1.Overview of Global Forest Governance and Forest Law Enforcement focussed to the ENA Region

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Jürgen Blaser, Intercooperation, Bern, Switzerland

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1.Overview of Global Forest Governance and Forest Law Enforcement focussed to the ENA Region

  1. 1. The trouble with our times is that the future is not what it used to be… PrefacePreface Paul Valéry © Rockstrom2010 ВведениеВведение Будущее уже не то, что было раньше… Поль Валери
  2. 2. Overview ofOverview of Global Forest Governance andGlobal Forest Governance and Forest Law EnforcementForest Law Enforcement focussed to the ENA Regionfocussed to the ENA Region Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and GovernanceEurope and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance Preparatory Committee Conference (PrepCom)Preparatory Committee Conference (PrepCom) Moscow, June 6, 2005Moscow, June 6, 2005 Jürgen Blaser, Intercooperation, Bern, Switzerland The present content does only commit the presenter, and none of the involved organizations Photographic illustrations are not in direct relationship to the specific issue in the respective slide © Juergen Blaser, with support by Kerstin Canby and Arnoldo Contreras. Photographs by J. Blaser
  3. 3. Обзор глобальных вопросовОбзор глобальных вопросов управления в лесном секторе иуправления в лесном секторе и специфических проблем в регионеспецифических проблем в регионе ЕСАЕСА «Международный процесс по вопросам правоприменения,«Международный процесс по вопросам правоприменения, управления в лесном секторе (FLEG) в регионе Европы и Северной Азии»управления в лесном секторе (FLEG) в регионе Европы и Северной Азии» Подготовительная конференцияПодготовительная конференция Москва, 6-8 июня 2005 г.Москва, 6-8 июня 2005 г. Юрген Блазер, Swiss Intercooperation The present content does only commit the presenter, and none of the involved organizations Photographic illustrations are not in direct relationship to the specific issue in the respective slide © Juergen Blaser, with support by Kerstin Canby and Arnoldo Contreras. Photographs by J. Blaser
  4. 4. Overview of International Processes and ProgressOverview of International Processes and Progress in Forest Governance since Saint Petersburg 2005in Forest Governance since Saint Petersburg 2005 Обзор международных процессов и вопросов развитияОбзор международных процессов и вопросов развития рационального управления в лесном секторерационального управления в лесном секторе в период с 2005 года, после провденияв период с 2005 года, после провдения Конференции в г. Санкт-ПетербургКонференции в г. Санкт-Петербург Juergen Blaser Юрген Блазер Bern University of Applied Sciences Университет Верн, Швейцария Tblisi, 8 July 2014
  5. 5. PROCESSESPROCESSES ОБЗОР МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВОБЗОР МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ 31% of the world’s land area is covered by forests31% of the world’s land area is covered by forests 31% территории Земли покрыто лесами31% территории Земли покрыто лесами 2,180 m2,180 m haha 1,850 m1,850 m haha North Север South Юг Forests 2014Forests 2014 Лес 2014Лес 2014
  6. 6. Country Data Boreal Temperate Subtropical Tropical Global Land Area ('000 ha) 2,659,547 2,894,298 1,985,421 5,386,567 13,010,510 20.4% 22.2% 15.3% 41.4% 100% Forest Area ('000 ha) 1,179,682 671,003 342,035 1,839,303 4,033,063 29.3% 16.6% 8.5% 45.6% 100% Relative proportion of Forest 44.4% 23.2% 17.2% 34.1% 31.0% Development of Forest Area increasing slightly increasing increasing decreasing slightly decreasing Change Rate 0.4% 0.2% 0.4% -0.4% -0.1% Carbon in living forest biomass (Megatons) 48,890 38,171 8,563 179,535 275,207 17.8% 13.9% 3.1% 65.2% 100% Population (million) 194,300 2,260,032 973,640 3,311,683 6,750,525 2.9% 33.5% 14.4% 49.1% 100% Population development decreasing slightly increasing slightly increasing strongly increasing increasing
  7. 7. Forest area (m ha) Площадь лесов (млн.га) Forest cover % В процентном соотношении Growing stock (m3/ha) Выработка леса на гектар Balkans - Балканы 19 32 176 Eastern Europe Восточная Европа 827 48 103 North and Central Asia Северная и Центральная Азия 23 4 82 Caucasus - Кавказ 15 16 141 TOTAL Всего 884 37 105 Forests in ENA-RegionForests in ENA-Region 20142014 -- ЛесаЛеса ЕСА регион,ЕСА регион, 20142014
  8. 8. Felling as % of annual growth Вырубка в % от ежегодного прироста Nordics and Baltics 72% Central Europe 61% EU 27 60% South-East Europe 45% Russia 34% (USA, Canada) (80%) Forest resources ever increasing in ENA Region Прирост лесов на Евразийском континенте
  9. 9.  Supply and demand for timber, paper, wood products, energySupply and demand for timber, paper, wood products, energy Спрос и предложение в индустрии леса, бумажнойСпрос и предложение в индустрии леса, бумажной промышленности, производстве товаров из древесиныпромышленности, производстве товаров из древесины и секторе энергетикии секторе энергетики  Increased demand for and competition between products;  Global timber trade doubled over the last decade (in spite of slow down 2008/2009)  China, emerging markets  Increasing demand for transparency and production methods Возрастающая потребность в открытой информации о производстве и товарах  Certified forests Dec. 2005: 272 m ha (91 m ha ENA region)  Certified forests June 2014: 442 m ha (166 m ha ENA region)  FLEG, FLEGT processes, also influenced behaviors (China…) Global forest Challenges 2005 – 2014Global forest Challenges 2005 – 2014 Основные проблемы мирового леса 2005-Основные проблемы мирового леса 2005- 20142014
  10. 10.  Raise of global energy marketRaise of global energy market:: biofuel, wood pellets, wood chipsbiofuel, wood pellets, wood chips Энергоресурсы: топливные пеллеты, щепаЭнергоресурсы: топливные пеллеты, щепа 40% raise of wood fuel from forests in ENA region 2005-201340% raise of wood fuel from forests in ENA region 2005-2013 (360 million m3 of wood)(360 million m3 of wood)  Valuation of forest products and ecosystem servicesValuation of forest products and ecosystem services Оценка лесных товаров и услугОценка лесных товаров и услуг Timber, timber products and NTFP, water, carbon, biodiversity  Changes in forest ownership, access to forest resourcesChanges in forest ownership, access to forest resources Реформа форм собственности леса, реальный доступ кРеформа форм собственности леса, реальный доступ к использованию лесных ресурсовиспользованию лесных ресурсов From state to communities, user associations, private sector lease; “land grabbing”: Increased demand for land: plantation wood  Changes in national forest policyChanges in national forest policy Изменения в политике управления лесами на государственнойИзменения в политике управления лесами на государственной уровнеуровне From forestry policies to wider forest policies
  11. 11. Global Forest GovernanceGlobal Forest Governance Надлежащее управление лесамиНадлежащее управление лесами  Forest and economic growth, trade policiesForest and economic growth, trade policies  Forests and sustainable developmentForests and sustainable development  Forests and climate changeForests and climate change  Forests and biological diversityForests and biological diversity  Forests and their social, cultural and « public-opinion» dimension.Forests and their social, cultural and « public-opinion» dimension.  Transversal dimension: Forest GovernanceTransversal dimension: Forest Governance
  12. 12. Forest Governance 10 years afterForest Governance 10 years after St. Petersburg: the broad issuesSt. Petersburg: the broad issues  (1) Forest and Environmental Policy (global and regional)(1) Forest and Environmental Policy (global and regional) Лесная политика и окружающая средаЛесная политика и окружающая среда  (2) Trade Policies -(2) Trade Policies - Торговая политикаТорговая политика  (3) Green Economy -(3) Green Economy - Зеленая экономикаЗеленая экономика  (4) Institutions -(4) Institutions - ОрганизацииОрганизации  (5) An overlying issue: climate change(5) An overlying issue: climate change С учетом изменений климатаС учетом изменений климата
  13. 13. The Forest Instrument 2007; post-2015; Global Objectives on Forests:The Forest Instrument 2007; post-2015; Global Objectives on Forests: Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide…Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide… Enhance forest-based economic, social and environmental benefitsEnhance forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits Increase significantly the area of protected forests worldwideIncrease significantly the area of protected forests worldwide and other areas of sustainably managed forests…and other areas of sustainably managed forests… Mobilize financial resources for sustainable forest managementMobilize financial resources for sustainable forest management ….…. CBD Aichi Targets (2011CBD Aichi Targets (2011):): 4 main targets, including:4 main targets, including: “By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial areas are conserved” Climate changeClimate change:: REDD+ Challenges (since 2009)/NAMA/LULUCFREDD+ Challenges (since 2009)/NAMA/LULUCF The missing element: carbon permanence (boreal and temperate forests)The missing element: carbon permanence (boreal and temperate forests) Bonn Challenge (2012): 2 targets, includingBonn Challenge (2012): 2 targets, including ““Restore 150 million hectares of the world's degraded and deforested lands by 2020» Forests and SDG targets post 2015 (2014Forests and SDG targets post 2015 (2014): Forests under biodiversity, incl.): Forests under biodiversity, incl. possible target: “By 2030 manage all the world’s forests sustainably”possible target: “By 2030 manage all the world’s forests sustainably” Forest Governance: (1) Policy Dimension (global)Forest Governance: (1) Policy Dimension (global)
  14. 14. ““Forest Europe”Forest Europe” Since 1990, 46 members, 6 Ministerial conferencesSince 1990, 46 members, 6 Ministerial conferences Since 2011:Since 2011: Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to develop a legally binding agreement on forests in the pan-European region Aims:  consolidating tools for SFM;  improving monitoring of and reporting on forests;  combatting illegal logging;  developing a common approach to the valuation of forests services;  emphasizing the social aspects of forestry;  the role of forests in the transition to a green economy. Forest Governance: (1) Policy DimensionForest Governance: (1) Policy Dimension (regional)(regional)
  15. 15.  European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR), March 2013:European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR), March 2013: Prevents illegal logged wood in all the EU Member StatesPrevents illegal logged wood in all the EU Member States  EU/US Transatlantic Free Trade Area NegotiationsEU/US Transatlantic Free Trade Area Negotiations:: Elimination of tariffs and non-tariffs barriers; standards & regulationsElimination of tariffs and non-tariffs barriers; standards & regulations Lacey Act (1900) amendment of 2008: trafficking of wood and wood productsLacey Act (1900) amendment of 2008: trafficking of wood and wood products  Investment: Russian Federation Investment Project:Investment: Russian Federation Investment Project: EEarmarked 400 billion rubles to finance priority projects in the country’s forestry industry “to make the sector attractive for investment and address its long-term problems” Forest Governance: (2) Trade PoliciesForest Governance: (2) Trade Policies
  16. 16. Forest Governance: (3) Green EconomyForest Governance: (3) Green Economy Управление лесами в зеленой экономикеУправление лесами в зеленой экономике  The forest sector in a green economy:The forest sector in a green economy: IImproving human well-being and social equity whilemproving human well-being and social equity while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecologicalsignificantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.scarcities.  10 key messages of the L’viv Forum 201210 key messages of the L’viv Forum 2012 10 ключевых рекомендаций Львовского Форума10 ключевых рекомендаций Львовского Форума  Action Plan for the Forest Sector in a Green EconomyAction Plan for the Forest Sector in a Green Economy in the ECE regionin the ECE region План действий по лесу в Зеленой экономикеПлан действий по лесу в Зеленой экономике ЕСА-региона.ЕСА-региона.
  17. 17. Forest Governance: (4) InstitutionsForest Governance: (4) Institutions Управление лесами: интернациональные организацииУправление лесами: интернациональные организации
  18. 18. Forest Governance: (5) Climate change:Forest Governance: (5) Climate change: Forest-based adaptation and carbon sinksForest-based adaptation and carbon sinks Адаптация лесов к изменению климата вАдаптация лесов к изменению климата в планировании лесного хозяйствапланировании лесного хозяйства Map: the world 4°C warmerMap: the world 4°C warmer Карта: повышение температуры на 4 градусаКарта: повышение температуры на 4 градуса
  19. 19. (2) PROGRESS(2) PROGRESS IN FOREST GOVERNANCE SINCEIN FOREST GOVERNANCE SINCE SAINT PETERSBURG 2005SAINT PETERSBURG 2005 Развитие рационального управленияРазвитие рационального управления в лесном секторе в период с 2005в лесном секторе в период с 2005 годагода
  20. 20. St. PetersburgSt. Petersburg Declaration, Nov. 2005Declaration, Nov. 2005  Expression of commitment «выражение доброй воли» by 43 governments (+EU) from the ENA region and other participating countries to take action to address illegal logging and associated forest crimes. Ministerial St. Petersburg Declaration, contents: Содержание министерской Декларации, г. Санкт-Петербург  National action fields “commitments” (7)  International action fields “commitments” (4)  Indicative list of possible actions (возможные действия)
  21. 21. Criteria to assess progress of implementation of theCriteria to assess progress of implementation of the St. Petersburg DeclarationSt. Petersburg Declaration Критерии осуществления Санкт-ПетербургскойКритерии осуществления Санкт-Петербургской декларации:декларации: National level High level political commitment for FLEG Review forest legislation, harmonize with intern. agreements Strengthen interagency cooperation Formulate concrete actions under clearly defined targets Recognize the rights of forest-dependent communities and stakeholder participation Develop anti-corruption tools Disseminate transparent information
  22. 22. Criteria to assess progress of StP (cont.) Критерии осуществления Санкт- Петербургской декларации International level Promote and develop cooperation, partnerships, human capacity Enhance awareness of information about the legality of products Cooperate with civil society to inform consumers of the problems of FLEG
  23. 23. Measures to improve forest governanceMeasures to improve forest governance Меры по совершенствованию управления в лесномМеры по совершенствованию управления в лесном секторесекторе Reform Laws and NormsReform Laws and Norms Изменение законов иИзменение законов и нормативных актовнормативных актов PreventionPrevention DetectionDetection SupressionSupression ПрофилактикаПрофилактика ВыявлениеВыявление ПресечениеПресечение Reform tenureReform tenure РеформированиеРеформирование прав лесовладенияправ лесовладения Strengthen civil serviceStrengthen civil service Укрепление системыУкрепление системы госслужбыгосслужбы Increase transparencyIncrease transparency ПовышениеПовышение прозрачностипрозрачности Reduce monopoly powerReduce monopoly power УменьшениеУменьшение монопольной властимонопольной власти Knowledge & CooperationKnowledge & Cooperation Управление знаниями иУправление знаниями и развитие сотрудничестваразвитие сотрудничества СовершенстСовершенст вованиевование управленияуправления в лесномв лесном секторесекторе
  24. 24. Resistance to change: Willing to give up privileges?Resistance to change: Willing to give up privileges? Сопротивлением переменам: Нежелание расставаться сСопротивлением переменам: Нежелание расставаться с привилегиямипривилегиями Difficulties to separate government functions versus privateDifficulties to separate government functions versus private sector functionssector functions Трудности разграничения государственных функцийТрудности разграничения государственных функций и функций частного сектораи функций частного сектора Regulatory role often not separated from production activitiesRegulatory role often not separated from production activities Роль государственного регулирования зачастуюРоль государственного регулирования зачастую не отделена от производственной деятельностине отделена от производственной деятельности Weak means for monitoring and controlWeak means for monitoring and control Недостаточное финансирование мероприятий поНедостаточное финансирование мероприятий по мониторингу и контролюмониторингу и контролю Institutions: what has changed since 10 years?Institutions: what has changed since 10 years? Институты:Институты: экономика переходного периодаэкономика переходного периода
  25. 25. In Summary:In Summary: St. Petersburg Declaration - post-2015St. Petersburg Declaration - post-2015  Green economy: Good forest governance as a prerequisite  Enabling environment for private investment in forests  Protection of critical forest habitats and ecosystems; define the role of forests in climate change  Broaden the issues: capture the true value of forests  Review national and international commitments, adapt and link a post-2015 St.D. commitment to current international processes. Implement effective policies, tenure and institutional reform: Проведение эффективной лесной политики, реформы на всех уровнях, в т.ч. государственном и частном

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