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  • 1. PLAN FOR LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL COHESION Education and Immigration Annex 1 INSERTION CLASS June 2007 1
  • 2. Table of contentsIntroduction1 The insertion class in the framework of the Plan for Language and Social Cohesion 1.1 Plan for language and social cohesion 1.2 Criteria for opening an insertion class2. The insertion class in the educational centre3. Professionals in the insertion class 3.1 The insertion class tutor 3.2 Other professionals4. Management of the class: Organization, Methodology and Evaluation 4.1. Organizational aspects 4.2. Methodological aspects 4.3. Evaluation5. Training and advisement at schools with insertion classes6. Evaluation of resources 6.1. Actions 6.2. An external perspective7. ConclusionsAppendix 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION:The insertion class: a flexible and dynamic open space to receive the new pupils The ordinary classroom is the place par excellence to develop knowledge of the language of instruction. It is therefore necessary to establish a welcoming system to provide accelerated strategies for basic linguistic acquisition in order to actively integrate students there. Ignasi Vila, Santiago Parera i Josep M. Serra (Universitat de Girona) Welcoming is not a new job that a a new professional has to develop. Having one tutor per insertion class does not imply that the rest of the staff can forget this task (...). A good welcome is not possible unless the entire school adopts a welcoming attitude. Francesc Carbonell (teacher) The concept of welcoming, in itself, implies a complete affective involvement... The concepts of receiving, admitting and accepting imply others such as knowledge and love. Joaquim Arenas (teacher)One of the most important and significant changes that has occurred in educationalcentres around Catalonia In the last few years has been the continuous and increasingarrival of pupils from all around the world. At the present time, we have pupils from 150different countries in Catalonia. It has been a very quick arrival with a distribution that,even though irregular, has covered all the Catalan regions. As an example, we only needobserve that in the 1999-2000 school year, pupils coming from foreign countries in pre-school, primary and secondary compulsory education represented 1,76%, 2,30% and2,38% respectively for each educational level. However, when the 2005-2006 academicyear ended, these percentages had risen to 8,05%, 12,48% and 11,94% (see annex 1).Faced with this reality, the Department of Education started insertion classes in the year2004-2005 as a response to this new educational challenge. The creation of insertionclasses implies dedicated teachers, dedicated computing resources with adequatesoftware, an initial economic investment for the acquisition of teaching materials andspecific training for the insertion class tutor and for the professionals who take part in thewelcoming process. This process is under the direction of the language, interculturalismand social cohesion advisory group (LIC) that the Education Department has deployedthroughout Catalonia (more than 200 during 2006-2007) as part of its educationalservices.A good welcome, good integration and the guarantee that everyone should have thesame possibilities and opportunities, are elements that are necessary for the shaping ofa united Catalan society, inclusive, plural, respectful, open to the world and rooted in itsown cultural reality. 3
  • 4. 1. THE INSERTION CLASS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN FOR LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL COHESION1.1 Plan for language and social cohesionThe Education Department has promoted, since the 2004-2005 academic year, the Planfor Language and Social Cohesion (Plan LIC), which should be understood as a new toolfor confronting the question of diversity in the school and for helping all students toachieve educational success. This plan grows out of the growing complexity and pluralityof Catalan society. The main aim of the LIC plan is to find answers to the neweducational challenges that could appear in the future as a consequence of socialchanges.The LIC Plan is made up of three tightly intertwined axes that strongly influence oureducation system: the increasing incorporation of pupils with an immigrant background,the appearance of new causes of social exclusion and the insufficient everyday use ofthe Catalan Language. These three elements define the space in which advances needto take place in order to build social cohesion: To promote social and educational inclusion, avoiding any type of marginalisation, guaranteeing equity and creating the appropriate conditions to facilitate equality of opportunity and possibilities, through access to quality education. To consolidate the Catalan language as a vehicular language in the schools and as the backbone of a multilingual project, adapting measures, strategies and educational resources to the increasing linguistic and cultural diversity of the student body. To raise awareness of equality with dignity for all people as a prerequisite for knowledge of, and respect for cultural differences, empowering a culture of dialogue and coexistence in an intercultural framework.Likewise, the LIC Plan is based in the conviction that educational success is key toachieve social cohesion, and this educational success for all pupils requires researchinto necessary strategies in order to achieve: • Personal success, related to the development of a rich personal identity, balanced and non-exclusive. • Social success, linked to the development of social skills and ideal attitudes in order to coexist in a plural society. • Academic success, linked to the development of the capacity to turn information into knowledge and knowledge into competencies. • Professional success, linked to the development of the capacity to apply this knowledge in order to satisfactorily respond to present-day professional challenges.All these principles, gathered together in the Plan LIC, take concrete form as three linesof action, which will respond to the abovementioned challenges: 4
  • 5. • An insertion class to provide quality attention, both emotional and curricular, to the primary needs of the newcomers as well as facilitating the learning of the vehicular language of the school.• A welcoming school, with consistent linguistic policies, that offers an intercultural education and works for the academic success of all students; the welcoming of new pupils should make us rethink the welcome that we give to all those who arrive at a new school, especially at an emotional level.• The local education plan, which has been defined as an open initiative of educational cooperation that intends to give an integrated and community-based response to the educational needs of children and youth, coordinating and revitalizing the educational action in a zone beyond the school, in which different public, cultural, leisure, sports and other entities intervene. Language and Social Cohesion Plan Local education plan Welcoming school Insertion classIt is in the framework of this integrative school and educational model, based oncoexistence and respect for diversity, that insertion classes have started to operate as astrategy to welcome newcomers to Catalan schools.1.2. Criteria for opening an insertion classThe authorisation to open an insertion class in a school is strictly linked to theacceptance by the school of a series of educational and organisational commitments: Anticipate the human and material resources necessary to offer a good welcome to the new pupils. Provide organizational and methodological resources related to the objectives of integration and of language learning. Appoint a tutor for the insertion class from amongst the permanent (titular) faculty, whenever possible, in order to guarantee pedagogical continuity. Review management documents with the aim of adapting them to the axes of the LIC Plan, and specifically the welcoming plan, the social cohesion of the school and the linguistic project.As a result, for this class to make sense, the school has to establish a process ofimprovement to the attention paid to all pupils and has to include the new resource in thegeneral organization of the centre. 5
  • 6. When assigning an insertion class to a school, a number of different factors are takeninto account. First of all, the number of immigrant pupils registered in the two last years,data that is combined with the percentage of the student body that has foreignnationality. We also take into account the social and economic situation of thesurrounding community, since, depending on the context, pupils’ access to the vehicularlanguage of learning and academic success can be difficult. Finally, we must considerthe balance in the education offer of the area in order to avoid concentrating newimmigrant pupils in one school or in the same type of schools. 6
  • 7. 2. THE INSERTION CLASS IN THE EDUCATIONAL CENTREThe insertion class is a resource – an organizational and methodological strategy to takecare of newcomers when they arrive in the Catalan educational system. It has a doubleobjective: first of all, that pupils feel well received and valued at an emotional level and,secondly, that they have at their disposition the basic tools to initiate, as soon as possibleand in the best possible conditions, their process of teaching-learning within theeducation system in Catalonia.The existence of an insertion class does not need to be in conflict with the principle thatthe school is responsible for welcoming, planning the educational itinerary and followingup on the learning process of new pupils. Therefore, the school has to mobilize all itsresources – personnel, educational, methodological and organizational – to guarantysuccess in school, as well as equality of opportunity. Regular classes are the referenceenvironment for these pupils, while the insertion classes are there to guarantee theemotional welcome and accelerate the learning of the vehicular language of instruction.According to the school curriculum of Catalonia, we need to take into account that themain aim of education is to help pupils confront the challenges of the plural, multilingualand multicultural society of the 21st century, which means that we must help pupilsdevelop those linguistic competencies that encourage knowledge, aptitude, attitudes andrepresentations related to languages and cultures; to act and be successful in theirenvironment; to communicate with other people; to share their knowledge and culturalreferences; that means, that they can build the foundations of citizenship, of theknowledge that represents the human condition, and the understanding of others. As amatter of fact, the presence of pupils from so many different countries in our classesshould be one of the tools that teachers use to advantage in order to work on values andcontent that emanate from plurilingualism and interculturalism.All in all, the responsibility for welcoming new immigrant pupils to the school rests bothwith the regular class group and the insertion class. The pupil has to attend, with hisclass, the subjects that require less linguistic competency, such as physical education,art or those areas where ICTs are systematically used. In this way, common socializationspaces are guaranteed from the first moment of incorporation of the newcomers.The insertion class has, by definition, the following basic characteristics: It is an open resource since it facilitates welcoming pupils who have just arrived together with the rest of their classmates in a context of inclusive education and it empowers language learning. The pupils must be able to join the group anytime during the school year, and we also need to be able to decide on the total incorporation of a pupil within the regular class at the appropriate time. It is a flexible resource, since it meets learning and welcoming needs of the pupils. Considering these specific and differentiated education needs, each centre needs to respond through different organizational models. It is dynamic because it is one more part of the educational activity of the school and therefore needs to be included in the pedagogical reflection process. 7
  • 8. Taking all these principles into account, each centre adapts the resource to their needsand organizational possibilities. Illustration Insertion class 1To sum up, the insertion class needs to be a part of the overall programme of the centre,both for teaching activities and for the attention received by pupils. It has to offerpersonalized, quality attention, initiate intensive learning of the Catalan language andprovide a bridge from communicative language into academic language. These worktogether to facilitate access to the ordinary curriculum.1 Education Department (2006) You can find this illustration at A teacher guide is also available. 8
  • 9. 3. PROFESSIONALS IN THE INSERTION CLASS3.1 The insertion class tutorThe insertion class requirements include naming a tutor. It is recommended that theprofessional occupying this post be someone with a titular post at the school, to guarantycontinuity of the resource and benefit from the person’s knowledge and experience at thestart.When considering the appointment of a tutor, it is Important for the management team totake into account the educational experience of the tutor in language teaching, masteryof ICT and his/her capacity for leadership, empathy and motivation.The duties that a tutor exercises in the insertion class are as follows:• Management of the insertion class: plan resources and actions, programme learning sequences, apply the most appropriate methods and evaluate processes and results.• Perform the initial evaluation, elaborate, together with the regular class tutor, intensive individual plans and collaborate in making individual curricular adaptations or changes of curriculum, if necessary.• Coordinate actions with the rest of the teaching staff in order to ensure educational coherence and promote the integration of newcomers in their classes of reference.• Apply methods of language immersion, develop social inclusion strategies and integrate intercultural educational content.• Synchronize with the coordinator of language and social cohesion of the school (CLIC) and other professionals (translation service, LIC advisor, pedagogical assistance team (EAP)).3.2 Other professionalsEven though the main task of management of the insertion class is the tutor’s, there areother professionals who have a very important job in welcoming newcomers.• The tutor of the regular class ensures the progressive acquisition by the pupils, who divide their schedule between insertion and ordinary classes, of basic competencies and coordinates actions with the rest of the teaching staff to ensure educational coherence.• The school’s LIC coordinator collaborates in the management of actions related to welcoming and the integrating the newcomers, which helps us define strategies of attention to these pupils, participates in the organisation and optimisation of resources and coordinates the actions of the external professionals who intervene in these domains.• The LIC advisor orients and monitors the organization of the insertion class, advises on the strategies of teaching and learning the language with the new pupils and on language learning resources, directs the tutorial work with these pupils as well as the strategies that make the collaboration between the insertion class and the class 9
  • 10. group easier and, in general, on the elaboration, revision or development of welcoming plans and the linguistic project.Apart from these professionals who have specific jobs in connection with the newcomers,in cases where the pupil presents special educational needs, schools need to take intoaccount the usual existing resources in the centre and apply them to the question ofdiversity:• In primary school, when a pupil with special educational needs comes to the centre, the tutor, together with the special education teacher and the EAP, coordinates the cycle team in order to formalise, in writing, curricular adaptations or, if necessary, curriculum changes.• In the case of secondary education, the psychology and pedagogy specialists of the school and the EAP advise the pedagogic coordinator as well as the different teaching departments involved in the written formalization of curriculum adaptations or, if needed, the changes of the curriculum. 10
  • 11. 4. MANAGEMENT OF THE CLASS: ORGANIZATION, METHODOLOGY ANDEVALUATION4.1 Organizational Aspects• Insertion class targetThe insertion class addresses pupils who have arrived in Catalonia within the last twoyears (24 months) via immigration, who need a specific curricular adaptation and do nothave knowledge of the language used in school. It is important not to confuse thesepupils with those coming from other communities within the country, who follow a similarcurriculum and for whom only the Catalan language is unknown. Pupils in this categoryneed to follow specific orientations via individualized attention.It is also not appropriate to use this resource for pre-school or primary education pupils.• Number of pupils per group and timetableThe number of pupils that need to be simultaneously accommodated in an insertion classhas to be limited. This number can vary depending on the characteristics of the pupils:the level of previous schooling, the closeness of their language to Catalan, the degree ofmaturity and progress within the learning process. However, by way of guidance, it isrecommended that the number not exceed 12 pupils at the same time.Pupils cannot remain in the insertion class during all their school hours. A recommendedoption is for them to spend a maximum of half their weekly school timetable in insertionclass, and that the duration of the assistance gradually be decreased as the pupils’learning process advances.Work with pupils in the insertion class is therefore very intensive in order to help themjoin the class group in all subjects.• Time of stay at the Insertion ClassThe time of stay of a pupil is limited (we recommend that it does not exceed 2 years). It isa transitory resource and it will always depend on the pupil’s personal characteristics.For this reason each school has to plan organisational and methodological strategies tobetter adapt to its own reality.• Teaching staff of the Insertion ClassThe number of teachers interacting in class, apart from the insertion tutor, has to belimited, since in a first stage of the arrival of a pupil in our education system, the referentsneed to be as clear as possible. 11
  • 12. 4.2 Methodological Aspects• MethodologyThe methodology of the insertion class must take a global view of the organization oflearning, including the existence of functional activities, the encouragement ofcooperative work and the establishment of positive personal relationships.The organizational characteristics of the insertion class and the progress of its pupils in asecond language (or even a third language in many cases) imply a specific educationalpractice, which must be based on the strongest aspects of accumulated educationalexperience in the Catalan linguistic immersion programme (despite the fact that ourpresent teaching staff does not know the language of an important number of these newpupils).Therefore, interpersonal relationships between pupils and teachers must be formalized,in which pupils should feel recognized for what they contribute to the school (in the eventof pupils speaking a language that the teaching staff does not know, this recognition willhave to be symbolic, but there must be some recognition) and positive affectiverelationships between teachers and pupils must be made possible. Both aspectscontribute to the creation of the conditions for acquiring a new language. In this sense, itmust be taken into account that it is a slow, gradual process, full of comings and goings;therefore the speech mode of the teaching staff, their forms of expression, should at alltimes be adapted to the communication skills of their pupils: this implies highlycontextualized speech modes, task-oriented activities, methodological proposals basedon centres of interest, more individualized interpersonal relationships in corners or inprojects, etc. All in all, the result is that pupils and teaching staff negotiate permanentlywhat is done and what is said in class, so that the negotiation of meanings – a keyelement of pupils’ school progress – forms the backbone of all school activity.It must be stressed, finally, that oral language work is fundamental, because mostnewcomers (except for those who live in socio-linguistic contexts in which the socialpresence of Catalan is quite high) have no contact with the language of the educationalcentre, neither in the family, nor in their social environment. Therefore, from the firstmoments of incorporation into our educational system, oral language – which is the basisof the development necessary to deal with the linguistic specificity involved in teaching 2activities and learning – must take precedence.2 For more advice about methodology in the insertion class, consult conclusions in the fieldNova immersió i canvis metodològics del Consell assessor de la llengua a lescola (Newimmersion and methodological changes of the Assessing Counsel of language in school): 12
  • 13. • Intensive Individual Plan and assessment of pupils in the insertion class.From the arrival of the pupil at school, a series of protocols and mechanisms areestablished in order to guarantee a good initial welcome. First of all, information aboutthe pupil must be gathered and an adequate educational response to his/her needs mustbe established immediately. Info rm a tio n o n th e p up il D ec is ion -m ak in g c o n c ern in g learn in g p lan a n d m an ag e m en t IN T E N S IVE IN D IV ID U AL P L A NThe Intensive Individual Plan (PII) is a document that records the path followed by thepupil from his/her incorporation into the educational centre, in the insertion class, untilhis/her complete integration into the regular class. It is a procedural document thatgathers the initial information that we have on the pupil and the educational responsethat we offer to him/her. PII includes:• Initial assessment of the pupil. Information on the pupil is gathered. This information is obtained from: the interview with the family3, data from previous schooling and other data which may be obtained by entities that support recently arrived families, from the initial assessment tests given to the pupils, or from minutes of observations. In this sense, the Education Department has provided the centres with model formats of initial tests in 20 languages which allow the evaluation of the degree of literacy, previous schooling of the pupils and their knowledge of mathematical principles4.• Educational response. Based on the information drawn from the initial evaluation, the educational necessities of the pupil are prioritised. Measures are established which will be used to establish mechanisms for planning, monitoring and evaluating the acceleration of the pupil’s learning process, as well as the human, material and technical resources needed.PII is elaborated on the first school days of the pupil and is reviewed every three months.The PII shall be valid for two calendar years. It should be stressed, however, that the PII3 The Education Department provides the centres with translation services of about forty differentlanguages.4 All these instruments, together with the instructions for the teaching staff are published inthe LIC space ( 13
  • 14. shall still be implemented during the first quarter in which the pupil completely joins deregular class in order to guarantee a good transition.4.3 EvaluationThe evaluation of the learning process of the newcomers is carried out in relation to theobjectives established in their PII. The evaluation is continuous, with systematicobservation and a global vision of their learning progress, integrating contributions andobservations carried out in each of the areas by their corresponding teachers.By means of a quarterly evaluation, the following information is gathered: • The acquisition process of the language. • The integration of the pupil. • Progress in the different subjects studied.The regular class tutor, as the person responsible for monitoring the pupils, pays specialattention to the progressive achievement of the basic competencies of the newcomers. 14
  • 15. 5. TRAINING AND ADVISEMENT AT SCOOLS WITH INSERTION CLASSESIn order to favourably start the insertion class, besides supplying resources, we offertraining for professionals taking part in welcoming newcomers, and more specifically, forthe insertion class tutor: Awareness-raising activities about the LIC Plan for management teams with aims to introduce the main lines of the Plan and to stress the importance of including them in the school’s transformation process. Training for LIC school coordinators as the motivating element for the centre’s LIC plan, and to provide support for the management team. Initial training for the tutors of insertion classes, stressing the organisational, methodological, didactic and emotional aspects needed to start a insertion class. Seminars with tutors of insertion classes to reflect on teaching practice in the classroom. Course for the faculty senate: “From insertion class to welcoming school” for those centres that have decided to start a transformation process following the LIC principles. Specific training courses on teaching Catalan as a second language.In order to guarantee the development of the Plan, the centres also receive periodicadvice from professionals of the education services LIC teams.In the case of schools starting a insertion class, the LIC adviser guides them throughmethodologies, resources and materials and contributes criteria for evaluation in order totake maximum advantage of the possibilities that this resource offers.Apart from this task, advisers collaborate and advise on different aspects such as: The elaboration of the welcome plan, integration and the Linguistic Project. Raising awareness, promoting and consolidating the Catalan language as the main axis of a multilingual project. Modelling addressed to the teaching staff and their planning process Tutorial work with new pupils or with pupils risking marginalisation with the aim of integrating them into the group. Methodological strategies for linguistic immersion. Raising awareness, promoting and consolidating intercultural education. Continuous training of the teaching staff. 15
  • 16. 6. EVALUATION OF RESOURCESThe evaluative actions have been organised in different areas, taking into account theregulatory function that has to be inherent to every evaluation: AREAS FUNCTIONS • facilitating the processes of personal and family follow- upPupils • monitoring language learning • adjusting the organisation of learning between the insertion class and the regular class • making more adequate organisational and methodological decisionsTeaching staff • intervening in group dynamics, both in the insertion class and in the regular class. • assessing and, if necessary, modifying the welcomingSchool and integration processes for newcomers. • assessing the efficiency of the insertion class as an instrument to facilitate better reception and integrationDepartment of Education of new pupils, in order to define proposals for improvement and future intervention guidelines6.1. ActionsAccording to the principles and objectives that have been decided for the insertionclasses, different evaluative actions have been established, especially in relation to thefollowing aspects:• Degree of integration of the newcomers• Language learning at school• Organisational coherence with which the centres implement this resource.More concretely, the actions are the following:a) On the part of the Subdirectorate General for Language and Social Cohesion 1) Elaborating and publishing assessment instruments5 • Primary School: • Instruments to evaluate Catalan language at A2 level • Instruments to evaluate school integration • Secondary School: • Instruments to evaluate Catalan language at A2 level • Instruments to evaluate school integration 2) Elaborating, a computerised survey of the characteristics of the new pupils and the organisational aspects of the insertion class6. The objective is to5 All of these instruments, together with the guidelines and instructions to administer tests, arepublished in the Espai LIC. ( 16
  • 17. obtain data that can be related to that which is obtained through the assessment instruments. 3) Elaborating systematic research based on the information obtained through the different assessment instruments. The results obtained in the centres through the use of these instruments are sent to the Subdirectorate General of Language and Social Cohesion through a data collecting application which is applied at the end of each school year.b) On the part of the Education Inspectorate: • When the insertion classes where established, it elaborated an Initial Monitoring Report of the Insertion Classes (2005). This report showed that, in general, the criteria with which the education centres organized the insertion class fit the guidelines of the Department of Education, and actions were planned to solve the detected problems. • Every year the insertion classes are monitored in order to correct possible problems, if necessary.6.2. An External PerspectiveThe research group of the University of Gerona Cultura i Educació (Culture andEducation) elaborates a report using the data collected at the end of each school year. Itmust be said that in these analyses the results to be considered are communicationcompetence and the pupils’ degree of integration, individually and for each part of therespective tests and surveys. However, a global evaluation is also carried out. That is tosay, they study the relations between language learning and the newcomers’ degree ofemotional well-being in our classrooms.Based on the research done since the 2004-2005 school year7, it can be said that: An insertion class is a resource that produces fast conversation instruments and supports the active integration of new pupils into the regular classroom. According to the research carried out, pupils start learning the language in the insertion class, but the most important part of this learning takes place in the regular class. Integration and adaptation prove to be the factors with the most direct influence on the results of the language test, more than others such as age, period of residence in Catalonia or the number of hours the pupil has been in the insertion class. This means that pupils who show a low level of school integration and adaptation get bad results in the tests, regardless of the time they have been6 In this application, personal and academic information about the pupils is collected (date of birth, country oforigin, previous studies, family data, languages spoken, hours of attendance to the activities in the insertionclass…).7 You can find a summary of the report with the data of the first year of the functioning of theinsertion classes in Vila, I. (et al.) Les aules d’acollida en l’educació primària. Algunes dades delcurs 2004-2005. (Insertion Classes in Primary Education. Some Data from School Year 2004-2005). Caixa d’eines (Instruments’ Kit) 04, Departament d’Educació (Department of Education),2006. 17
  • 18. living in Catalonia and their age. (Oral comprehension is the only field among thefour assessed which does not follow this rule).The pupils in insertion classes whose first language is a Romance language getbetter results than pupils with other first languages under the samecircumstances, even though this factor is also related to the level of schoolintegration and adaptation, so that pupils with a non-Romance first language, butwith a high level of school integration and adaptation get higher scores than in theopposite case (pupils with a Romance first language and a low level of schoolintegration and adaptation).Previous schooling has a clear influence on the results, since new pupils with agood education have fewer difficulties than those with a deficient education, bothin learning the language and in the level of integration and adaptation to the newschool environment. 18
  • 19. 7. CONCLUSIONSThe investment made by the Department of Education in insertion classes has meant avery important budgetary effort. This effort has allowed us to directly tackle the arrival ofnewcomers in our Primary and Secondary School classrooms. In addition to the humanresources, the money needed to run these classrooms, computers, and didacticmaterials of all kinds, there has been the will to promote the figure of the insertion tutor,who has become the reference in the process of welcoming new pupils to our educationcentres.In addition to the teaching staff, who have had specific training, teams for guidance inlanguage, intercultural education, and social cohesion have been created at theEducation Services. One of the main missions of these teams has been to help organisethe insertion classes in the first school years.Both the reports of the education inspectorate and that of the University of Gerona haveprovided us with positive data on the consolidation process of insertion classes. Someaspects will obviously have to be improved, but, in general, it seems that we are movingin the right direction. However, we still have two challenges: to make progress towardsthe concept of welcoming school, where interculturalism is a transversal value, Catalan isreally the language spoken in the education centres of Catalonia, and social cohesion isone of the basic objectives of the Catalan school in this new century.Nevertheless, we have to keep in mind that, even if the school does its job very well, theparticipation of the whole of society will always be necessary to consolidate the globaleducation of all boys and girls, in particular of those who are in the most difficultsituations. This is why the last step of this process must be the community environmenteducation plan, where the Department of Education starts a process of educationalcooperation, together with other departments of the Generalitat and of the Municipality,with the socio-cultural organizations of the district, with sports organisations and all theassociations that wish to participate, in order to join efforts and contribute together to thetraining of citizens. 19
  • 20. ANNEX 1. THE EVOLUTION OF PUPILS OF FOREIGN NATIONALITY INCATALONIA. Nursery school Primary school Secondary school School Foreign Total Foreign Total Foreign Total % % % year pupils pupils pupils pupils pupils pupils1999-2000 3,678 208,820 1.76 8,002 347,457 2.30 6,338 266,467 2.382000-2001 4,804 216,393 2.22 9,618 346,604 2.77 8,177 267,318 3.182001-2002 7,519 224,892 3.34 14,656 348,665 4,20 11,103 253,340 4,382002-2003 11,841 237,488 4.98 22,634 354,075 6.39 15,002 254,232 5.902003-2004 17,693 251,419 7.03 32,760 362,872 9.032 20,267 257,031 7.892004-2005 20,176 264,355 7.63 40,245 368,267 10.93 23,532 258,748 9.092005-2006 22,297 276,743 8.05 47,020 376,585 12,48 31,160 260,966 11,94 20
  • 21. ANNEX 2 Number of new pupils 14000 0 11,7 % 10, 5 % 120.850 12000 0 9,3 % 106.746 93.831 10000 7,65 % 0 74.491 80000 5,4 % 51.926 60000 34.797 40000 0,81 % 23.778 19.793 9.868 16.921 20000 0 1991- 1995- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 1992 1996 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 21
  • 23. ANNEX 4 Percentage of pupils who passed the test. Primary Education. School year 2005-2006 90 80 70 60 50 40 percentage 30 20 10 0 n n le le cle le sio sio yc yc cy yc en es ec e rc te rc re h ex pr iat igh dia igh e mp ed nh co or al rm erme nh al i nt e sio i nt ss io or en si on reh ion x pre en mp ss ne reh co re xp itte om p di n g e wr te n gc rea rit di n w reaPercentage of pupils who passed the test. Secondary Education. School year 2005- 80 70 60 50 40 30 percentage 20 10 0 n n ... i on ssio t io n s ensi on sio n ns ac he p re t er tio h res re ex al in nic a re xp mp oral or mu mp ne l co co itte ora om g wr fc din o no rea ati lic a pp2006 23
  • 24. ANNEX 5.MATERIAL RESOURCES TO ACHIEVE THE PURPOSES OF THE INSERTIONCLASSTo support these functions, the Department of Education, apart from the education andguidance of insertion class tutors, has published and promoted didactic materials,reflection manuals, and information books.5.1. Functions of the integration class and examples of materialsa. Offering a high quality, personalised servicea.1. IntegrationOne of the first functions of the educational centre integrating new pupils is providingthem and their families with a high quality welcome. Every centre has defined, in its Integration Plan, the procedures to be followed, strategies to be applied, and personal resources that will be allocated to this aim. In this document, the bases must be laid so that the pupils and their families are accepted and accompanied from the first moment. In this sense, the Subdirectorate General of Language and Social Cohesion has started a collection of books, in collaboration with the foundation Jaume Bofill. The first book has been published by Eumo and deals with integration. In L’acollida (Welcome)8, we find a definition and someguidelines on how to give a high quality welcome, in a wide sense – to everybodybelonging to the educational community – but in particular to new pupils and theirfamilies. One of the aspects analysed is the importance of the behaviour of teachers andof other members of the community.a.2. Recognition of the family languageOne of the factors that can contribute to making pupils feel recognized is the recognitionof the family language at different levels: • In a symbolic way. If pupils find, in the insertion classroom, an integration poster written in his/her familiar language, he/she sees that there is a space where he/she can hang written texts or photographs showing his/her personal experience, he/she can consult bilingual dictionaries, bring written materials in the languages that he/she knows… In this way, we contribute to make the boy and the girl feel that both the school institution and his/her classmates recognize him/her. This surely fosters positive behaviour: feeling at ease at school and learning the content offered. • Inserting the family language into educational practice. A symbolic presence of the familiar language is important, but not sufficient to recognize and “take advantage,” from the educational point of view, of all the pupil’s language and8 CARBONELL, F. L’acollida (Welcome). Vic: Editorial Eumo / Fundació Jaume Bofill, 2006. 24
  • 25. cultural heritage. The teacher can use this heritage in order to enrich the whole class with an intercultural and multilingual perspective. • Fostering the teaching the family languages in extra-school hours: for example, Amazigh, Arabic, Chinese… In this way, the families see that their children continue to speak the family language and add the ones that are taught by the educational system of the welcoming country. Those classes are not only for newcomers; they are open to the rest of the student body, as a way to develop multilingual pupils.a.3. Knowledge of the pupils’ cultures of originIn order to help the teacher plan his/her work with intercultural aspects in mind, and toplan socio-cultural content for the welcoming country, CIEMEN, in collaboration with theDepartment of Education, has started a collection of books with the generic title Diàlegs (Dialogs)9. These books have a double function. On one side, they explain in the language of origin the main characteristics of the welcoming country (Catalonia), and, on the other side, they explain in Catalan the main characteristics of the culture and language of the various groups of newcomers. Books about Quechua, Bantu, Amazigh and the populations of Ecuador have already been published. a.4. Knowledge of the characteristics of the new pupils’languagesThe knowledge of the characteristics of the languages of the new immigration allows theunderstanding of the mistakes and approximations made by pupils learning Catalan.Knowing what difficulties a pupil is going to have learning Catalan allows adjustment ofwhat content to teach and the kinds of activities to organize.This is why, for example, the collection Llengua,immigració i ensenyament del català10 (Language,Immigration, and Teaching Catalan) is published.10 titles have been published: • Llengua i immigració (Language and Immigration) • L’àrab (Arabic) • El xinès (Chinese) • El soninké i el manding (Soninke and Mandinga) • El berber (amazic) (Amazigh) • El fula i el wòlof (Fula and Wolof) • El panjabi (Punjabi) • El romanés (Romanian) • L’ucraïnès (Ukrainian) • El tagal (Tagalog)9 Collection Diàlegs (Dialogs). Centre Internacional Escarré per a les Minories Ètniques i lesNacions (Escarré Internacional Centre for Ethnic Minorities and Nations).10 Col·lecció Llengua, immigració i ensenyament del català. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departamentde Benestar Social. Els trobareu en línia a la pàgina 25
  • 26. a.5. Knowledge of the processes of socialization of different cultural groups One of the most frequent requests from professionals tackling cultural diversity is the need to have resources and materials for reflection, and for application in the classroom, to manage socio-cultural diversity. In this field, a collection of volumes has been started: it is about socialisation processes of children and youngsters belonging to the main groups of new immigrants living in our country. The first volume of this collection has been L’Omar i l’Aixa. Socialització dels fills i filles de families marroquines (Omar and Aisha. The Socialisation of Children in Moroccan Families)11.a.6. Knowledge of the pupils’ previous educationIn order to know each pupil’s academic heritage, it is important to know the educationalsystem of the pupil’s country of origin and its style of learning-teaching (mnemonic,processing or critical, permissive or strict teaching, role of oral expression, “traditional”activities, games…). Knowing these characteristics allows understanding of the reactionsof some boys and girls and their families towards activities or learning styles which arevery different from the educational activities that they have experienced.12It is also very important to know the degree of schooling of each pupil. This is why at theLIC space initial tests are administered in the first languages that are most representedamongst immigrant students in our education system.All this information will allow the elaboration of a more fitting individual intensive plan foreach pupil (PII).13b. Initial Language LearningThe second important function of the insertion class is introducing pupils to learningCatalan (vehicular and learning language of our education system). As in the firstfunction, the responsibility of this duty is not only on the insertion class, but on all theteachers.b.1. Language LevelsIt is important to know what must be taught, what language contentshave to be planned. In this sense, the Subdirectorate General ofLanguage and Social Cohesion has adopted as a reference the Marceuropeu comú de referència per a les llengües (European CommonReference Framework for Languages). Based on the guidelines of thispublication, the Nivell inicial del català (A1 – Usuari basic) (Initial Levelof Catalan – A1 – Basic User)14 has been published.11 CARBONELL, F. L’Omar i l’Aixa. Socialització dels fills i filles de families marroquines (Omar and Aisha.The Socialisation of the Children of Moroccan Families). Vic: Editorial Eumo / Fundació Jaume Bofill, 2006.12 You can find information on the education systems at: The PII have been analysed at paragraph 4 of this document.14 You can find it at 26
  • 27. Therefore, at first, the Catalan language content taught to newcomers aims at fulfillingthe most immediate communication necessities, both in the school and in society ingeneral.b.2 Materials and resources facilitating communicationOne of the difficulties to be dealt with first is the absence of communication. Apart fromother resources, it can be useful to have visual glossaries. For instance:In these glossaries, in addition to offering a basic vocabulary, school expressions aboutthe functioning and organisation of centres and curricula are provided.There are also audiovisual glossaries online. They can be accessed through EDU36515.b.3 Teaching oral languageWhen teaching a second language, oral language is a priority. In the insertion classes,the planning of the majority of activities should follow the communicative method. That isto say, activities have to be planned so that the pupils get the language elements thatallow them to achieve the communicative functions described at language levels A1 andA2. Oral language activities, thus, should facilitate the interaction between speakers aswell as communication contexts where the pupils can simulate and reproduce thestructures they are learning.One resource that facilitates the planning of this kind of activity is visual references.Visual references have different functions: • Sharing the representation of reality • Facilitating understanding • Promoting memorisationIn this sense, a collection of sheets16 has been sent to all insertion classes. These sheetsallow working with communication contexts close to the pupils.15 This collection of 10 sheets has been made jointly with the Secretary’s Office of Linguistc Policy 27
  • 28. These are the titles published: • The town • The professions • The house • The park • The market and the supermarket • The bar and the restaurant • The beach and the sea • The mountain and the country • Transport • The weatherIn an insertion class, be it in primary or secondary school, it is important to havemanipulative materials and board games, which: • Facilitate individual and group work • Allow the reinforcement of lexical content and structures… • Allow repetition because the game situations are different every time it is played • Give security when using language elements because they are ritualised • Promote interaction between pupilsTwo resource materials expressly conceived for this purpose have been speciallypromoted.The revised reprint of Jocs Olívia (Olivia Games) has been promoted by the Departmentof Education. It is a manipulative resource facilitating work with vocabulary (nouns, verbs and adjectives) from a playful point of view (game of the fifth, card games…). This material is provided for new pupils not only because of its choice of vocabulary, but also for its graphic design and choice of games (not very complex but demanding interaction between participants with formulas which facilitate the expression of different language elements).Other games conceived for new pupils are those published by Edicions Alber.17These games, as well as the previously mentionedones, allow working with language content(vocabulary, structures and short texts) at a firstlevel of difficulty.17 The collection includes three volumes: Jocs de lèxic i expressió (Glossary and expression games), Jocsd’ortografia (Ortography games) and Jocs de consciència fonològica (Phonology awaring games). 28
  • 29. One of the most ambitious projects is the elaboration of a spoken language course. It willbe divided into 11 chapters on DVD following a line of argument that carries the pupilthrough initial level linguistic content. A workbook with learning material is enclosed, aswell as an interactive CD to reinforce the lessons.Another resource to practice the spoken language is the inclusion of theatre activities ininsertion classes. On the basis of a theatre script, teaching staff can plan a series ofactivities covering different aspects of the language (listening comprehension, readingcomprehension, expressive reading – intonation, pronunciation...-, oral expression,memorizing vocabulary and structures within a communicative context, working on bodylanguage...). Furthermore, theatre makes it easier to deal with socio-cultural subjects andprovides cohesion within the group. In this sense, the work is aimed at finding theatrescripts which are adequate to the newcomers, taking into consideration the subjects, thelevel of difficulty of the plot, the language level…b.4. Teaching written languageIn the previous section we stressed the fact that working on the spoken language is apriority when teaching a second language, but in a school context, especially insecondary education, written language has to be introduced quite early on. At the sametime that the pupil learns a language, he/she has to learn the contents of the syllabus ofevery subject, which are generally taught through written language.We must not forget that some pupils join our education system without having beenprovided any schooling or having received any literacy teaching.Regarding teaching written language, several situations can be distinguished:• Pupils who still have to begin a literacy teaching process.• Pupils whose language uses the Latin alphabet, but with differences in the correspondences between the written symbols and the sounds of the Catalan graphic system and the system in their schooling language.• Pupils who do not know the Latin alphabet, but whose written language has an alphabetical basis.• Pupils whose language is not based on an alphabetical scripture system.This diversity of situations and processes means that the planning of language teachingrequires different sequences.Using schemes with correspondences among the different alphabets can accelerate theprocess of graphophonic correspondence transfer. It is also very useful to have inclassroom a reference with all the letters and the digraphs in the Catalan graphic systemwith the corresponding phonetic representations.Materials for literacy teaching to newcomers with difficulty in acquiring the written codeare now being developed.For those pupils who have already got through the reading and writing process, thefollowing texts have been published for them to have access to texts which are suitablefor their language level and for their interests according to their age:• New texts adapted to the characteristics of these pupils. Texts by classic authors. 29
  • 30. For example:The books by classic authors, which have been linguistically adapted, make it possible towork on the same book with pupils who have different language levels. The pupil gets tothe text from his/her language level. This way, literature can be worked on from aninclusive approach.The fact of having a library in the insertion class with texts in adapted language enablesthe pupils to strengthen their language acquisition at their own pace. In addition, the pupilwill not lose the habit of reading that may have been developed during previousschooling.The written language in the insertion classes can also reinforce the acquisition of thespoken language. In many of the published and disseminated materials, the writtenlanguage has this function. For example:• Comencem (Let’s begin)• The written language workbook from the series Vincles• La Nàdia i el Li (Nadia and Li)• LIC18games• (...)•18 LIC games are a 7-volume collection dealing with the contents in the beginners level. 30
  • 31. Through written language, morphosyntax activities are also developed. Thecharacteristics of this skill (segmentation, manipulation, visualization...) make it possibleto work on certain aspects of the functioning of a language, what would be very difficultwhen working from the spoken language.b.5. Application of ITsFrom the creation of the first insertion classes, the Catalan Ministry of Education decidedto provide access to new technologies, both to work on spoken and written language.Every insertion class has four computers with suitable programs to diversify the pupils’ tasks establish different types of grouping provide different activities according to level work on information searches perform online activities make presentations that they can later share with their classmates (combining text, image, audio) play CD, DVD, MP3 record and play spoken language activities (...)The creation of interactive applications to facilitate the interrelationbetween the different language skills has also been promoted. Thisis the approach behind the series Vincles, the CD Galí and a projectthat consists of interactive sheets (the market and the library), inwhich pupils will work on both the spoken and the written language.It is important to underline the fact that the CD Galí has twoversions: one in the dialect spoken in the centre of Catalonia and another one in thedialect spoken in the north-west of Catalonia. It is believed that it is necessary to bringthe model of language closer to the immediate reality of the pupil.Following the same line, the use of MP3 has been recommended. Its use allows as wellthe planning of receptive and productive activities. Its small size allows the pupil to go outof the classroom and make recordings that can be• listened to• compared• watched• evaluated 31
  • 32. a. Easing the step from communicative language to academic language to facilitate the access to the regular syllabus.To help the pupils acquire academic language, one can:• Anticipate content that will later be worked on in the regular class. This way boys and girls can follow without so many difficulties the contents that their classmates work on. Have at the teacher’s disposal the vocabulary of different subjects in the new pupils’ native languages. In this way pupils can transfer the concepts that they had already acquired during their previous schooling into the new language. Provide the pupil with adapted workbooks (using simple language and with a lot of visual support, images and schemes that make understanding easier).5.2. Action lines of the Subdirectorate General for Languages and Social Cohesionon learning materials.From the beginning of the LIC Plan, the Language and Social Cohesion Subdirectoratehas been performing several actions regarding the creation of materials and teachingresources in its fields (language, interculturalism and social cohesion). These actions aredeveloped according to the following criteria:• Create and disseminate (especially through LIC and edu365 spaces) materials for pupils as well as orientation and support tools for teaching staff. Foster the publishing of materials to meet the educational needs of new pupils. Foster the dissemination and/or publishing of materials made by teaching staff who work with newcomers. Foster projects to collaborate with other public services, ministries or entities. Foster and add initiatives from other agents (entities, universities, media) that can be useful to bring linguistic and cultural diversity to schools.Today, many publishers work on specific learning materials to teach Catalan forbeginners and the Subdirectorate General itself has published those materials which thepublishers would not deal with due to their characteristics. 32
  • 33. ANNEX 6.EVALUATION INSTRUMENTSA number of evaluation instruments have been designed with the following goals:• Provide the teaching staff with complementary instruments to evaluate the level reached in the linguistic skills described in level A2.• Allow the collection and treatment of data obtained from the administration of the test, to get to a follow-up and an evaluation of the insertion classes connected to the learning of the vehicular language and the attention to the newcomers.• Evaluate an inclusive model of attention to the newcomers, in which the need to learn intensively the vehicular language does not mean creating closed spaces, separated from the regular classes. Ev a lu a tio n S ch o o l Com m u ni ca tiv e O rg a ni zat io n o f th e in te g ra ti on c om p et en c e cla ss E va lu at io n i ns tr u m en ts D at a co ll ec tio n E va lu a tio n o f th e in t eg ra tio n c las s r o o m s6.1. School integrationThe goal is to provide instruments to check if the newcomers’ perceptions about theirrelationships with their classmates and the adults in their environment make it easier forthem to face the schooling process with emotional confidence and with possibilities ofacademic success.Four aspects are taken into consideration:• Adaptation to the school environment, related to the basic knowledge about the center (spaces, timetables, habits and rules...) and the degree of socialization achieved. The aim is to evaluate if the pupil is able to face the teaching-learning and socialization processes in the appropriate conditions in terms of emotional factors.• Learning strategies to determine if the pupil has enough basic strategies (working habits, interest, attention, capacity to ask for help...) to face school tasks.• Life together and relationship among peers, so that the strongest and weakest aspects in the net of relationships created by the pupils can be determined.• Life together and relationship with the adults, especially regarding the interaction established with the teaching staff (in the insertion classes and in the regular class). 33
  • 34. Both in primary and in secondary education, the following evaluation instruments havebeen planned:• A survey for the tutor in the insertion class.• A survey for the tutor in the regular class.• A survey for the pupils.6.2. Catalan languageThe Catalan language evaluation instruments have the goal of evaluating the level ofcommunicative competence achieved by those pupils who have taken part in theinsertion class or who have received specific teaching in this language. They evaluatethe A2 level of language according to the MECR19 indicators and following thecommunicative approach for learning a second language. Comunicative MECR approach Evaluation of communicative competence EVALUATION INSTRUMENTS LEVEL A2For A2 level, the general objectives are:• Understanding those sentences and expressions that are used more commonly and that are related to those subjects which are more familiar to the pupil (basic personal information, family, free time, leisure, subjects related to the educational field, environment, etc.)• Communicate in simple and common situations that require a simple and direct exchange of information about familiar subjects.• Describe, in simple terms, aspects about their experience, their environment and matters related to their basic needs.19 Generalitat de Catalunya. Marc europeu comú de referència per a les llengües: aprendre,ensenyar, avaluar. Departament de Cultura, 2003 34
  • 35. Following this approach, the tests evaluate, for primary and secondary education, thelanguage knowledge applied to the productive communicative skills (speaking andwriting), receptive communicative skills (listening and reading comprehension) andinteractive communicative skills (conversation). In secondary education, a new aspecthas been added: it evaluates the application of communicative skills, referring to therelationship between the writing and speaking skills which are more common in theacademic environment20. Knowledge Skills (what does he/she know?) (what can he/she do?) - speaking - linguistic - writing - sociolinguistic - listening - pragmatic - reading - interaction Comunicative competence Whole of knowledges and skills That enable communication in a languageIn conclusion, these are instruments which should enable the teaching staff to reach aqualitative evaluation. So what must be kept in mind is that this test has to be consideredto be one more element in the pupil’s evaluation, but not the only one, as thecorresponding teaching team is who evaluates the learning and integration process ofthe pupil and establishes, according to the integrating model of the centre, the organizingand pedagogical measures which will guarantee the most appropriate schooling in eachcase.Analysing the marks obtained by the pupils can help, basically, to guide the teachingstaff intervention: number of hours attending the insertion class, linguistic skill on whichthe teaching has to be intensified, checking the contents being taught in the insertionclass (going from restricted or communicative language to academic language...).Passing this test does not necessarily imply leaving completely the integration class. Itsaim is to evaluate if the pupil has enough command of the language so as to interact withhis/her closest environment (school and social environment).20 The tests with the specification of every section included for primary and secondary education,guides and instructions for teaching staff, workbooks and sheets to work on with the pupils are published in 35