Forest Fires Prevention and Control of China in Border Area Dong Yongsheng
1.Situation of Chinese forestry construction and forest fire prevention <ul><li>In September 2009, Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China made the dignified pledge to the world at the United Nations Summit on Climate Change. China will endeavor to increase forest area by 40 million hectares and forest stock volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters by 2020 from the 2005 levels. </li></ul>
Situation of Chinese forestry: Forest area is 195,500,000 hectares, forest stock volume is 13,721,000,000 cubic meters, forest coverage is 20.36%, but forest area is 0.145 hectares forest stock volume is 10.151 cubic meters per person.
<ul><li>1.Forest resources increased significantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest coverage increased from 8.6% to 20.36% from the early years of New China, forest area has reached 195 million hectares, forest stock volume reached 14.9 billion cubic meters, has become fastest-growing country of forest resources in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Significant improvement of ecological situation in some regions. </li></ul><ul><li>We have afforested 3.67 million mu in Three North Shelterbelt regions, and forest coverage increased by one times in project areas. This project protects natural forest 14.3 million mu effectively; reduces the consumption of forest resources 426 million cubic meters. Returning Farmland to Forest project has afforested 4.15 million mu, equivalent to the national forest area in northeast, Inner Mongolia of China. </li></ul>
<ul><li>3.Significant breakthrough in sand prevention and control. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the last century, annual average expansion of land desertification in China is about 3436 square kilometers; currently, annual average reduction of decertified land in China is about 1283 square kilometers. Effectiveness of desertification prevention is obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Significantly strengthening in Forest Nature Reserve. </li></ul><ul><li>China has established 2011 Forest Nature Reserves. The total area is more than 100 million hectares, accounting for 12.8% of land area, protecting 90% of the terrestrial ecosystem types, 85% of the wild animal populations, 65% plant communities and 49% natural wetlands effectively. </li></ul>
Chinese government attaches great importance to forest fires prevention, especially after big forest fire in May 6th, 1987 in Daxinganling Mountains of Heilongjiang province, the central and local government took a series of measures to strengthen forest fire prevention, the forest fire prevention and control work has got significant transition, has made very remarkable progress.
<ul><li>◆ Vigorously promote Chief Executive Responsibility System of forest fire prevention </li></ul>There are 3326 local forest fire prevention headquarters, 3544 administrative body, 63,000 headquarter members, and 20,000 administrative body members, constructed the situation which all levels of the governments are responsible, all departments concern jointly and manage concertedly for forest fire prevention. .
◆ Mobilize all the people involved in forest fire prevention <ul><li>China Forest Fire Logo 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>China forest fire prevention mascot 2007 - Fire Tiger “Weiwei” </li></ul><ul><li>Organize a variety of publicity and education activities </li></ul><ul><li>Create forest fire prevention atmosphere in the forest community </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out inspection of the forest fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen patrolling in important regions, eliminate the forest fire danger </li></ul><ul><li>Control outdoor fire strictly. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish forest fire prevention associations </li></ul>
◆ Strengthening forest fire staff Northeast Aviation Forest Protection Centre Forest Armed Police Force Southwest Aviation Forest Protection Centre <ul><li>Forest Armed Police Force ： 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Local professional forest fire brigades ： </li></ul><ul><li>about 17,000 brigades, 510,000 persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation forest protection agencies ： 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fire airplanes ： </li></ul><ul><li>100 </li></ul>
◆ Increase investment in forest fire prevention <ul><li>Government invested 0.695 billion in 2009 </li></ul>Bring Local forest fire prevention funds into finance budget “ National Medium and long-term development plan of forest fire prevention” The government will invest over 40 billion Yuan <ul><li>16 thousand watch towers </li></ul><ul><li>1.308 million Kilometers fire prevention road </li></ul><ul><li>1.19 million Kilometers firebreak and fuelbreak </li></ul><ul><li>63 thousand fire prevention and fighting vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>6.7 million firefighting equipments </li></ul><ul><li>3 national regulation centers of forest fire prevention materials </li></ul><ul><li>11 thousand local regulation centers of forest fire prevention materials </li></ul>Forest fire prevention infrastructure Forest nurturing fund Forest protecting fee Labor Planning Finance Policy support Forest ecological compensation Local investment 了望台
◆ Strengthen legal system, improve forest fire emergency response mechanism <ul><li>“ Forest Law” issued in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emergency response law” issued in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Forest Fire Prevention Regulations” issued 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Notice on further strengthening the work of forest fire prevention “issued in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>"Emergency Response Plan Handling Serious Forest Fires” issued in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Local forest fire prevention regulations, implementation measures and emergency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Various rules and regulations </li></ul>
◆ Enhance technology level of forest fire prevention <ul><li>Forest fire forecast and monitoring system, monitoring fires in cubic view. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire emergency communication support, Forest Fire Prevention Headquarter. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Command System, R & D firefighting equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighting with airplane, rappelling, chemical powder, artificial rain. </li></ul><ul><li>Firebreak build, prescribed fire, shaded fuelbreak construction. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Four Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>First, forest fire number declined significantly. The annual average fire number is 7975 from 1988 to 2009, has decreased by 49.9% than the annual average number from 1950 to 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, the loss of forest fires decreased significantly. The annual average burned forest area is 90,000 hectares from 1988 to 2009, has decreased by 90.5% than the annual average number from 1950 to 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, casualties in forest fires decreased significantly. There are 56 persons killed and 135 persons injured in forest fires from 1988 to 2009 annually, has decreased by 49.1% and 79.5% from 1950 to 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth, carbon emission from forest fires has declined significantly. The annual average burned area is 120,000 hectares from 2005 to 2009, has decreased by 82% than from 1950 to 2004, equivalent to an annual reduction of 4/5 of carbon emission. </li></ul>
Measures that China takes to strengthen forest fire prevention in the border area <ul><li>China borders with eight countries, includes of Russia, Mongolia, North Korea, Kazakhstan, India, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Laos, has nearly 22,897 kilometers border, and 6610 kilometer border in forest, accounts for about 30% of the total length of the border. </li></ul>
Strengthen infrastructural facilities construction of forest fire prevention in border area <ul><li>China central government invests special funds to build border firebreak for forest fire prevention annually. We have built 2077 km border firebreak up to 2009 between Mongolia and China, built 845, 118 and 20km border firebreak in border area between China and Russia, China and Korea, China and Kazakhstan respectively, build 90 km, 60 km shaded fuelbreak in border area between China and Vietnam, China and Burma respectively. </li></ul>
Strengthen forest fire prevention cooperation in border area China signed a agreement for forest fire prevention in border area with Russia and Mongolia in 1995, 1997 respectively, and established 10 liaison stations in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia. <ul><li>Forestry departments of China and Russia held the first joint liaison meeting in August, 1997, and determined the regular meeting and the urgent meeting mechamism for liaison stations. Afterward, some of the liaison stations held meeting regularly, notified forest fire danger situation, exchange experience, and consult forest fire prevention in border area. In addition, China has also drafted "Forest Fire Joint Prevention Agreement in Border Area (draft)" for China and Kazakhstan, China and Burma in border area, this is being coordinated to sign at present. </li></ul>
Strengthen international cooperation and exchange of forest fire prevention In recent years, State Forestry Administration of China and Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia have sent several exchange delegations to visit each other's forest fire prevention. <ul><li>Minister of State Forestry Administration of China Jia Zhibang leaded a delegation to visit Russia in 2009, attended the sixth meeting of Sino-Russian Forestry Work team. </li></ul><ul><li>From 2008, China introduced two M-26T and 2 M-171 helicopters from Russia, mainly used in the forest fire prevention, and paid great role in forest fire prevention. </li></ul>
Rapid response to forest fires in border area <ul><li>China Forest Fire Prevention Headquarter and the provincial forest fire prevention departments pay much attention to monitor forest fire situation in border area. Once forest fires occurred in these regions, these agencies will organize firefighters to fight and build firebreak timely, ask the relative countries to cooperate as soon as possible by the foreign affairs department. </li></ul>
Increase efforts to support forest fire prevention in border area <ul><li>Bring firebreak project in border area into firebreak system construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate large amounts of firefighting equipments to ensure firefight timely once forest fires occurred in border area. </li></ul>中俄国境线防火隔离带
Suggestions <ul><li>1. Further improve Liaison mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the regular meeting and the urgent meeting mechanism between Forest fire prevention departments in China and Russia, China and Mongolia, exchange fire situation each other. Hold the second joint liaison meeting between Sino-Russian forestry Departments as soon as possible. Consult with Mongolia to sign "Executive Regulation of Sino-Mongolia Forest and Grass Fire Joint Prevention Agreement” as soon as possible. Establish joint fire prevention mechanism between Sino-Kazakhstan, Sino-Burma. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Exchange forest fire prevention information timely (such as inform each other timely when prescribed burning in border area); </li></ul><ul><li>Once forest fires occurred in border area, inform the other to fight timely. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish help and support mechanism when forest fire occurred. </li></ul>2.Enhance fire fighting and disaster relief linkage
3.Strengthen exchange visit for forest fire prevention <ul><li>Further promote the visits exchange, technical training, experience exchange, promote the development of forest fire prevention in different countries mutually. </li></ul>
4. Strengthen cooperation in forest fire prevention technology <ul><li>China is willing cooperate with related countries in the forest fire danger, early warning, forest fire monitoring, forest fire viation prevention and the forest firefighting equipments, provide technical support together for forest fire prevention and firefighting in border area. </li></ul>
Ladies and gentlemen, the Chinese gvernment proposed the goal with highly responsible spirit for the earth homeland to construct harmonious society with environment friendly and Ecological Civilization, this is also the universe goal for human being. The Chinese government will strengthen the cooperation as always with the surrounding countries, prevent and control forest fires together in border area, continue to maintain the ecological security in border area, and promote good neighborliness and friendliness.