Levers, Wheels And Axles, Pulleys
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  • 1. Levers 1 st Class Levers 2 nd Class Levers 3 rd Class Levers
  • 2. What is a Lever?
    • A lever is a simple machine that is used to lift things.
    • It is made up of a bar (called the lever stick) and a support (called the fulcrum).
    Lever Stick Fulcrum
  • 3. Everyday Examples of Levers
    • See-Saw
    • Nutcracker
    • Wheelbarrow
    • Broom
    • Can you think of any more?
  • 4. Parts of a Lever
    • There are different parts and sections of a lever.
    • You have the fulcrum and lever stick.
    • You also have a force side and a load side.
    • The relationship between the position of the load side, fulcrum, and force side determines what class of lever it is.
  • 5. Classes of Levers
    • There are three different classes of levers.
      • 1 st Class: force side-fulcrum-load side
      • 2 nd Class: force side-load side-fulcrum
      • 3 rd class: load side-force side-fulcrum
  • 6. 1 st Class Lever
    • Structure of the 1 st Class Lever:
      • Force Side-Fulcrum-Load Side
    • The see-saw is an example of a first class lever.
    • The force needed to lift the load decreases when the fulcrum gets closer to the load side.
  • 7. 2 nd Class Lever
    • Structure of a 2 nd Class Lever
      • Force Side-Load Side-Fulcrum
    • The wheelbarrow and the nutcracker are examples of a 2 nd class lever.
    • Again, The force needed to lift the load decreases when the fulcrum gets closer to the load side.
  • 8. 3 rd Class Lever
    • Structure of a third class lever
      • Load Side–Force Side–Fulcrum
    • The broom is an example of a 3 rd class lever.
      • The load is the dirt or end of the broom, the force is your bottom arm, and the fulcrum is your top hand.
  • 9. What type of lever am I (1,2,or3)? 1 st Class 1 st Class 2 nd Class 2 nd Class 3 rd Class 3 rd Class
  • 10. Wheels and Axles Wheel and Axle
  • 11. What is a Wheel & Axle?
    • A wheel and axle is a simple machine consisting of a wheel that revolves (turns) around a post (axle).
    • This simple machine makes it easier for us to move things from one place to another.
    • The further the force is away from the axle, the easier it is to turn the wheel. This means that it is easier to turn a big wheel than a small wheel.
  • 12. Pictures of Wheels and Axles
  • 13. Common Examples
  • 14. Pulleys Fixed Pulley Movable Pulley Block and Tackle
  • 15. What is a Pulley?
    • Pulleys are a kind of simple machine that consists of a rope that fits onto a wheel and changes the direction of a force.
    • There are three kinds of pulleys.
      • Fixed Pulley
      • Movable Pulley
      • Block and Tackle (combo of fixed and movable)
  • 16. Fixed Pulley
    • Wheel attached to surface
    • Changes the direction of the applied force
    • NO mechanical advantage – same amount of force is required
  • 17. Movable Pulley
    • Pulley moves along the rope
    • Wheel supports the load
    • Effort is in the same direction as movement
    • Reduces the forces needed to move an object
  • 18. Block and Tackle
    • Has at least two wheels (one movable and one fixed)
    • The more complex the pulley, the more the effort needed to move the object decreases
  • 19. Common Examples Of Pulleys