Deafness statistics & causes


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Deafness statistics & causes

  1. 1. Dr Sheelu SrinivasConsultant ENT Surgeon
  2. 2. Statistics about hearing loss Hearing loss is the third leading chronic disability following arthritis and hypertension. 9 out of every 10 children who are born deaf are born to parents who can hear. profound hearing disability in India is about one million 1.2 million people with severe hearing disability 0.9 million people with moderate hearing disability and 7.1 million people with very mild hearing disability.
  3. 3. What is the History ofHearing Impairments?  Denied legal and human rights as well as education and social interaction  1500-1600’s - Spanish began teaching deaf individuals to communicate.  1700s - First free public schools for deaf individuals began in France.  1864 - A. Lincoln authorizes the National Deaf-Mutes College to grant degrees; the institution later becomes Gallaudet University.  Late 1800s - Oralist movement  20th Century – Advocacy for protection of individual rights and access to inclusion in schools and communitiesTaylor/Smiley/Richards,Exceptional Students
  4. 4. Development Timing Week 3 - otic placode, otic vesicle Week 5 - cochlear part of otic vesicle elongates (humans 2.5 turns) Week 9 - Mesenchyme surrounding membranous labrynth (otic capsule) chondrifies Week 12-16 - Capsule adjacent to membranous labrynth undegoes vacuolization to form a cavity (perilymphatic space) around membranous labrynth and fills with perilymph Week 16-24 - Centres of ossification appear in remaining cartilage of otic capsule form petrous portion of temporal bone. Continues to ossify to form mastoid process of temporal bone. 3rd Trimester - Vibration acoustically of maternal abdominal wall induces startle respone in fetus. (These are Human embryonic timings, not clinical which is based on last menstral period +2 weeks) 3 Sources: Inner ear - epidermal otic placode at level of hindbrain. Middle ear - cavity: 1st pharyngeal pouch, ossicles: mesenchyme 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches. Outer ear - external auditory meatus: 1st pharyngeal cleft, auricle: 6 hillocks 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches
  5. 5. Proactive action in child’s hearingproblem Commonest cause of Temporary hearing loss in children: occurs at critical stage of speech at development Leads to speech & attention difficulties
  6. 6. May appear hearing normally Miss certain pitches or Reacting to soundsDelay in picking up frequency in sound spectrumPrecious time lostBetween birth & 2 1/2 yearschild is programming the basic Difficult to comprehend speech at normalsystems volume Confused about things in their Misunderstand or environment Hearing loss tricky to spot & give impression of a slow learner Actually certain sounds do not Brain does not get complete reach the brain picture
  7. 7. Common causes of conductivedeafness-fluid/infection
  8. 8. Primary acquired cholesteatoma
  9. 9. Managing hearing loss Conductive- Myringotomy, Tympanoplasty, Stapedotomy, Mastoid surgery Sensorineural - Hearing aids, BAHA, Cochlear Implants
  10. 10. Sensorineural hearing loss Abnormality of inner ear & auditory nerve Majority of the cases inner ear hair cell damage- Cochlear Implant Auditory nerve damage -Brain stem implant
  11. 11. The Deaf Community Supportive, strong community  Does not view hearing loss as a disability Rich history and language (e.g., ASL) Children with cochlear implants may have limited access to the Deaf community
  12. 12. Cochlear Implant Bionic ear Hearing is the only special sense which is conquered Electronic device when implanted provides sense of sound The cochlear implant is the most significant technical advance in the treatment of hearing impairment since the development of the hearing aid around the turn of the century.
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