Evaluation of Mousticide against Aedes at High Rise Flat Setapak

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Evaluation of Mousticide against Aedes at High Rise Flat Setapak

  1. 1. END OF PROJECT REPORT NN-001-2008Evaluation of Proprietary Formulations of Insect Repellent Containing EGX-101 and Testing Mosquito Larvicide products Based on Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) Against Dengue VectorsPROJECT LEADER: PROF DR SALLEHUDIN BIN SULAIMANPROJECT TEAM MEMBERS: PROF MADYA DR HIDAYATULFATHI OTHMAN NORASHIQIN BINTI MISNI MOHD SAIFUL AZLAN BIN NORDIN LAU MING SEONG SITI FATIMAH JOHARRY Project Duration: 24 (months) Project Start Date: November (month) 2008 (year) Project End Date: November (month) 2010 (year) Collaberations: 1
  2. 2. EVALUATION OF TMOF-BTI FORMULATIONS AGAINST Aedes aegypti Linnaeus ATHIGH RISE FLATS IN KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIABy Saiful Azlan Bin Nordin, Biomedical Sciences, FSKB, UKMSupervised by Prof. Dr. Sallehudin Sulaiman & PM. Dr. Hidayatulfathi Othman5th November 2010INTRODUCTION The incidence of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever has increaseddramatically over the last decades. It has become endemic in more than 100 countries andmore than 2.5 billion people are at risk mainly in Africa, the Americas, the WesternMediterranean, South and South and East Asia and the West Pacific(WHO 2008). Hence, somecontrol activities should be taken in order to reduce the dengue incidence. Larvicides which killmosquito larvae include biological insecticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), amicrobial larvicide. Bti is a naturally occurring soil bacterium registered for mosquito larvaecontrol which is commonly used as larvicidal agent. Trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF),a peptide hormone originally isolated from the ovaries of adult Aedes aegypti, is currently undercommercial development as a new pesticide with a novel mode of action for the control of larvalmosquitoes. This hormone stops mosquitoes from producing a crucial digestive enzyme calledtrypsin, preventing them to draw nutrients from food and therefore causing them to starve todeath.METHODOLOGYField Trial at High Rise Flats in PPR Kampung Baru Air Panas, Setapak Two formulations of TMOF-Bti were evaluated against first instar larvae of Aedes aegyptiat high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur viz: wettable powder and rice husk formulations. Bothformulations were supplied by EntoGeneX. Three blocks of 17 storey high-rise consisted of 136units of flats in Setapak, namely Block A, H and F in PPR Kampung Baru Air Panas wereselected in order to test the efficiency of TMOF-Bti against larvae of Aedes aegypti in the field.Each block was located at least 500 m apart. Block H was treated with TMOF-Bti in wettablepowder formulation sprayed by ULV. Block F was treated with TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulationdistributed manually. While Block A acted as control. 63
  3. 3. Six weeks before the field trial, ovitrap survey was conducted to obtain the baselineinformation of Aedes aegypti ovipositions. 36 ovitraps per high-rise flats were distributed onthe 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 levels, with four ovitraps on each floor. These ovitraps wereplaced at the corridor and inside of each of the flats. Ovitraps were replaced weekly. Paddles ofthe ovitraps were taken to laboratory and eggs were counted. The larvae that hatched fromeggs were identified and counted. The first block which was block H was treated with WPTMOF-Bti and sprayed using ULV. TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation was dissolved in 3liters of water and sprayed at 0.01 g a.i/m2 (30 g / 3000 m2) using LECO/Model 1600 coldaerosol generator mounted on the vehicle was used for spraying. The head nozzle of thesprayer was adjusted at an angle of 45° to the ground. The flow rate of ULV application wasestimated at 104 ml/min and velocity of the vehicle approximately 6 km/ hr. Spraying wasconducted in the evening at 1700 hr. The second block , block F was treated with TMOF-Bti inrice husk formulation distributed manually (50 mg) into 4 liters containers. The third block,block A was sprayed with 3 liters of water only as the control. All the windows and doorsremained open during ULV spraying. Each of the three blocks was distributed with 36 buckets (filled with 4 liters of water foreach bucket) each containing 20 1st instar Ae. aegypti larvae . Four buckets were distributed oneach floor at levels 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 of each block. These buckets were placed at thecorridor and inside each of the pre-determined flats. Crushed dry leaf powder were supplied assource of food for the larvae. All larvae in buckets at the control block and treated blocks withwettable powder and rice husk were counted after 24 hours of spraying for mortality. Thebuckets were covered by mosquito netting. (* in case of any dengue cases occuring andrequired fogging in that area, buckets should be covered by lids provided during foggingoperation.). A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae were introduced into the buckets in every twoweeks. Larval mortality in the buckets were recorded after 24 hours and weekly after spraying.Treatments were repeated in every two weeks. At the same time, 36 ovitraps with paddles wereplaced besides the buckets to monitor field population. Ovitraps were replaced weekly. Paddlesof the ovitraps were taken to laboratory for further eggs counting. For the second trial which had started on 14th July 2010 until now at the high rise flatsat Setapak, the first block, was sprayed with WP TMOF-Bti using ULV. TMOF-Bti in wettablepowder formulation was dissolved in 3 liters of water and sprayed at 0.01 g a.i/m2 (60 g / 3000 64
  4. 4. m2) using LECO/Model 1600 cold aerosol generator mounted on the vehicle .The concentrationused for spraying was twice higher than the first trial. Block 2 was treated with TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation and distributed manually (25mg) into 4 liters containers which had been reduced halved in weight from the first evaluation .The third block was sprayed with 3 liters of water only as the control. All the windows anddoors remained open during ULV spraying. Larval mortalities and eggs ovipositions in ovitrapswere counted. 65
  5. 5. RESULTS 1) Field trial at high rise flats in PPR Kampung Baru Air Panas, Setapak Table 1: Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block A – CONTROL )PERCENTAGES 1st Treatment 2nd Treatment 3rd Treatment 4th Treatment 5th Treatment 6th treatment 7th treatment 8th Treatment OF LARVAL 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 MORTALITY Hours Week Hours Week Hours Week Hours Week Hours Week hours week hours week hours week BLOCK A ( 1st trial ) 56.94 87.22 24.72 33.33 40.56 49.44 50.55 70.14 47.92 57.36 38.89 42.64 31.25 45.56 34.31 47.08BLOCK A ( 2nd trial ) 24.52 33.61 21.25 27.63 40.69 47.5 26.39 40.69 10.2 36.11 11.38 42.36 6.67 34.31 10.67 51.21 Table 2 : Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block H – WETTABLE POWDER ) 1st Treatment 2nd Treatment 3rd Treatment 4th Treatment 5th Treatment 6th treatment 7th treatment 8th TreatmentPERCENTAGES 24 OF LARVAL Hour 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 MORTALITY s Week Hours Week Hours Week Hours Week Hours Week hours week hours week hours week BLOCK H ( 1st trial ) 64.77 75.83 31.67 55 33.66 57.08 31.67 52.22 31.67 78.47 44.44 74.03 45.42 90.69 54.72 80.69BLOCK H ( 2nd trial ) 50.83 78.1 73.89 83.08 56.57 81.94 54.08 65.4 50 73.61 54.36 75.42 49.43 72.28 50 73.5 66
  6. 6. Table 3 : Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block H – RICE HUSK ) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 8th Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment 6th treatment 7th treatment Treatment 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 1 24 PERCENTAGES OF Hour Wee Hour Wee Hour Wee Hour Wee Hour Wee 24 1 24 1 hour 1LARVAL MORTALITY s k s k s k s k s k hours week hours week s week 98.1BLOCK F ( 1st trial ) 100 100 100 100 9 100 100 100 100 100 99.72 100 100 100 100 100BLOCK F ( 2nd trial) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 67
  7. 7. i) Figure 1 Natural Population of Aedes mosquito in PPR Air Panas, Setapak (1st evaluation)No. of eggs 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 we k 9 th e k th e k dw k 5 th e e k th e k th k th e k th e k th k th e k th e k th k th e k ek 7 th e e 3r ee 15 w ee 21 w ee 27 w ee 11 w e 13 w e 17 w e 19 w e 23 w e 25 w e 29 w e we w tw 1s Block A (Control) Block H (Wettable powder) Block F (Rice husk) 68
  8. 8. ii) Figure 2 Natural Population of Aedes mosquito in PPR Air Panas, Setapak (2nd evaluation) No of eggs 69
  9. 9. Figure 3: Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats inSetapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block A – CONTROL )Figure 4 : Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats inSetapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block H – WETTABLE POWDER ) 70
  10. 10. Figure 5 : Field Trials Using TMOF-Bti Formulations against Aedes aegypti at High-Rise Flats inSetapak, Kuala Lumpur ( Block F – RICE HUSK )DiscussionFrom the graphs of Figures 1 and 2, showing the natural population of the eggs ofAedes aegypti on the first and second trials. The data indicated that there weredifference between both trials.The second trial recorded that a lower number of eggsoviposited compared to the first trial This was due to the effectiveness of the TMOF-Btiformulation used in this study to control the population of Ae. aegypti. Figure 3, the graph shows the data at the control block of the experiment fromthe first and second trials. The percentage of larval mortality at both trials shows adifference whereby the percentage of larval mortality of the second trial was muchlower compared to that of the first trial.. At block H ( Figure 4 ), showa a different between the first trial to that of thesecond trial. The percentage of larval mortality for the first four treatments of thesecond trial was much more higher. However, the percentage of both trials became 71
  11. 11. similar on the following weeks. This mighr be due to the effect of the weather in thefield ,either it was calm, windy or raining. Furthermore, the concentration of wettablepowder used were twice much more higher compared to the first trial which causingthe percentage of larval mortality was much more higher on the second trial. Figure 5 shows the result of the efficacy of rice husk formulation in block F. Thesecond trial was much better than the first trial whereby the percentage of larvalmortality was 100 % in all treatments throughout the study period. Although theconcentration of rice husk used decreased from 50gm for 4 litre of water to 25 gm, theformulation still killed all larvae effectively.CONCLUSIONFrom the study which had been conducted in the field, we can strongly conclude thatTMOF – Bti in rice husk formulation which was distributed directly was much moreeffective compared to the TMOF- Bti in wettable powder formulation sprayed using ULV. 72

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