3rd Quarter Notes
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  • Proptection, sensation, thermoregulation

Transcript

  • 1. 3 rd Quarter Notes
  • 2. What is an athletic injury? A damage to the musculoskeletal structures brought about by forces (i.e. acute or repetitive) during athletic performance.
  • 3. Compression Forces that act along the long axis of a structure which produces a crushing effect.
  • 4. Tension A pulling force that acts along the long axis of the structure which stretches the tissue.
  • 5. Shear Forces that act at opposite directions at different points causing one part of the structure to move away from another part of the structure.
  • 6.
    • Acute Injury
    • Injury with a sudden onset brought about by large forces
    • Overuse Injury
    • Injury that developed over time as a result of repetitive microtrauma
  • 7. Fractures
    • Disruption in the continuity of a bone
    • Type of fracture depends on mechanical load and bone maturity
    • Several types of fractures include . . .
    • Simple
    • Compound
    • Greenstick
    • Comminuted
    • Spiral
  • 8. Signs and Symptoms
    • Signs
    • Deformity
    • Weakness
    • Bruise
    • Swelling
    • Positive X-ray
    • Symptoms
    • Pain
    • Grating sensation
  • 9. Evaluation Palpation – deformity, tenderness, indentation Percussion – pain during tapping Compression – distal to proximal Distraction – apply traction
  • 10. Treatment Cast? Internal Fixation? External Fixation?
  • 11. Dislocations Bone is pushed out of the joint capsule Signs and symptoms are similar to fracture Treat like fracture!!!
  • 12. Immobilization Anatomical – fingers Rigid - wood Soft - bandage
  • 13. Guidelines for Splinting
    • Support the injured area above and below the site of the injury, including the joints.
    • If possible, splint the injury in the position that you find it.
    • Don’t try to realign bones or joints unless . . .
    • Before and after splinting, check for proper circulation (warmth, feeling, and color).
    • Immobilize above and below the injury.
  • 14. Triangle and Cravat Bandages
    • Cotton cloth that can be substituted if roller bandages not available
    • First aid device, due to ease and speed of application
    • Primarily used for arm slings
      • Cervical arm sling
      • Shoulder arm sling
      • Sling and swathe
  • 15. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS NOT INTERCHANGEABLE!! Both injuries are caused by abnormally high tensile forces which tears the tissue but damaged tissues are different . . . Which is Which?!?
  • 16. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS
    • Shoulders
    • Elbow
    • Wrist
    • Knee
    • Ankle
    • Lower Back
    • Hamstrings
    • Gastrocnemius
  • 17. SPRAINS vs. STRAINS 1 st Degree (Mild) No loss of function 2 nd Degree (Moderate) Unstable / Weak 3 rd Degree (Severe) Loss of function Dependent on the number of torn fibers . . .
  • 18. Control Inflammation What is inflammation? Is it bad? P – protect R – rest I – ice C – compression E – elevation
  • 19. Elastic Bandage Application
    • Hold bandage in preferred hand with loose end extending from bottom of roll
    • Back surface of loose end should lay on skin surface
    • Pressure and tension should be standardized
    • Anchor at the distal end
  • 20.
    • Body part should be wrapped in position of maximum circumference
    • More turns with moderate tension
    • Each turn should overlap by half to prevent separation
    • Circulation should be monitored when limbs are wrapped
    Elastic Bandage Application
  • 21. The Skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
    Function?!?
  • 22. Common Emergencies
    • Wounds
    • Break in the skin and underlying tissues
    • Open
    • Closed
    • Burns
    • Injury caused by heat, cold, chemical, electricity, etc.
  • 23. Common Emergencies Bites Wound caused by teeth or mouth Stings Small puncture wounds with chemical injected
  • 24. Wounds and Bleeding Types of Wounds
    • Incision Clean, sharp edge
    • Laceration Irregular, tearing
    • Abrasion Friction, scrape
    • Puncture Pointed object
    • Avulsion Partially ripped
  • 25. !DANGER!
    • Hemorrhage
      • 1 glass (250cc) – normal
      • 2 to 3 glasses – casualty becomes anemic and predisposes to infection
      • 4 to 6 glasses – fatal
    • Infection – gangrene may develop, amputation may be necessary
    • Shock – circulation is compromised and may lead to death
  • 26. Kinds of Bleeding
    • Capillary bleeding – oozing flow of blood
    • Venous bleeding – even flow of blood, dull color
    • Arterial bleeding – irregular spurting of blood, bright red color
  • 27. Wounds and Bleeding
    • Proper Care
    • Protect self
    • Control bleeding
    • a. direct pressure**
    • b. elevation
    • c. pressure points
    • Use sterile dressing
    • Prevent shock
    • a. raise legs
    • b. prevent heat loss
    • Irrigate wound
    • Change dressing regularly
  • 28. SUTURES are needed for deep cuts as well as cuts more than an inch long. Interrupted or Subcuticular ?
  • 29. Burns
    • Classifications According to DEPTH
    • 1 st degree redness, epidermis
    • 2 nd degree blisters, dermis
    • 3 rd degree charred, subcutaneous
    Determine the depth!! What are the causes?
  • 30. Burn Severity Remember the Rule of Nines Adult Child Determine extent of burned area!! 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 18% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 9% Head Surface area Anatomic structure 1% Perineum 9% Each Arm 14% Each Leg 18% Posterior Torso 18% Anterior Torso 18% Head Surface area Anatomic structure
  • 31. Burn Severity Determine location of burned area!!
    • Face
    • Hands and Feet
    • Genital Area
    • Joint Area
  • 32. Burn Severity Look for complicating factors!!
    • Below 5 years old (fluid loss)
    • Above 55 years old (delayed healing)
    • Diabetes (delayed healing)
    • CVD (hypoperfusion)
  • 33. BURN SEVERITY CLASSIFICATION
    • CRITICAL
    • 3 rd degree burn involving hands, feet, face, or genitals
    • 3 rd degree burns covering more than 10%
    • 2 nd degree burns covering more than 20%
    • burns encompassing a body part
    • MODERATE
    • 3 rd degree burns covering 2%-10%
    • 2 nd degree burns covering 20%-30%
    • 1 st degree burns greater than 50%
  • 34. FIRST AID
    • Stop the burning process (HOW?)
    • Remove clothing / jewelry
    • Transport if critical / moderate
    • Do not drain the blisters
    • Take analgesic
    • Cover with “burn sheet”