Helping the Poverty Stricken Elise Rhoads Ms. Oren Block 3
Presentation Overview Powerpoint Video Hunger Banquet Activity
“Poverty is not natural. It is man made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings.” Nelson Mandella
Inspiration Discovered this non-profit organization from a concert I had attended November of junior year
Relevance to You
Importance of Oxfam America Oxfam America is an international relief and development organization that creates lasting solutions to poverty, hunger, and injustice. Individuals and local groups in more than 100 countries help Oxfam by: Donating money Fundraising Volunteering at a local office Or actually traveling to a specific country to help. Oxfam works to end global poverty by saving lives, strengthening communities, and campaigning for change.
Wanting to help After learning about Oxfam America and it’s global outreach, I knew I wanted to experience that sense of helping others in poverty to hopefully attain a slightly better life, as my graduation project.
Thesis Through partnerships with local organizations, Oxfam has helped millions of people in poverty not only survive the devastation of wars, famines, and natural disasters, but to rebuild their lives.
What is Poverty? Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom. hunger lack of shelter being sick and not being able to see a doctor not having access to school not knowing how to read not having a job having fear for the future losing a child to illness brought by unclean water
Poverty in Haiti http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=146703&title=Haiti_Poverty
Definition of Poverty pov·er·ty [pov-er-tee] Show IPA–noun1. the state or condition of having little or no money, goods, or means of support; condition of being poor; indigence.
Successful Development of a Country… An improvement in living standards and access to all basic needs A stable political, social and economic environment, with political, social and economic freedoms The ability to make free and informed choices that are not forced Be able to participate in a democratic environment with the ability to have a say in one’s own future
Types of Poverty Poverty has many dimensions: monetary and non-monetary, absolute and relative, material and psychological.
Poverty Type A Insufficient resources to meet basic needs, such as nutrition, shelter, health and education. This insufficiency can result in the following symptoms of poverty: Low income Low average calorie intake High infant mortality rates Low life expectancy rates
Poverty Type A Contd. High illiteracy rate High unemployment Widespread diseases Famine High risk of migration
Poverty Type B This inequality of income or consumption can result in the following psychological symptoms of poverty: Feelings of loss of dignity Low self-esteem Feelings of powerlessness Feelings of lack of participation in culture and politics Feelings of discrimination and resentment.
Poverty Type C A third kind of poverty is vulnerability, the actual or thought of risk of future poverty. This vulnerability can result in the following psychological symptoms of poverty: Fear, stress Feelings of insecurity Irrational precaution measures Family planning decisions Migration
Different Causes of Poverty Accidental causes, such as drought, disease, birth defects, handicaps etc. Historical causes, such as colonialism Economic causes, such as energy prices, food prices, etc. National political causes
Causes Contd. International political causes such as trade policy Social causes such as racism, sexism, discrimination Demographic Causes such as overpopulation or a high percentage of people who too young or too old Geographic Causes such as access to fertile land, fresh water, minerals, energy Environmental causes such as climate change, soil erosion and desertification Poverty traps
Measures to Help Types of Poverty Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Calorie intake levels Level of Income Literacy Levels
“I know poverty because poverty was there before I was born and it has become part of life like the blood through my veins. Poverty is not going empty for a single day and getting something to eat the next day. Poverty is going empty with no hope for the future. Poverty is getting nobody to feel your pain and poverty is when your dreams go in vain because nobody is there to help you. Poverty is watching your mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters die in pain and in sorrow just because they couldn't get something to eat. Poverty is hearing your grandmothers and grandfathers cry out to death to come take them because they are tired of this world. Poverty is watching your own children and grandchildren die in your arms but there is nothing you can do. Poverty is watching your children and grandchildren share tears in their deepest sleep. Poverty is suffering from HIV/AIDS and dying a shameful death but nobody seems to care". " Poverty is when you hide your face and wish nobody could see you just because you feel less than a human being. Poverty is when people accuse you and prosecute you for no fault of yours but who is there to say some for you? Poverty is when the hopes of your fathers and grandfathers just vanish within a blink of an eye. I know poverty and I know poverty just like I know my father's name. Poverty never sleeps. Poverty works all day and night. Poverty never takes a holiday”(One Poor African)
Some Facts Around 27-28% of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. Half the world’s population now live in cities and towns. In 2005, one out of three urbancitizens(approx. 1 billion people) were living in slum conditions. In developing countries around 2.5 billion people are forced to rely on biomass—fuel wood, charcoal and animal dung -to meet their energy needs for cooking. 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation
We live in a world of Plenty, yet 840 million people go hungry each year. 1.2 Billion people live on less than $1 a day. 12 million people die each year from lack of water. Over 30,000 children under the age of five die each day due to hunger and other preventable causes.
The environmental impacts of climate change are happening all over the world. But what about its effects on people? The increased frequency and severity of climate-related natural disasters such as droughts, floods, and cyclones cause economic damage. Sea level rise and increased storm surges destroy infrastructure and lives of people in both coastal areas and low-lying lands. Constant rainfall, rising temperatures, and extreme weather events harm agricultural production, worsen water scarcity, and spread infectious diseases. Climate change imposes huge financial losses and threatens national security. Climate Affects Poverty… http://vimeo.com/5027546
Common Effects of Climate Change Decreased agricultural productivity-particularly in degraded areas where production is low and farmers struggle to make out a living Decreased water availability and water quality - Increased risk of floods and droughts -Impacts on fisheries caused by uncertain stream flows, warming waters, and damage to coral reefs - Increased incidence of waterborne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue fever
A glimpse of Climate Change http://www.vimeo.com/6655465
How Oxfam Helps During certain emergencies – such as disease outbreaks - Oxfam undertakes public health assessments to help communities track the range of the problem, identify the source, and find workable solutions. They are beginning to develop early warning systems that use public health indicators to alert Oxfam to potential problems brought on by changes in local conditions - such as drought. With this information, they can take steps to avert the disaster.
Advocating for Rights Disasters usually hit poor people the hardest They often live in the most vulnerable locations: On deforested hillsides Or in low-lying coastal areas Homes built from materials that can’t withstand the onslaught of nature
And they lack the resources to recover
Because of these disasters-
They frequently face violence
Are denied basic services
Are excluded from decisions about their futures
Oxfam works with the poorest communities to help them claim their rights to safety, services, and a voice
Help People Earn a Living Getting back to work after an emergency helps people and communities recover more quickly Some initiatives Oxfam takes are: A variety of programs that offer immediate employment Grants and loans that help jump-start businesses Vocational training funding Support some communities with distribution of basic farming
Preventing The Next Disaster They are finding ways to help people prepare for emergencies and and prevent natural events from becoming disasters. They work with communities to take practical steps. For example: In areas prone to severe flooding Oxfam: Helps people understand the risks Map their resources Create plans to help everyone reach safety Oxfam also urges governments and international aid-groups to direct resources toward disaster prevention.
No amount of village-by-village work will ever be enough on its own. Why? Millions of the world’s poor people are economically paralyzed by systemic barriers they cannot break down on their own. A structure of laws, policies, and customs conspire which trap people in poverty forever.
Current Issues Climate Change Disasters and conflicts Hunger & Food security Oil, gas & mining Aid Reform Community Finance Affordable Housing
US Public Policy
Access to Land
Equality for Women
HIV & AIDS
Climate Change Poor countries are already suffering from the effects of climate change. Oxfam seeks to create solutions to the crisis, including greenhouse gas reduction and financial assistance for the most vulnerable communities.
Disasters and Conflicts Their mission is to do whatever they can to reduce suffering and save lives during emergencies—whether they are caused by conflict or by natural events. They partner with local groups in a network that stretches around the world.
Hunger & Food Security Worldwide, one in six people now suffers from chronic hunger. Oxfam is working on solutions to ensure that no one, no matter where he or she lives, has to go to sleep hungry.
Oil, Gas & Mining Oxfam seeks fair government policies and corporate practices in the oil, gas, and mining industries. Supports the right of communities to participate in decisions about the use of natural resources.
Where does the money go? http://www.vimeo.com/9188972
Aid Reform US foreign aid under-performs and often fails to reach the people who need it most. Oxfam seeks reform of US foreign aid to make it more efficient, modern, and more focused on ending global poverty.
Community Finance Having a safe place to save or access to a small loan can help a family work its way out of poverty. Oxfam America has pioneered a microfinance model called Saving for Change, which self-replicates on a large scale and at a low cost.
Affordable Housing A slow recovery and hardly any effort has left many residents of the US Gulf Coast struggling to rebuild. Oxfam is leading efforts to ensure the needs of the most vulnerable are fully addressed.
Workers Rights Farm workers in the US are often subjected to mistreatment and exploitation. Oxfam seeks to expose sweatshop conditions and human rights violations in America's fields.
Water More than one billion people lack access to a safe water supply, and that number is growing. As water supplies are threatened, rural communities are most affected—and have the most to lose.
Video on Oxfam Helping http://www.vimeo.com/3341320
Trade World trade could be a powerful force for reducing poverty, if poor people could sell their products at a decent price. However, unfair trade agreements and agricultural subsidies hamper efforts to reduce poverty in poor countries.
US Public Policy Oxfam is hopeful that the new administration will re-engage with the international community Lead the fight against global poverty Create positive long-term change that will result in a more prosperous, secure world.
Access to Land Oxfam helps farmers and native communities gain legal title to their land, manage it in environmentally friendly ways, and defend it against pollution and other threats.
Equality for Women Seventy percent of those living below the poverty line are women. Oxfam helps women and girls overcome gender discrimination, realize their potential, and become decision-makers and leaders in their communities.
Agriculture For the world's small-scale farmers, farming can be a precarious way of life. From surviving climate change to being paid a fair price, Oxfam helps family farmers around the world earn a decent living.
HIV & Aids The factors that make people vulnerable to poverty and HIV/AIDS are similar, including a lack of access to health care and education; violence; racial and gender discrimination; and other human rights violations.
Helps in Areas of…
United States – US Gulf Coast Recovery, affordable housing, workers’ rights, climate change, aid reform Central America, Mexico, and Carribean– reducing vulnerability to disaster, climate change, aid reform, equality for women, land South America – oil, gas, and mining, land, trade, and climate change West Africa- community finance, oil, gas, mining, trade, agriculture, reducing vulnerability to disaster, global food crisis, hunger and food security
Horn Of Africa – conflict in Darfur, struggle in somalia, global food crisis, water, food security, trade, equality for women Central and East Africa- conflict in democratic Republic of Congo, equality for women, public health Southern Africa – Cholera Crisis in Zimbabwe, HIV/AIDS, equality for women, water, public health, agriculture, hunger and food security http://www.vimeo.com/4174341
North Africa and middle east- Israeli Palestinian Conflict, livelihoods, public health, equality for women Central and south Asia – Crisis in Sri Lanka, War in Afghanistan, Pakistan Earthquake Recovery, Bangladesh Cyclone Recovery, Indian Ocean Tsunami Recovery
Campaigns Right to Know, Right to Decide - Poor communities often have no say in the disappearance of resources from their land.
Campaigns Aid Reform - US Foreign Aid under-performs and often fails to reach the people who need it most.
Another Campaign…Climate Change Oxfam seeks to create solutions to the crisis Includes greenhouse gas reduction and financial assistance for most vulnerable communities
Application My friend Allyson and I raised over $250 for Oxfam at Upper Darby High School’s flea market in early September of 2009. We spent over 30 hours planning, and setting up for our grad project. We made Tye Dye shirts, baked cakes, cookies, brownies, muffins We had a box for donations We had a package sent from Oxfam with information booklets on the organization, how you can help, what they work on, and so on. We laid the information sheets out on our table for people to read We had people sign a signature page to send it to Oxfam to show how many people we had informed of Oxfams’s actions
Give Back… $25 – Gives a meal program to one child in school $24 – Twice the manure $50 – A goat $35 – A school desk and chair $30 – Plant a vegetable garden $35 – A water purifier $18 – Books for kids
Give Back Contd. $1,500 – Rebuild a primary school $12 – Soap $18 – Mosquito Nets $250 – Plant 500 trees $20 – Irrigate a farmers land for 2 months $20 – A pair of school uniforms
What you can Do Donate Give Back, Inform Fundraise Volunteer or Intern Work at Oxfam
Conclusion I learned that many people in other countries, and even our own do not have it as well off as we may think Many don’t have healthcare to see a doctor, receive surgeries, go out and buy clothes, accessories, or even have clean running water to drink from. Food is scarce. People live in fear and that is not the way to live life. I understand these cultures have lived like this for many centuries but the world is becoming too advanced for these people to be stuck in these horrible situations.
Work Cited www.stanford.edu/group/scspidev/media_magazines.html http://filipspagnoli.wordpress.com/2008/05/06/poverty/ http://www.genderandhealth.ca/en/modules/poverty/poverty-childhood-experience-02.jsp Ferman, Louis A., and Joyce L. Kornbluh. Poverty in America; a Book of Readings,. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1968. Print. Himmelfarb, Gertrude. The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. New York: Knopf, 1984. Print.
Work Cited Contd. Worth, Richard. Poverty. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1997. Print. Chen, Robert S., and Elisabeth Sydor. Where the Poor Are: an Atlas of Poverty. Map. Palisades, NY: CIESIN (Center for International Earth Science Information Network), the Earth Institute at Columbia University, 2006. Print. http://actfast.oxfamamerica.org/uploads/actfast-sourcebook_1.pdf http://www.oxfamamericaunwrapped.com/home.php?utm_source=oa_how_you_help&utm_medium=web State of the World’s Children, 2010 , UNICEF, p.18-19. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1586201/20080424/cyrus__miley.jhtml
Work Cited Contd. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/ http://www.easybib.com/cite/ http://www.vimeo.com/3341320 http://filipspagnoli.wordpress.com/2008/05/06/poverty-continued/ http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4288
Work Cited Contd. http://www.charitywatch.org/toprated.html http://www.bbb.org/charity-reviews/national/relief-and-development/oxfam-america-in-boston-ma-56 http://www.oxfamamerica.org/whoweare/financial-information/annual-reports/annual-report-2008 http://www.vimeo.com/2564077 Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2005). The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Penguin Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=fJzBMnDPh7EC&printsec=frontcover&dq=poverty&source=bll&ots=iDlmROHDZ1&sig=TF7LT92hzNArySRGQmPsCsrHho0&hl=en&ei=XTL3S9CPIYH_8Abn3KGwDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=14&ved=0CGsQ6AEwDQ&safe=active#v=onepage&q&f=false
YOU can help! http://www.vimeo.com/2564077
Class Activity Hunger Banquet Activity Read the Cards I handed out in the beginning of class. The cards will read if you are in Poverty, middle class, or upper class. Upper Class – Grab (type of food) Middle Class – Grab (type of food) Poverty – Grab (Type of food)