The Outer Planets

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  • 1. The Outer Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
  • 2. The Outer Planets
    • The outer planets are the five that are the furthest from the sun.
    • They have longer orbits than the inner planets.
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called the Gas Giants.
  • 3. Jupiter
    • Diameter: 142,800 km (88,736 miles)
    • Mass: 1.90 x 10 27 kg
    • Shape: round, one faint ring (to faint to see many details)
    • Density: 1.33 gm/cm 3
    • Distance from the Sun: 779 million km (484 million miles)
    • Moons: Jupiter has more than 50 moons, the most well known are:
      • Io: innermost and smallest, most active world in our solar system, clouds of sulfur, oxygen, and sodium from volcanoes.
      • Europa: rocky; heating, cracking, and refreezing surface.
      • Ganymede: largest known moon in our solar system; has ice so frozen that it is hard as steel.
      • Callisto: has a rocky core surrounded by frozen water; surface is so cratered that patches of the ice show.
  • 4. Jupiter
    • Surface: no solid surface
    • Composition: three distinct regions; metal or rocky core, liquid metallic hydrogen, then gaseous helium and hydrogen.
    • Atmosphere: turbulent atmosphere with different colored bands and storms.
      • Hydrogen: 90%
      • Helium: 10%
      • The Great Red Spot: a giant hurricane-like
      • storm that is twice the size of Earth.
    • Visibility: can be seen with the naked eye;
      • with a small telescope someone can see the
      • of the atmosphere.
  • 5. Jupiter and a Few Moons Great Red Spot
  • 6. Saturn
    • Diameter: 119,871 km (74,500 miles)
    • Mass: 5.688 x 10 26 kg
    • Shape: round, known for its many rings
    • Density: 0.69 gm/cm 3
    • Distance from the Sun: 1.4 Billion km (889 million miles)
    • Moons: Saturn has many moons. There are five major moons.
      • Titan: almost as big as Ganymede; very thick atmosphere of nitrogen that is four times as dense as Earth’s atmosphere.
      • Rhea: icy world of a rocky core and water ice covering, airless world covered by heavily cratered ice.
      • Lapetus: similar to Rhea, but one reddish side and one bright side.
      • Dione: densest of Saturn’s moons, tidally locked
      • Tethys: mostly water ice.
  • 7. Saturn
    • Surface: no solid surface
    • Composition: same as Jupiter.
    • Atmosphere: very similar to Jupiter, not as vividly colored
      • Hydrogen: 97%
      • Helium: 2%
    • Visibility:
      • visible with the naked eye
      • shows up as a bright yellow dot
      • rings can be seen with a small telescope
  • 8. Saturn’s Moon System
  • 9. Uranus
    • Diameter: 51,488 km (32,000 miles)
    • Mass: 8.69 x 10 25 kg
    • Shape: round, vivid rings, ring arc, about a 90° tilt
    • Density: 1.29 gm/cm 3
    • Distance from the Sun: 2.9 billion km (1.8 billion miles)
    • Moons: 27 moons. Here are the names of a few.
      • Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Ophelia, Puck, Titania, and Oberon.
  • 10. Uranus
    • Surface: no solid surface, 90º tilt
    • Composition: rocky core, highly compressed water layer, liquid hydrogen and helium, and gaseous hydrogen.
    • Atmosphere: greenish because methane absorbs the orange and red light waves and reflects the blue-green light waves
      • Hydrogen: 83%
      • Helium: 15%
      • Methane: 2%
    • Visibility:
      • a telescope or binoculars are needed
      • use a star atlas to help locate it.
  • 11. Uranus’s Moon System Uranus’s Rings
  • 12. Neptune
    • Diameter: 49,493 km (30,760 miles)
    • Mass: 1.02 x 10 26 kg
    • Shape: round; rings are so faint, they can only be seen through special techniques
    • Density: 1.64 gm/cm 3
    • Distance from the Sun: 4.5 billion km (2.8 billion miles)
    • Moons: Neptune has 13 moons. Only two are visible from Earth.
      • Triton: largest, orbits Neptune in retrograde motion.
      • Nereid: very large and elliptical orbit
  • 13. Neptune
    • Surface: No solid surface.
    • Composition: similar to Uranus
    • Atmosphere: contains white, wispy methane clouds; looks blue-green because like Uranus, methane reflects the blue-green light waves rings so faint, they can only be seen through special techniques.
      • Hydrogen: 83%
      • Helium: 15%
      • Methane: 2%
      • Great Dark Spot: a storm like
      • Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
    • Visibility:
      • a telescope or binoculars are needed
      • use a star atlas to help locate it.
  • 14. Neptune’s “Triton” Neptune’s Rings Neptune’s “Great Dark Spot”
  • 15. Pluto
    • Radius: 1,137 km
    • Mass: 1.27x10 22 kg
    • Shape: round, no rings, 122° tilt
    • Density: 2.05 gm/cm 3
    • Distance from the Sun: 5,913,520,000 km
    • Moons: Pluto has 3 moons. One of the moons is very big.
      • Charon: tidally locked, same face is seen all the time, some astronomers call Pluto and Charon a double planet.
  • 16. Pluto
    • Surface: two different parts; an icy part and a rocky part, the icy part is nitrogen ice.
    • Composition: Pluto has a core and two ice mantles.
    • Atmosphere: Although Pluto does not have the gravity to hold an atmosphere, it is so cold that it holds a thin one.
      • Mostly Nitrogen with a trace of Methane gas.
    • Visibility: None
  • 17. Pluto and Charon Compared to the US Pluto and Charon
  • 18. Scaled Drawing of Orbits
  • 19. Visibility of Planets
  • 20. Earth Compared to Outer Planets Earth and Jupiter Earth and Saturn Earth and Uranus
  • 21. Pictures of Planets Compared to Earth Earth and Neptune Earth and Pluto
  • 22. Copyright Information
    • All facts were retrieved via Yahoo Search for Planetary Facts
    • All pictures were retrieved via Yahoo Search for pictures
    • Pictures of Earth with planets retrieved
    • © Walter Myers from www.arcadiastreet.com