1. Workshop Building FLEG partnership 13 July 2010 – Chisinau
EU Forest policies
Forests cover about a third of the European Union land area and roughly 30% of the world's
land area. We rely on them for clean air, water, food, medicines and many other raw materials
that are vital to our health and quality of life. For the past 20 years the rate of deforestation
Forests play a vital role in regulating the climate. They store roughly half of the world's
terrestrial carbon and when uprooted these forests release large quantities of CO2. It is
estimated that deforestation is responsible for some 20% of the world's CO2 emissions, more
than the total amount of greenhouse gas emitted by the EU. This makes deforestation a major
contributor to climate change.
Deforestation also contributes to poverty. Sixty million people in the world depend directly on
forests for their livelihoods and another 1.6 billion are indirectly affected.
Illegal logging is probably one of the most destructive activities contributing to deforestation.
It has damaging consequences on biodiversity and on climate change. It is estimated that a
significant proportion – or some 20% – of timber imported into the EU comes from illegal
sources and costs timber-producing countries about €10 to 15 billion per year in lost revenues.
Illegal logging depresses timber prices, strips natural resources and tax revenues, and
increases poverty of forest-dependent people.
In the EU, the responsibility for forest policy falls on individual Member States. There is
nevertheless a long tradition by the EU of supporting forest-related activities such as
sustainable forest management in cooperation with Member States.
In April last year the European Parliament voted to ban trade in illegally logged timber. And
in a deal struck on 16 June between the European Parliament, the EU member states and the
European Commission after almost a decade of campaigning on the issue by
environmentalists, the sale of illegal timber will be banned in the EU from 2012
EU Forest Action Plan was adopted on 15 June 2006; building on the report on
implementation of the EU Forestry Strategy.
The Action Plan focuses on four main objectives:
1. to improve long-term competitiveness
2. to improve and protect the environment
3. to contribute to the quality of life; and
4. to foster coordination and communication. Eighteen key actions are proposed by the
Commission to be implemented jointly with the Member States during the period of
five years (2007–2011).
The Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) was adopted in
2003. The Plan focuses on governance reforms and capacity building, to ensure timber
exported to the EU comes only from legal sources. It includes ideas for action in areas such as
public procurement and the private sector.
A key element of the Action Plan is a voluntary scheme to ensure that only legally harvested
timber is imported into the EU from countries agreeing to take part in this scheme. The
Council adopted a Regulation in December 2005, allowing for the control of the entry of
timber to the EU from countries entering into bilateral FLEGT Voluntary Partnership
Agreements (VPA) with the EU. Once agreed, the VPAs will include commitments and
action from both parties to halt trade in illegal timber, notably with a license scheme to verify
the legality of timber. The agreements will also promote better enforcement of forest law and
promote an inclusive approach involving civil society and the private sector.
EU Foreign Policies
From the early 90ies the collaboration between the former Soviet Union countries was done
under the TACIS programme.
European Neighbourhood Policy
The EU was joined by 12 new member states in 2004-2007. This resulted in a review of EU's
relations with its now closest neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was
developed in 2004. The objective was to avoid the emergence of new dividing lines between
the enlarged EU and our neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and
security of all concerned.
The EU offers the closest neighbours a privileged relationship, which builds upon mutual
commitment to common values (democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance,
market economy principles and sustainable development). The ENP goes beyond existing
relationships and offers a deeper political relationship and economic integration.
The European Neighbourhood Policy applies to the EU's immediate neighbours – Algeria,
Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria and
Tunisia for the South and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine for
the Eastern neighbours. Sixteen countries totally. Seven East + nine South.
Russia is also a neighbour of the EU, but the relations are instead developed through a
Strategic Partnership covering four “common spaces” (Economic issues & the environment;
Freedom, Security & Justice; External Security; and Research & Education, including cultural
- The Northern Dimension (ND) provides an important framework for cooperation with
Russia, and the Four Common Spaces agreed between the EU and Russia.
3. The central element of the European Neighbourhood Policy is the bilateral ENP Action Plans
agreed between the EU and each partner country.
For Belarus, Libya or Syria ENP is not yet ‘activated’ since no such Agreements are yet in
The Eastern Partnership (EaP), launched in May 2009 (Prague), aims at acceleration of
political and economic integration between partner countries and the EU and promotes
cooperation, dialogue, and the exchange of best practice and experiences.
In the context of EaP, 4 thematic platforms have been established, among which one on
"Economic integration and convergence with EU sectoral policies" (including environment
and climate change). A dedicated panel on environment and climate change was set up and
met for the first time in March 2010.
Cooperation within the Eastern Partnership will also be stimulated through different
flagship initiatives. The flagship initiative on ‘Good Environmental Governance’ aims
at improvement of access to reliable data; including improvement of access by
stakeholders. In a later phase the initiative will also cover EIA and public participation.
A Civil Society Forum was also established by the Prague Summit. In a joint declaration,
Summit "invited the European Commission to develop and propose modalities for the
establishment of a Civil Society Forum of the Eastern Partnership". The second Eastern
Partnership Civil Society Forum (CSF) will take place on 18-19 November 2010 in Berlin.
The overall aim of the Forum is “to promote contacts among Civil Society Organisations and
facilitate their dialogue with public authorities” in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia,
Republic of Moldova and Ukraine.
BLACK SEA SYNERGY
- The Black Sea Synergy (BSS) (on environment, energy, transport, trade, research, social
affairs etc) was launched in 2008 (Kiev) to reflect the EU’s growing interest in promoting
regional cooperation. Later on the Black Sea Synergy Sector Partnerships have been prepared
with the EU Member States of the Region as well as with the partner States.
- The BSS Environment Partnership was officially launched in Brussels in March
2010, with Romania as the lead country. A Joint Statement was adopted (that mentions
areas of key importance). The European Commission is currently in the process of
consulting partners with a view to define the Partnership’s objectives and modalities.
The EU and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership
The EU has strengthened its relationship with the Central Asian countries since the adoption
of “ The EU and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership by the European Council in
June 2007 (Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan). The strategy strengthens relations in all areas of cooperation, including through
the reinforcement of EU-Central Asia political dialogue with regular meetings of EU and
Central Asian Foreign Ministers, reinforcement of dialogue on human rights, cooperation in
the areas of education, rule of law, energy and transport, environment and water, common
4. threats and challenges (including border management and combating drug trafficking), and
trade and economic relations. . The strategy is supported by a significant increase in EU
The EU and Central Asian countries have since confirmed their commitment to the strategy,
and its implementation is well under way. The EU reviewed the state of implementation of the
Central Asia Strategy in a Progress Report in June 2010. The Delegations of the European
Commission to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan are the three official
representative offices of the European Commission to these three central Asian states.
Was introduced by the German presidency in 2007. Environment cooperation and dialogue
has a prominent place in the implementation of the Strategy, as a "Flagship Initiative". The
Platform on enhanced environment cooperation was adopted by the Central Asian countries
and the EU in Rome- 5/6 November 2009.
1. Environmental integration and environmental governance
There is a need to strengthen cooperation between EU and CA in taking steps to put
environmental integration into practice, including through implementation of all relevant
legally binding instruments. In this regard participants welcomed the results of the Conference
on Environmental Integration and Sustainable Development, held in Astana in March 2009
upon the initiative of the European Commission.
2. Joining forces to combat climate change and minimise its impact
Central Asia is particularly vulnerable to climate change effects, EU and Central Asia partners
will develop long term strategies to prevent and mitigate and adapt to the climate effects on
human health and on the environment.
3. Water issues
Water management is a vital environmental challenge for the region.
Enhanced collaboration to facilitate the implementation of best practices, the availability of
drinking water and sanitation as well as the increase in the efficiency of water usage in energy
and agriculture, while safeguarding the ecological balance in the region.
4. Further environmental issues
Other important environmental issues for the region: land degradation, deforestation and
sustainable land use, forestry management, safeguarding biodiversity, including support for
the implementation of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, reducing pollution related
to industrial sites and contaminated tailings, monitoring and addressing the risks related to
environment and human health.
Finally, environmental awareness should be supported in the region and the civil society
involvement should be promoted with regard for existing regional mechanisms, such as the
Central Asia Regional Environment Centre (CAREC).
- Working Group meetings "Climate change and environmental governance" and "EUWI
EECCA " will be held 26-28 October 2010 in Brussels.
- The “Fourth EU – Central Asia High Level Conference” Bishkek in 2010
- Ministerial Conference “Environment for Europe” to be held in 2011 in Astana,
- EU CA Ministerial Conference in 2012 - to discuss progress, review cooperation activities,
and consider practical steps to strengthen the European Union - Central Asia Platform for
environment and water.
The FLEG contract was signed with the World Bank in December 2007 where the trust fund
was established putting together some 7 million euros. Six millions from the EC and the rest
from WB, World Conservation Union (the “IUCN”), the World Wildlife Fund (the “WWF”).
Duration: Dec 2007 – 19/12/2010
The overall objective is to contribute to the achievement of legal and sustainable forest
management and utilisation practices, a strengthened rule of law and improved livelihoods in
The Specific objective is to put in place improved forest governance arrangements through
the effective implementation of the main priorities set out in the ENA FLEG Ministerial
Declaration, with the support of selected pilot activities and with the active involvement of
governments, civil society and the private sector.
1.Activities will be implemented in the following focus areas to:
(a) promote effective national and regional FLEG action processes;
(b) increase national ownership and capacity;
(c) improve regional and sub-regional collaboration and knowledge sharing;
(d) promote effective engagement of key trading partners;
(e) strengthen continuation of the formal official ENA FLEG process;
(f) foster sustainable forest management practices implemented; and
(g) increase awareness and commitment of key stakeholders on FLEG.
1.the Project will target three main groups:
(a) Governments, including line department staff, parliamentarians, the judiciary,
senior representatives to regional and global forums, key trading partners, and sub-
national and local authorities;
(b) Civil society, particularly non-governmental and community-based organizations
and forest dependent communities; and
6. (c) Private sector, particularly companies and industry and trade associations involved
in timber production and processing.
FLERMONECA – (Implementation activities will tentatively start in first semester 2011)
• Component (2) – Forest and biodiversity governance, including environmental
monitoring: FLERMONECA. Supporting the sustainable use and management
of natural resources in Central Asia, by tackling issues such as climate change,
forest governance (the FLEG process), ecological restoration and
environmental data collection, exchange, monitoring and assessment.
Results Component (2) – Forest and biodiversity governance, including
environmental monitoring, FLERMONECA
2.1 Subcomponent 2.1 FLEG Central Asia. FLEG process in Kyrgyzstan, initiated by
Swiss Aid, completed and FLEG processes in other Central Asian Mountain
countries started using the same approach. Active participation of civil society in
the FLEG process. Conservation NGOs mobilised by IUCN;
2.2 Subcomponent 2.2 ERCA Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation
in Central Asia. Dialogue, consultation and governance launched at regional
scale for the Central Asian Dry Lands in line with efforts of German Aid and
German NGOs regarding ecological restoration there; and for the Central Asian
Mountain Biodiversity Hotspot with international NGOs active there and local
NGOs and communities;
2.3 Subcomponent 1.3 MONECA Environmental monitoring in Central Asia.
Partnership with European Environmental Agency (EEA), EU data centres and
institutions in the field of environmental monitoring restored, reporting on
deforestation and biodiversity loss scheduled and partnership made sustainable.
Activities Component (2) – Forest and biodiversity governance, including
environmental monitoring, FLERMONECA
Subcomponent 2.1 FLEG Central Asia
Activity 2.1.1 Establishing the partnership with European partners already active in the field and
Central Asian institutions, NGOs and local community representatives. Define
detailed work plan using the experience gained in previous similar process
(Kyrgyzstan, Albania, Moldova, Serbia and Montenegro);
Activity 2.1.2 Complete FLEG process in Kyrgyzstan, initiated by Swiss Aid: implementation and
fund raising for it (Kyoto, etc.). Launch FLEG processes in other Central Asian
Mountain countries started using the same approach. Ad-hoc legal and policy advise;
Activity 2.1.3 Assessment of level of FLEG awareness, existing efforts, key actors, illegal logging,
forest crime, potential of provision of affordable energy sources, etc. Identification
of governance constraints, development and testing of responses;
Activity 2.1.4 Consultative national action planning: Stakeholders mobilisation and involvement on
national, regional and local level. Development of National Action Plans with
stakeholder involvement. Tripartite dialogue in support of national and/or sub-
regional identification of FLEG priority actions;
Activity 2.1.5 Increase national and local ownership and capacity: Enhance involvement of
governmental staff at forest management unit level on identified priority actions.
Targeted training of stakeholders on identified priority actions. Support national and
regional civil society networks and enhancing of initiatives in support of sustainable
livelihoods as alternatives to illegal activities (Pilot projects);
7. Activity 2.1.6 Improve regional and sub-regional collaboration and knowledge sharing: organising
specific events and elaborating mechanisms to share lessons learned, find solutions
to trans-boundary issues and link with FLEG processes in other regions. Integration
of FLEG activities into the ISDC activities and relevant work programmes;
Activity 2.1.7. Continuation of the formal official ENA FLEG process: Organisation of specific
regional FLEG events defined in the Ministerial Declaration (follow up of ENA-
FLEG, St. Petersburg Declaration, 2005). Facilitation of participation of regional and
local authorities in ENA FLEG process.
Component (2) – FLERMONECA will target three main stakeholder groups: (1)
Inter-state regional structures, including IFAS and ICSD; (2) Governments, including
line department staff, parliamentarians, the judiciary, senior representatives to
regional and global forums, and sub-national and local authorities; and (3) Civil
society, particularly non-governmental, community-based organisations and forest
dependent local communities. A distinction should be made between pastoralists and
other land users.
The FLERMONECA component will be implemented through indirect centralised
management with GTZ as a delegatee body. GTZ has a long-standing experience in
the Central Asian region, is running an important programme on transboundary water
and has good working relations with Swiss Aid for the Central Asian Mountain
FLEG. Germany is the most important donor in the region and, therefore through
delegated cooperation, donor coordination is optimised. (See Annex 6: GTZ as
delegatee body to implement the FLERMONECA component).
ENPI East (2008 + 2009).
2008 - Waste Governance is on-going, budget 5,8 meuro, main activities:
- assistance to drafting of policy papers and framework legislation as well as laws and regulations
for implementation and enforcement
- strengthening administrative capacities (procedures) and institution building (organisation)
- awareness raising addressing the importers, producers, distributors, retail sector, municipalities,
general public, NGOs etc.
The project is planned to start in December 2009.
2008 - Enhancement of Shared Environmental Information System- SEIS (2,5 meuro) –
implemented by the European Environment Agency
- to improved quality, timeliness and availability of environmental information in the ENP East
Partner Countries in order to support: policy development implementation, proper allocation of
- to introduce a shared environmental information system (SEIS) which will facilitate the
establishment of relevant data flows and the production and maintenance of a core set of
2009 - Air Quality Governance – 7 meuro - (pollution from industry and transport) –
- To improve the convergence to European legislation and regulations
contributing to the improved air quality and strengthen implementation and
- To improve the implementation of Multilateral Environmental
- To raise environmental awareness through cooperation at regional and
sub-regional levels among decision makers, industry and civil-society.
2009 - A Program for the Prevention, Preparedness and Response to
Natural and Man-Made Disasters (6 meuro) (PPRD) is being tendered.
The purpose is to develop and reinforce the capacity for disaster
prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response in the Eastern ENPI
region by strengthening capacities at local, national and regional level, and
developing an effective cooperation in this field between the EU and the
Partner Countries and among the Partner Countries themselves, as an
instrument of political and social stability.
Kura river basin project (TACIS 2006)
The project has the focus on the preparation of a GIS database for information management of
transboundary pilot river basins as well as the creation of a water cadastre for the three
participating countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia).
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has been translated into three local languages (ARM,
AZ, GEO) and training is ongoing.
Guidelines on good laboratory practice, and for decision-makers on monitoring and public
participation in the IWRM. The guidelines should be finalised by the end of 2010 and will be
available for the region by 2011.
Social and economic benefits of alignment of legislation with the EU (Jan 2010 – June
A study on the social and economical benefits of alignment to EU legislation (18 months).
The results of the study will focus on the benefits of a healthy environment. This study will
show how clean water, a waste management system in place etc. benefit the country socially
and economically. The overall objective of the study is to improve awareness of
environmental improvement; and therewith place improvement of the environment on the
agenda. The study will aim to:
Increase awareness on social and economical benefits of a clean environment
Increase capacity to assess benefits
9. Support including environmental concerns in other policy areas such as e.g. energy, transport
Improve the ability to mobilise necessary financial resources and investments.
The study shall be finished by June 2011.
More info at http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/index_en.htm
THANK YOU for your attention!