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Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)
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Building the cash machine (sales team and sale process management) (red)

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  • 1. Applications of Theory of Constraints (TOC) Sales management for a small and medium business Are organizational solutions for large firms fitting the SMB environment? Alex Klarman, Ph.D. Richard Klapholz MBA Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 2. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) This presentation contains material that is the intellectual property of the Goldratt Institute (Israel) and may not be reproduced or distributed in any form, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of Dr. Alex Klarman and the Goldratt Institute (Israel). 2 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 3. Human behavior at organization - Negative aspects UDE’s (Un-Desirable Effects) Sometimes, some of the organizational performance measurements don’t contribute to its goal. Some people are deeply frustrated. The cya (cover your rear part) mentality is common. The blaming mentality Ït’s your fault” is common . Sometimes people feel that what they do is contrary to the common sense. People will conform even to a counterproductive standards. Some people develop apathy. Sometimes there is back-stabbing or politics in an organization. Organization witness walls of mistrust (or even hostility) between functions and levels. Sometimes, people’s performance is evaluated arbitrarily. 3 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) Sometimes some people are over-valuated, while they are under-valuated.
  • 4. Just looking at this list of symptoms, our initial conclusion will probably be: • These people are horrible! • Our solution might be to get rid of all of these people and start over, or bring in a whole team of organizational psychologists. • What are some of the other popular methods being used to deal with such problems? • Are the problems going away? • How long have these problems existed? • Realistically, do you think these problems can be fixed once and for all? 1.4 Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute, © 10/24/2013
  • 5. Human Behavior’s CRT Organization suffer “walls of mistrust” (or even hostility) between functions and levels. The cya (cover your rear part) mentality is common. Frustration seeks an outlet Sometimes people feel that what they do is contrary to the common sense. The finger pointing mentality (“It is his/her fault!”) is common Some people are deeply frustrated. Satisfaction at work, doing what’s right, is very significant to people People will conform even to a counterproductive standards. People’s intuition is usually good. 5 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) Sometimes, some performance measurements don’t contribute to organization’s goals. Sometimes there is politics and/or behind-the-scene maneuvers in an organization. Some people develop apathy. Sometimes some people are over-valuated, while they are under-valuated. Sometimes, people’s performance is evaluated arbitrarily. Usually, people are measured by the degree of an adherence to their standards or measurements.
  • 6. Identifying the Core Problem helps us identify precisely where to focus our improvements. But that’s just the beginning! • What’s the solution? • How do we make sure it yields the desired results? • How do we make sure that “the medicine isn’t more harmful than the disease?” • Have you ever had a great idea that never got implemented because of all the obstacles to implementing it? • Have you ever heard of peoples’ “resistance to change?” • Have you ever seen organizations fail at implementing what appeared to be great solutions? 1.6 Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute, © 10/24/2013
  • 7. If we’re going to ensure that our improvement efforts yield results, we’re going to need more than a tool that helps us identify What to change! We’re going to also need tools to help us figure out To what to change and How to cause the change! 1.7 Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute, © 10/24/2013
  • 8. Rigorously answering these three questions is essential to achieve any significant and sustainable improvement, and provide the framework of the TOC Thinking Processes. 1. What to Change? 2. To What to Change? 3. How to Cause the Change? 1.8 Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute, © 10/24/2013
  • 9. Sales’UDE’s (Un-Desirable Effects): 11. In many SMB firms the same sales people do: • Sales to new customers; • Sales accounting; • Even do customer support (after the contract is signed) 15. Monthly / quarterly 13. Usually, sales people 12. Usually, in SMB firms there is no clear sales pipeline, no processes (steps/duration), no clearly defined roles, no real sales management… requests trump (= have higher priority than) planned tasks in sales area (reactive vs. proactive). 18. Internal meetings of sales 19. Export reps (who reside in 21. Sales proposals are often schematic, or hastily prepared, based upon a personal impression of what might work, not on its value for a specific customers 9 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) 14. Monthly/quarterly quota ( = revenue target) is the main measurement for sales people 16. Customer support urgent quotas push sales people to hurry up to close deals by the end of the term with a huge scrap rate and steep discounts. department are not regular. work quite autonomously. foreign country or a segment of a market) work autonomously usually achieve low results. . 22. Internal meetings of sales department take too long and are quite ineffective. 17. Sometimes, sales people even work on service delivery. 20. Export reps often complain that the product/service lacks a clear-cut competitive edge. 23. The success rate (hit ratio) of the sales people (local and foreign) is quite low. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 10. 23. The success rate Sales in SMB: (“the hit ratio”) of the sales people is quite low. CRT of the negative aspects 34. Quite often sales offer to prospects aren’t enticing enough. 31. An effective business proposition must have a real value for the prospective customer 21. Sales proposals are often schematic, or hastily prepared, based upon personal impression of what might work, not on its value for a specific customers. 30. Quite often, sales people are clearly overloaded. 17. Often internal meetings of sales department take too long and are quite ineffective. 13. Usually, sales 18. Internal meetings 22. Sometimes, sales people work quite autonomously. of sales department are often irregular. people even work on service delivery. 12. Usually, in SMB firms there are no: clear sales pipeline management, clearly defined processes (steps/duration), clearly defined roles, 10 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) there is no real sales management… 16. Customer support urgent requests trump (= have higher priority than) planned sales tasks (reactive vs. proactive). 11. In many SMB firms the same sales people do:  Proposals and sales to new customers;  Sales accounting;  Even do customer support work (after the contract is signed)
  • 11. 23. The success rate Sales in SMB: (hit ratio) of the sales people is quite low. CRT of the negative aspects 16. Monthly / quarterly quotas push sales people to hurry up to close deals by the end of the term with a huge scrap rate and/or steep discounts. 32. Measures are (one of the most) effective tools in directing human actions 33. Haste or pressure aren’t a good advisor; Quite often they deter (or delay) the prospect 14. Monthly/quarterly quotas (or revenue target) are the main measurement for the sales people. 33. Quite often sales people are clearly overloaded. 34. Quite often sales offers to foreign prospects aren’t enticing enough. 19. Export reps (who reside in a foreign country or at some 31. A good business often complain that segment of a market) proposition must have the product/service work autonomously a real value for the lacks a clear-cut often achieve prospective customer competitive edge. disappointing results. . 12. Usually, in SMB firms there are no: clear sales pipeline management, clearly defined processes (steps/duration), clearly defined roles, 20. Export reps 21. Sales proposals are often schematic, or hastily prepared, based upon personal impression of what might work, not on its value for a specific customers. 11 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) there is no real sales management…
  • 12. Richard Klapholz & Alex Klarman The Cash Machine Sales Management acc. to TOC 12 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 13. 13 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 14. The Selling Process: 10 Steps of Sale 1. Selection 2. Qualification 3. Needs Assessment 4. Letter of Understanding 5. Presentation Demo 6. Solution Proposal and Technical Check 7. Production Demo 8. Quotation Submission 9. Negotiation 10. Closing 14 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 15. The Selling Process: 8 Steps of Sale 1. Selection of inquirers 2. Qualification of inquirers (telephone or meeting) 3. Needs assessment I (meeting) 4. Needs assessment II (visit at plant, shop, organization...) 5. Presentation of suggested direction of the solution 6. Solution proposal and quotation submission 7. Negotiation 8. Closing 15 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 16. A systematic approach - TOC • Describe the selling process as a PROCESS - a clearly defined sequence of dependent steps • Apply the TOC approach: 1. Identify the constraint 2. Exploit the constraint 3. Subordinate all other processes to the constraint 4. Elevate the constraint 16 5. Start all over again from step one © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 17. The Selling Process: 10 Steps of Sale 1. Selection 2. Qualification 3. Needs Assessment 4. Letter of Understanding 5. Presentation Demo 6. Solution Proposal and Technical Check 7. Production Demo 8. Quotation Submission 9. Negotiation 10. Closing 17 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 18. The funnel concept: Qualified Prospects Key parameters input to output: - Ratio - Time Closed Orders 18 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 19. Steps of sales integrated in the funnel: Selection Qualification Needs Assessment Letter of Understanding Presentation Demo Solution Proposal & Technical Check Production Demo Quotation Submission Negotiation 19 Closing © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 20. In your company: • How many sales resources do you have? • How many accounts do they cover? • How many ongoing opportunities do they manage? • How long is the sales cycle? • What is the size of the average sales order? • What is the typical hit-ratio of closed orders out of the total of qualified prospects as they go through the sales cycle? 20 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 21. In a large company: • How many sales resources do you have? 40 • How many accounts do they cover? 30 (each) • How many ongoing opportunities do they manage? 7 (each) • How long is the sales cycle? 100 days • What is the average sales order? US$700,000 • What is the typical ratio of closed orders out of the total of qualified prospects as they go through the sales cycle? 1:2.5 21 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 22. In a small (or a medium) company: • How many sales resources do you have? 1 • How many accounts do they cover? 30 • How many ongoing opportunities do they manage? 10 • How long is the sales cycle? 75 days • What is the average sales order? US$ 50,000 • What is the typical ratio of closed orders out of the total of qualified prospects as they go through the sales cycle? 1:2.5 22 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 23. A small company’s funnel: Qualified Prospects 1 Sales Persons x 10 Ongoing Opportunities = 10 Prospects 75 Days 1:2.5 US$ 50,000 per order Key parameters input to output: - Ratio - Time (10 prospects/ 2.5 ) x US$ 50,000 = $ 200,000/75 days = $ 240,000 / quarter or @ $ 1 M a year Closed Orders 23 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 24. How can we improve? • More prospects  MARKETING • Better ratio  the ART of SALE Our FOCUS for TODAY: TOC • Shorter sales cycle or higher efficiency  • Larger average deal  MARKETING, R&D 24 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 25. TOC in the Cash Machine 1. Identify the constraint – Production Demo’s – Solution Proposal & Technical Check 2. Exploit the constraint – Off load – Fully utilize demonstration capacity – Avoid bad multitasking 3. Subordinate all other processes to the constraint – DBR concept 4. Elevate the constraint – Add resources if necessary 25 5. Start all over again from step one © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 26. TOC in The Cash Machine 1. Identify the constraint – Needs assessment I and II 2. Exploit the constraint – Fully utilize assessment capacity – Avoid bad multitasking 3. Subordinate all other processes to the constraint – DBR concept 4. Elevate the constraint – Add resources if necessary 26 5. Start all over again from step one © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 27. Multitasking (or truly BMT - Bad Multitasking) 3 TASKS: A, B, C – each 30 days; one single resource A B 75 days C 83 days 90 days A B C A B C A B A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C 27 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) time
  • 28. Amazing!!! IT TAKES 30 DAYS TO COMPLETE TASK A, BUT THE TASK IS ACTUALLY COMPLETED AFTER 75 DAYS !!! IF THERE WERE 20 TASKS, NONE WOULD BE PERFORMED IN THE SAME YEAR!!! SOME PEOPLE IN OUR ORGANIZATION WORK VERY HARD EVERY DAY, BUT THEY DON’T COMPLETE (ENOUGH) TASKS!!! 28 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 29. Focus!!! Don’t do it: A B C A B C A B A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C time Best case scenario: B A C time Real-life scenario: A A 75 days 40 days B B 105 days C time * Sales-support functions must be focused on assisting a well-defined and limited amount of sales opportunities. ** Resource buffers are strongly recommended. 29 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 30. End-of-the-quarter syndrome: • In Goldratt’s Critical Chain – maybe some of you remember why all safety (in-process-buffers) were ‘consumed’ (or rather wasted) in most cases? – STUDENT SYNDROME (late start) – SOFTWARE ENGINEER SYNDROME (unneeded optimizations) – “NEGOTIATED TIMES” WITH TASK MANAGER (fear of late completion) – MURPHY (it’s real life, and s- -t happens) • Why do most (or too many) sales happen late in 30 the quarter? © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 31. The core reasons for the end-of-the-quarter sales syndrome: • The financial community measures businesses on a quarterly basis, and most of the firms do the same. • Customers order equipment/service as-late-as-possible • All salesmen incentive plans are quarterly based • The backlog of orders is not increasing • There is no clear definition of delivery times 31 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 32. The core reasons for the end-of-the-quarter syndrome: • The financial community measures businesses on a quarterly basis, and most of the firms do the same. • Customers order equipment/service as-late-as-possible Our FOCUS: • All salesmen incentive plans are quarterly based • The backlog of orders is not increasing • There is no clear definition of delivery times 32 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 33. Sales incentive plans – current: • The standard plan of a sales person – 1.1 M$: – – – – Q1: 0.20 M$ Q2: 0.28 M$ Q3: 0.27 M$ Q4: 0.35 M$ • As it was “negotiated” with Sales, it is probably not that aggressive… – Late start is guaranteed… – Risk of long sales cycles is high… 33 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 34. Sales incentive plans – TOC: • “The Cash Machine” plan – 1.10 M$: – Jan. – Dec.: 0.11 M$/Month – Annual buffer of 0.22 M$ • The culture of measuring Sales is transformed 34 – Aggressive from day 1, but no punishment on not reaching the monthly target. – Annual view enables management to constantly monitor the buffer and take constructive corrective actions in time. – For the sales people - no time to optimize, late start not possible, non-negotiated monthly target. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 35. If we have the funnel concept; from-prospect-to-order chain: Qualified Prospects Key parameters input to output: - Ratio - Time Closed Orders 35 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 36. …then why not the: from-prospect-to-cash chain: Qualified Prospects Key parameters input to output: - Ratio or Yield - Time or Lead-time Cash or Sold finished-goods 36 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 37. Lets us understand the prospect-to-cash chain: Function Process MARKETING I. Awareness creation II. Interest incitement III. Knowledge transfer IV. Lead generation SALES 1. Selection 2. Qualification 3. Needs assessment 4. Letter of Understanding 5. Presentation demo 6. Solution proposal/technical check 7. Production demo 8. Quotation submission 9. Negotiation 37 10. Closing © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 38. Lets us understand the prospect-to-cash chain: Function Process ORDER ADMIN. I. Order received basic checks II. Approval cycle III. Product customization/integration acc. to customer order, testing and packing IV. Installation call for customer services V. Shipping FINANCE Invoicing CUSTOMER SUPPORT 1. Unpacking 2. Installation of separate components 3. Networking of the entire system 4. Application and workflow set-up 5. Customer training 6. Acceptance test 38 FINANCE Cash collection © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 39. About the approval cycles: B A Run an efficient Sales operation D Make sure unnecessary expenses are blocked as soon as possible Introduce In-Process cost-control steps © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) D’ Make sure operations are not delayed by unnecessary activities 39 C Prevent the introduction of In-Process cost-control steps
  • 40. The link between new product introduction and cash generation: A Maximize the business potential of new products 40 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) B Beat competition and overcome losses due to early phase-out of older products D Launch new products as early as possible C Ensure full product functionality prior to full customer availability D’ Launch new products only after all customer tests are successful
  • 41. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: Qualified Prospects Key parameters input to output: - Ratio or Yield - Time or Lead-time Cash or Sold finished-goods 41 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 42. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: PRODUCTION WORLD: • “Reaching a local optimum in one area of the production floor does not really help to ship more finished goods, unless it’s at a bottleneck” 42 CASH MACHINE WORLD: • “We decided to increase the capacity of our ability to submit quotations to our customers. We invested a lot of efforts there… • ... but then we discovered, I must admit, that it was all in vain. It didn’t help to increase sales one bit” © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 43. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: PRODUCTION WORLD: “‘Drum, Buffer, Rope’ describes the way material moves on the production floor; this means that we release raw material to the floor only at the pace of the bottleneck. That’s the DRUM according to which beat the entire system marches. • BUFFER is a work-in-progress released into the system and awaiting processing in front of the bottleneck… • ROPE is the mechanism that ties the introduction of additional material into the process to the pace of the work of the bottleneck.” 43 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 44. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: CASH MACHINE WORLD: • “We got many customers, but we got stuck with too much work-in-progress. • In other words, installations that we could not complete, and turn into cash. Who cares about that one? • The marketing folks were happy as we got many orders. Unfortunately, the question ‘so what?’ applies here fully.” 44 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 45. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: PRODUCTION WORLD: • “Another problem is set-up. In order to improve local efficiencies, we worked with big batches; we used to produce a maximum amount of parts after a long set-up. Now, we do as many set-ups as needed in non-bottleneck resources, so that the bottleneck resource can be fully utilized” CASH MACHINE WORLD: • “We could have diverted our sales efforts from hardware sales to software sales..…..there isn’t much sense in pushing our guys to sell more machines, when we don’t 45 have resources to install them” © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 46. Some lessons learned and their analogy in Sales Management: PRODUCTION WORLD: • “I think that the best lesson of all is the fifth step in constraints management: start all over again. But don’t let the inertia take control. This is a never-ending story” CASH MACHINE WORLD: • “Yes, to a certain extent we did that, too. I think that we crossed all departments in the last twelve months” 46 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 47. So what’s our main problem? 1. Sales Managers focus on THE SALE, not on the SALES OPERATION. They assume that: – They better focus on what they know well (vs. what is important) – There is no systematic methodology to improve the Sales Operation 2. They behave as if Sales process is an “isolated island” in the company – one which takes the products or services and get customer orders! 47 Both are mistaken:  Sales are an operation, quite a complex one, and all the rules of operational management apply here. Sales are just a part, albeit a crucial one, of a larger system and should act accordingly. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 48. Thank You! 48 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 49. Alex Klarman, Ph.D. Alex Klarman - As the CEO of the Goldratt Institute (Israel), Dr. Klarman is leading the effort to introduce TOC to, and establish it as the standard management approach in Israel, as well as worldwide. His background - Ph.D. in biophysics, as well as his industrial and educational background, including long years of hands-on experience in industry, makes him exceptionally fitting to this demanding undertaking. As the commanding officer of Dr. Eli Goldratt during decades' long service the Israeli army, Dr. Klarman became familiar with the early concepts of OPT and TOC almost three decades ago. Since 1985 he took a major part in the drive to develop, disseminate and apply TOC. Dr. Klarman’s work included developing the educational materials and simulators used in various areas of TOC education, as well as the implementation work with some of the leading world-class corporations including the likes of Ford, Phillips, Intel, Teva and Microsoft, as well as many, many others. 49 Place for your photo Goldratt Institute (Israel) Question Mark Ltd. 2 Hadar Street Herzliya 46290 ISRAEL Tel: +972-9-950-7464 Fax: +972-9-950-7463 E-mail: toc-israel@012.net.il © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  • 50. Dr Alex (Alik) Klarman – only what truly matters: Alex was born in Frunze (today it’s Bishkek) the capital of Kyrgizstan – you sure know where it is. He got his Ph.D. in biophysics (the molecular architecture of very old and very large proteins) at the Biochemistry dept. of Tel-Aviv University – raise your hand, if you want to know more. As a major (reserve) in the Israeli Army he was Eli Goldratt’s Commanding Officer in two wars – and both survived (how?). His wife, Dr. Uki Maroshek (the intellectual part of the family) manages the Adam Institute in Jerusalem – but Alex cooks. Well. Has four sons - Dan, physicist (happens), Uri - computer science, Shauli - finished his army service (+) and has just started college, and Joav - the youngest, who is now in the Army. His previous book (together with Richard Klapholz), The Cash Machine , on sales management acc. to TOC , was already translated from English to Polish, Lithuanian (yes, that’s right!), Chinese, Japanese and is soon to appear in German and Hebrew. 50 His latest book , also with Richard Klapholz, Release the Hostages, regarding customer support systems acc. to TOC, was published in 2009 in US. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)

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