somber, and reserved. suspicious, and self-pitying and interested in routine. impulsive. uncooperative. Not convinced this is relevant? Remember that people fundamentally don’t change much and having a grounding in who your audience really are, OUTSIDE of your own context will prevent you from ‘solutioneering’ – defining only the traits you feel you need or want. We’ll get to context later... There are also other ‘trait theories’ you may want to explore, such as the HEXACO model. You could also use Type theory or other models, but we have found FFM to be the most simple and practical in day-to-day use. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology
Grouping individuals together Case Study: British Heart Foundation Professional Need Personal Connection Proxy Relationships Doctor (GP) Heart Patient (Recent) Volunteer Heart Nurse Heart Patient (Medium/Long Business Term) Manager/Executive Intermediary (Teacher) At Risk Adult Shop Customer/Donor Researcher (Funded) Concerned Relative Event Participant (Health) Journalist Grieving Relative Support Group Member 15 distinct end-users (min) Arranged into 3 logical groups; 5 per group to give balance (and avoid bias) Potentially other logical groups could be used… these are based on their connection to the BHF
Cross-segmenting roles: By mindset (mental modelling) Case Study: British Heart Foundation Just want to get Not sure what to Keen to get involved… Willing to be something done… find/expect… convinced… Doctor (GP) Heart Nurse Intermediary (Teacher) Researcher (Funded) (Health) Journalist Heart Patient (Recent) Heart Patient (Medium/Long Term) At Risk Adult Concerned Relative Grieving Relative Volunteer Business Manager/Executive Shop Customer/Donor Event Participant Support Group Member Weighting 9 9 6 8
Segmentation: From 15 users to 4 Personas Case Study: British Heart Foundation Just want to get Pragmatists something done… Not sure what to Seekers expect/find… Keen to get Activists involved… Willing to be (potential) convinced… Conformist
• Use a sliding scale to map out each persons personality • Look for similarities, differences and patterns Personality ProfileMeet John… Open to experience• Finance Director at ACME Ltd Cautious• Curious 50-55 years old Conscientiousness• Married, with two children (15 and 18 year old girls) Careless Efficient• Lives in Hertfordshire Extraversion• Drives a BMW 5 Series Touring (company car) Introvert Agreeableness Extrovert• Shops at Sainsbury’s• Uses a Blackberry and a Windows Laptop Antagonist Cooperative• Understands the basics of LinkedIn, but decided to Neuroticism skip the Facebook and Twitter hype; feels irrelevant Nervous Confident• Watches BBC News, Downton Abbey and classic Bond movies Who is your audience and what kind of people are they?
Understanding Goals & Objectives Goals Objectives Long term, unstructured, difficult to measure Short term, well defined, measurable “We need to improve efficiency across “We want to reduce our overheads the clinical team” by 20% over the next 2 years” “We need to stay ahead of our “We want to increase our market competitors” share by 10%”
• Feel free to adjust the user profile to suit your context • Keep them broad and cross all users; don’t target individuals User ProfileJohns story (in his own words) Propensity towards goal(s) I’m proud of where our company has gotten to following the loss of major contracts in the recession and an internal restructuring after merging with a competitor. Now I want to use our strong position to ensure maximum Not bothered Highly Motivated profitability and be prepared for any future economic uncertainty. Propensity towards objective(s)…and in our words… Not bothered Highly Motivated Internet Literacy John is very proud of his company and he appreciates that he has skilled staff but he wants to achieve more through the current set of resources. Low High John keeps an eye on administrative and business tasks, like payroll, invoicing, project resources, yet leads the company in major strategic Brand Awareness/Loyalty decisions. It is critical for him to achieve better tracking and management of resources. At the same time, he wants to streamline their admin processes to allow employees to focus more on clients’ projects. John feels Not influenced Brand Loyal their existing HR systems don’t allow them to efficiently extract the Financial Attitude intelligence from previous work and he strongly believes that a mechanism to share and “exploit” previous knowledge would boost the company. Frugal Thrift Customer Stage• Goal(s): Leverage the internal potential we have in our team• Objective(s): Track employee efficiency on projects and identify areas for improvement; along with ROI from change management Cold Prospect Loyal Customer Pick somebody from your audience and give them a story
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