3 rd Quarter Notes
What is an athletic injury? A damage to the musculoskeletal structures brought about by forces (i.e. acute or repetitive) during athletic performance.
Compression Forces that act along the long axis of a structure which produces a crushing effect.
Tension A pulling force that acts along the long axis of the structure which stretches the tissue.
Shear Forces that act at opposite directions at different points causing one part of the structure to move away from another part of the structure.
Injury with a sudden onset brought about by large forces
Injury that developed over time as a result of repetitive microtrauma
Fractures Disruption in the continuity of a bone Type of fracture depends on mechanical load and bone maturity
Several types of fractures include . . .
Signs and Symptoms
Evaluation Palpation – deformity, tenderness, indentation Percussion – pain during tapping Compression – distal to proximal Distraction – apply traction
Treatment Cast? Internal Fixation? External Fixation?
Dislocations Bone is pushed out of the joint capsule Signs and symptoms are similar to fracture Treat like fracture!!!
Immobilization Anatomical – fingers Rigid - wood Soft - bandage
Guidelines for Splinting Support the injured area above and below the site of the injury, including the joints. If possible, splint the injury in the position that you find it. Don’t try to realign bones or joints unless . . . Before and after splinting, check for proper circulation (warmth, feeling, and color).
Immobilize above and below the injury.
Triangle and Cravat Bandages Cotton cloth that can be substituted if roller bandages not available First aid device, due to ease and speed of application
Primarily used for arm slings
SPRAINS vs. STRAINS NOT INTERCHANGEABLE!! Both injuries are caused by abnormally high tensile forces which tears the tissue but damaged tissues are different . . . Which is Which?!?
SPRAINS vs. STRAINS
SPRAINS vs. STRAINS 1 st Degree (Mild) No loss of function 2 nd Degree (Moderate) Unstable / Weak 3 rd Degree (Severe) Loss of function Dependent on the number of torn fibers . . .
Control Inflammation What is inflammation? Is it bad? P – protect R – rest I – ice C – compression E – elevation
Elastic Bandage Application Hold bandage in preferred hand with loose end extending from bottom of roll Back surface of loose end should lay on skin surface
Pressure and tension should be standardized
Body part should be wrapped in position of maximum circumference More turns with moderate tension Each turn should overlap by half to prevent separation Elastic Bandage Application
Circulation should be monitored when limbs are wrapped
The Skin Function?!?
Common Emergencies Break in the skin and underlying tissues
Injury caused by heat, cold, chemical, electricity, etc.
Common Emergencies Bites Wound caused by teeth or mouth Stings Small puncture wounds with chemical injected
Wounds and Bleeding Types of Wounds Incision Clean, sharp edge Laceration Irregular, tearing Abrasion Friction, scrape
Avulsion Partially ripped
!DANGER! 2 to 3 glasses – casualty becomes anemic and predisposes to infection Infection – gangrene may develop, amputation may be necessary
Shock – circulation is compromised and may lead to death
Kinds of Bleeding Capillary bleeding – oozing flow of blood Venous bleeding – even flow of blood, dull color
Arterial bleeding – irregular spurting of blood, bright red color
Wounds and Bleeding
Change dressing regularly
SUTURES are needed for deep cuts as well as cuts more than an inch long. Interrupted or Subcuticular ?
Burns Classifications According to DEPTH 1 st degree redness, epidermis 2 nd degree blisters, dermis Determine the depth!! What are the causes?
3 rd degree charred, subcutaneous
Burn Severity Remember the Rule of Nines Adult Child Determine extent of burned area!! 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 18% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 9% Head Surface area Anatomic structure 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 14% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 18% Head Surface area Anatomic structure
Burn Severity Determine location of burned area!!
Burn Severity Look for complicating factors!! Below 5 years old (fluid loss) Above 55 years old (delayed healing)
Diabetes (delayed healing)
BURN SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION 3 rd degree burn involving hands, feet, face, or genitals 3 rd degree burns covering more than 10% 2 nd degree burns covering more than 20% burns encompassing a body part 3 rd degree burns covering 2%-10% 2 nd degree burns covering 20%-30%
1 st degree burns greater than 50%
FIRST AID Stop the burning process (HOW?) Remove clothing / jewelry Transport if critical / moderate
Do not drain the blisters